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Full text of "Collections of the Minnesota Historical Society"

REYNOLDS HISTORICAL 
GENEALOGY COLLECTION 




3 1833 01715 9127 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2013 



http://archive.org/details/collectionsofnnin06niinn 



1707574 



CONTENTS, 



PAGES. 

The Soi'KCES OF THE Mississippi; Their DiscovePvIEs, Real and 
I'KKIENDED. A report by Hon. James H. Baker, read before the 
Historical Society Feb. 8, 1887 1-28 

The Hennepin Bi-Centenaey, July 3, 18S0, "St. Paul Daily 

Globe" Keport 29-74 

Mks. Adams' Reminiscences of Red River and Fort Snelling, 1820- 

26. Edited by J. F. Williams . . . / 75-116 

Protestant Missions in the Northwest. By Rev. S. R. Rigj^s, 

I). D. (with a memoir of tbe author, by J. F. Williams). . . , 117 138 

AUTOniOGRAPiiY OF LAWRENCE Taliaeekro, Indian Agent at Fort 

Snelling, 1820-1840 189-256 

Memoir of Gen. H. H. Sibley. By J. F. Williams 257-310 

Indian Mounds in Dakota, Minnesota and Wisconsin. By 

Alfred J. Hill 311-319 

Columbian Address. Delivered by Hon. II. W. Childs, before the 
Minnesota Historical Society, at the Capitol, in St. Paul, Oct. 21, 
1892 321-331 

Reminiscences OF Fort Snelling. By Col. John H. Bliss . . . 335-353 

Sioux OiiTHUEAK OF 1802. Mrs. J. E. DeCamp's Narrative of her 

Ciiptivity 354-380 

A Sioux Story of the War. The Indians' side of the story, told 
by one of tbeir leaders — The story from outbreak to surrender — 
Why and how the Sioux fought— Causes of the war— Comments 
on the cunjpaigns, and battle memories of Fort Ridgely, New 
Ulm, Birch Coulie, Wood Lake, etc. Chief Big Ea^livs story of 
tlie Sioux outbreak of 1862 382-400 



'v 

lY. CONTENTS. 

PACKS. 

INCIDKSTS OF THK TlIHHATKNED OuTlJIlEAK OF HoLE-IN -THK DaY 

AND OTirtu O.iiinvAVS, at tlie time of the Sioux luxssacrc of 1862. 

By George W. Sweet . . 401-40? 

Dakota Scalp Da NXHS. By Jiev. T. S. \Villiamson . . ' . 40U 

Earliest Schools ik Minnesota Valley. By Kev. T. S. Wil- 
liamson 410-412 

Traditions OF Sioux Indians. By RInj. Wm. H. Forbes. . . . 41.3-41G 

Death OF a Kemakkahli; Man, Gaiuciel Francheri:. IW Ben- 

jarniu P. Avery 417-420 

First Settlement on Red River of the North, 1812. Conditions 

in 1847. By Mrs. Elizabeth T. Ayers 421-42^ 

Frederick Ayer, Teacher and Missionary to the Ojibway Indians, 

1829 to 1850. Written at request of Rev. Mr. Boutwell . . .42!J-4;i7 

Captivity Among the Sioux. The Story of Nancy McCIure. . . 438-4GO 

Captivity' Among THE Sioux. The Story of Mary Schwandt. . . 4G1-474 

Autobiography and Reminiscences OF Philander Prkscott . . 475-4'Jl 

Recollections of James M. Goodhue. By Col. John II. Stevens, 
of Minneapolis. Read before the Minnesota Editorial Associa- 
tion at its annual meeting, February, 1804 492-502 

An Interesting Historical Document. Revolutionary Pension 
Roll. Complete list of the names of all the soldiers and saijors 
on the pension rolls of the United States Government in 1613. . 502-539 



'v 

THE 

SOURCES OF THE MISSISSIPPI, 



THEIR DISCOVERERS, REAL AND 
PRETENDED. 



A REPORT, 

BY 

HON. JAMES H. BAKER, 

Read before the Minnesota Historical Society, 
February S, 18S7. 



MINNESOTA HISTORICAL SOCIETY, 
VOL. VI. PART I. 



THE 



SOURCES OF THE MISSISSIPPI. 



THEIR DISCOVERERS, REAL AND PRETENDED. 



A Report, by Hon. James H. Baker, read before the 
Minnesota Historical Society, Feb. 8. 1887. 



In pursuance of a resolution of the Minnesota Histor- 
ical Society, dated Dec. 13, 1S86, your committee herewith 
present a summary of their investigations and conclusions, 
touching the validity of any and all claims to the discov- 
ery of the head waters of the ^fississippi river, together 
with a determination of what waters constitute the true 
and ultimate sources. 

Your committee have faithfully and laboriously read all 
letters, documents, journals and books, and consulted all 
nuips obtainable,* v.hich shed any light upon the ques- 



• Books, Lettors. and l)0'-umouts Cousultoil: I-ettor of William Morri- 
son to lion. Alex. Uamsey, Fi'lt. 17. 1S'>11. in Minuesoui IlistoriLul Society's 
(.'ollections, vol. 1. p. 417. Schoolcraft's narratives 6f the exi)eilition to 
the source of the Mississippi. Iv-'M and IS'.L'. lieport of Jean X. Nicollet. 
ti> accompany his map of the hyilrographical basin of the ujiper Missis- 
sippi riv.T. IM.'). Charles Lanmau's Canoe Voyage up the Mississippi. 
•Julius Chambers* l^^tters in the New York Herald. lS7l!. (>. K. Garrison's 
rejiort for the tenth census of tbo U. S. liev. J. A. Uiltillan's trip to 
Itasca, issi. The United States Surveyor General's map and field notes. 
1^7«!. Letter from Ivison. P.lakcuian. Tayhn- \- Co. in "•Science." Dec. 1^4, 
Owen's '-Sword au'l Pen." I'hila.. Capt. Glazier and his lake. 

I'V Ilonry D. narrower, of N. V. Ninth annual report of the (^ieolo.u:ic.iI 
nnd Natural Ilisrorv Survev of Miuiu^'-orn. isso. .\i\ierl''an Meteorolo::ic.il 
J<»urnnl. iss4. i:,.p,\rt bv IIoi ewell Clarke, C. E., of a survey of the af- 
lliu-nts of Itasea. ric. 

Maps Consulted: >rap of Nicollet, attached to his report. 1S45. Mili- 
tary map of N%-braska anil Dakota, by Gen. G. K. AVarren, IS."). Ofllclal 
map of Minnesota. 1^58. Land otlice surveys of lS7o. Map of Glazier's 
explorations, etc. 



# 



4 



MINNESOTA HISTOIIICAL COLLIXTIONS. 



tions iiivolvod. A list of tlio scvoial auilioiiiics consti- 
tuted, is horcwidi siibjoiiied. 

The definite detennination of a j^rcat geograpliical and 
historic fact, intimately interwoven with a j^rc-cniinent 
physical feature of our own State, is strictly wiihin Uk.' 
province and duey of this Society. The material facts and 
findings in ihis investigation only can be i)reseuted in 
this paper, together Avith sucli references to the evidence 
on which the conclusions are based as may Ije deemed 
material. 

One Capt. AYillard Glazier, recently assumes to have 
made important discoveries at the head waters of the Mis- 
'feissippi; that he discovered a lake, new and unkn(jwn be- 
fore his brief visit to the Itascan region, in l^^si ; and thai 
this lake, called after him ''Glazier Lake," is the true an,l 
ultimate source of the great river. lie thereafter pro- 
ceeds to exalt himself and petition geograpliical soriciies 
and map makers to honor him as the original discoverer 
of the true sources of the ;>rississippi. and so displace 
Schoolcraft and Xicollet from the high position an<l credit 
they had so long held in the field of American scienee and 
geography. The claim is a lofty and pretentious one. and 
should be examined with scrupulous care. To snatch the 
hard-earned laurels of Schoolcraft and XicoUet. ui)on 
whose work time has set the seal of more than half a cen- 
tury- of uncontested title, should not be sanctioned by the 
Minnesota Historical Society, upon a field so disiinctly its 
own, unless the new claim rests upon testimony clear, 
conclusive and indisputable. This Society owes it to the 
honored dead, and to the triith of geograi»hi( al science 
'in its own territory, to make a candid, unbiased, and if 
possible, a conclusive exposition of the whole matter. 

The most distant sources of the Mississippi river liave 
their rise in an elevated table land in about latitude 
47*^, longitude 1)5'-, an area abounding in marshes, creeks 
and lakes. AVhat one of these should be honored as the 



THE SOUECES OF THE MISSISSIPPI. 



5 



true and principal j<ouito, and wliat oxjiloi-or first discov- 
ered and made known such primal waters, are the ques- 
tions involved. 

Says tlie Amtn-ican IJnci/rJoprdla, ( Kdiiion iX^uy) — 'We 
follow Schoolcraft's map in ?:ivin.2: the laliiude and longi- 
tude of "Le l>ii>ih Lake"* (Itasca I as the extreme source of 
Ike Mississii)pi." The old geofj:raphers, mapmakers and 
liistorians have thus followed Schoolcraft for lifly years, 
in accepting- the Itascan basin as the authentic s(mrce. 
The great discovery of Schoolcraft, July 12, 1832, was con- 
lirmed by Jean X. >>'icollet, a distinguished French scholar, 
July, ISoG. XicoUet, with, more time and research, found 
other inconsiderable alUueuts of Itasca, but holds that 
Itasca Avas the "principal basin" of the head waters of the 
Mississippi, and says with noble courtesy and loyally to 
historic truths: "The honor of having tirst explored the 
sources of the Mississippi, and introduced a knowledge of 
them into physical geography, belongs to .Mr Schoolcraft 
and Lt. James Allen. I came only after these gentlemen ; 
but I may be permitted to claim some merit for having 
completed what was wanting for a full geographical knowl- 
edge of those sources." This is the modest testimony of a 
true and genuine scientist Subsequently, at least a dozen 
other cultivated, scholarly and professional gentlemen 
came after these savants, and at various periods, visited 
those head waters, and by their concurrent testimony, ren- 
der certain the claims of these two eminent explorers to the 
honor of original discovery. And after .them all, comes 
the government surveyoi^s, (1ST5\ and their work y)roves 
the almost absolute accuracy of the nobh^ and early labors 
of Schoolcraft and XicolhM. 

Thus stands the general geographic record, until Capt. 
Glazier flings his glove into the arena in 1881, and chal- 
lenges existing and accepted history, Ola/ier appears to 
be a writer of war reminiscences, "in which he tigures as 

• Lao la r.ii'ho. 



'v 



6 MINNESOTA HISTORICAL COLLECTIONS. 

the most consi)i( U()us liero," and from wliat is known of 
him by his wiitin[;s he has been fairly denouiinatj'd an 
"adventurer.'' * There is no evidence j^oinj^; to show that 
he is possessed of any qnalifications whatever, <Mtlicr as a 
trained scholar or scientist, fitting him for the important 
labor he had assumed. For he had taken it upon himself 
to review the worlv of men believed to be, in the hi^dicst 
sense, competent and skilled for geographical exploration. 
They came modestly and conscientiously to their work, and 
years of reflection and consideration elapsed befoi-e either 
of them gave the results of their labors to the woi'ld. They 
performed their work, too, before a white man had yet 
settled in the territory of Minnesota, and when danger and 
privations were the inevitable accompaniments of such 
early undertakings. 

But Glazier appears upon the scene with dramatic bom- 
bast, and riding across the continent on horseback, in 
187G, and musing upon "the uncertainty that existed as to 
its true source,'' resolves to settle the problem. At that 
very moment Avhcu his steed was slaking its thirst in the 
"Father of Waters," the government surveyors were plat- 
ting the official maps, which Avere the last linl;s wanting 
to corroborate the validity of the work of Schoolcraft and 
Nicollet, In May, 1881, Glazier organizes a pleasure ex- 
cursion at St. Paul, and with his party starts on the cars 
"for exploration in the wilds of Minnesota." lie travels 
155 miles by railroad to the city of Brainerd in one night, 
and doubtless in a sleeping car. All this through a region 
over which Xicollet had toiled weeks and months with all 
the privations incident to an untrodden wilderness. 
Tlience he goes by a well establislied road to Leech Lake, 
and it is the identical old government wagon road over 
which all the supplies were hauled for the North l*acitic 
railroad. From this road, anoihcM- leaves it at Fish Hook 
road. From this road, another leaves it at Fish Ilook 

• S^ "Sword and Pen: or Vrntnros and Adventures of WUlard Glazier, 
&C.," by John Algt'ruou Owens. Thila.. 1SS4. 



THE SOURCES OF THE MISSISSIPPI. 



7 



Lake and runs direct to the southeast arm of Lake Itasca. 
From this E. S. Teller cut a road throu-h Town 143, R. 3G 
W. into the S. E. corner of Section 20. and terminates just 
in sight of Elk Lake. Over this road the V. S. Surveyor, 
nail, took his supplies with a team, in 1875, when he went 
to survey those towns. 

The whole journey is not rendered perplexing by a single 
element of doubt. The pursuing of these routes along es- 
tablished roads and portages, with our Indians "as guides," 
if you please, and denominating it an '"exijloration," is so 
ludicrous to one familiar with the situation, as is the 
writer, that the whole thing is so supremely ridiculous, 
that, were it not for the seriousness of the situation, we 
would dismiss the matter as a joke, and Willard Glazier 
as a merry fellow on a jolly outing. 

Arriving at the Itascan waters, he goes straight to 
"Schoolcraft's Island" in the bosom of Lake Itasca, and 
thence, without impediment or doubt, direct to a '*ncw and 
unknow^n lake," and at once discovers the original, genu- 
ine, ultimate sources of the great river! The directness 
and celerity of that sort of discovery and exploration was 
never before recorded in serious history. lie at once 
begins his work of distorting geography and confusing 
learned Societies. From "Schoolcraft's Island, Lake Itas- 
ca, July 22d, 1881," he heralded to "Geographical Socie- 
ties" and to the world, his pretensions and achievements. 
He subsequently published an elaborate map and sent it 
to the President of the American Geographical Society, 
and published a minute account of the "Recent Discovery 
of the time source of the Mississippi River," illustrated 
with maps and engravings, in the ''American Meteorolog- 
ical Journal." Also in a volume entitled the "Sword and 
Ten," there is reproduced the story of his discovery. He 
also sent a nuip, fortified with his own record of his alleged 
noble deed, to the ''Royal Geographical Society of Eng- 
land." He has also industriously solicited the mention of 



'v 

8 MINNESOTA HISTORICAL COLLECTIONS. 

Lis fame and his lake into ^eo'irapliiral text books and 
atlases over the coiimry. lie has h.*ft iioilnn;:: uiidoue lo 
supphiiit Schoohjraft and deniolishud XieoUet. Thai such 
Societies should liave receiv<'d, nnqncstion'Ml. his bi-azen 
statements, and been duped by liim, is what r<'nd«'rs lln* 
preparation of this pa])er a necessity 

The ^'lake" Ayhich Hhizier claims to have ''Mis( f»v('n'd." 
is a small meandered lake, which lies mainly in Sec. 22, 
Township Xo. 14:1 North, Raiiiie ^Yest of the 5th Prin- 
cipal Meridian. The lake lies Sonth of the Sonthwest arm 
of Lake Itasca, and is only 350 feet distant from it. It 
contains about 250 acres and debonches into Itasca 
throii<^h a sinuous stream. 1184 feet lon^, in a tamarack 
swamp. By his own description and map, this is ''Glazier 
Lake," so-called, and there is no mistaking- its identity, for 
there is no other. 

Was Glazier the original discoverer of this lake? No; 
no more than he v'as the discoverer of the sources of ihe 
Nile, or the mouth of the Mississippi. And even were it 
true that he did, its waters are not the ultimate sources of 
the Mississippi. This identical lake is found upon every 
map, from that of Nicollet, 1836 and *37, to that of the 
Government surveys, 1S75. 

Now as to the testimony that he did not tirst discover it. 
It is so conclusive as to be crushing: 

1. In 1S3G-7, Nicollet deposited a map of the Itascan 
region in the oflice of Engineers, V. S. A. Wy onh r of 
the Senate, Feb. 10, 1841, this map and accompanying re- 
port, was published in Executive Document, No. 237, 2d 
Session, 2Gth Congress, in 1843, and a second edition ])\ib- 
lished and enlarged, and can be found in any of the pnblic 
libraries of the conntry. Nicollet simply sketches the lake 
more as a bay or estuaiy of Itasca. In thai day, by higher 
water, which is shown by water-marks to have existed, the 
lake was certainly identical with Itasca, for th.' distance 
is now only insigniticant. As illustrative of tins point, 



THE SOURCES OF THE MISSISSI ITI. 



9 



the }lov. J. ]>. niltillaii. visit iii;^ llinn in issl. ih,. Indians 
called this identical Elk Lake Gab\il(inin(i(j,'" wliidi hr 
says means, "water that juts elT to one si<l<'. as a ihninl» 
from a hand." This wonld indicate that ai no rcmntc 
period they Wi're one and the same lalcc and that the 
channel between them ,uradnally filled, possiljly l»y tlic aid 
of beaver dams, and they became apparently separate 
bodies of water, though only a '"stone's throw ai»:irt" at 
this time. The Indians, from the earli<-st ]>eriod, called 
the whole Itasca lake system, *'Oyy/o.s7i Ao.s" from the form of 
an elk, and this protuberance was probably a part of the 
animal con ti an rat ion. At any rate, it is there on Nicol- 
let's orticial map, ISo.j, more nearh* correct than it is on 
Glazier's map of 1SS4. 

2. In 1855, Henry E. Schoolcraft, yet alive, i.ssued in 
Philadelphia (Lippincott, Grambo & Co.), his "Summary 
Narrative of an exploratory expedition to the sources of 
the Mississippi." With this last edition of his works. 
Mr. Schoolcraft presents a revised map of all his discov- 
eries, prepared by Capt. Setli Eastman, U. S. A., and it 
stands prefacing the title page, in which map this lake in 
controversy is distinctly defined, together with "Nicollet 
Creek," with its three ponds, just precisely as described 
by Nicollet. So that the French scientist's work received, 
before he died, the high sanction and endorsement of 
Schoolcraft himself. 

3. A ^'^lilitary ^Fap" of the Northwest was made in 
1S55-G, by the authority of John B. Floyd, then Secretary 
of War, prepared by Lt. G. K. Warren, of tlie Topograph- 
ical Engineers, one of the foremosi geogi'ai)hers of his 
time, from ext)lorations made by him, under directions of 
A. A. lluin])hrey. and the following, among other ollicers, 
were consulted in its preparation and are s(> cited on its 
margin: Capt. J. C. Fremont, Ca])t. John Fope, Gov. 1. I. 
Stevens and Lt. James Allen. The greatest care was 
taken in its preparation. This map < l(^arly and distinctly 
shows the lake in controversy, located just where the gov- 
ennnent suiweys now ])lace it. 



10 



MINNESOTA HISTORICAL COLLECTIONS. 



Ill 1S72, Julius Clianibcis, of the Xcw York Ilcrahl, 
visited tlie Itascau region. Ue wrote a series of letters 
for the Ucrah] in .Tune and July of that year, and in on«% 
dated July <ith. lie gives a full description of *"Klk l^akf*," 
locating it where it really belongs, and naming it ''Dolly 
A^arden," after his eanoe. He describes it more accurately 
than does Capt. (J lazier. He pronounces it at that time 
as a distinct lake from Itasca. This was seven j-ears before 
Glazier was there. He made and pu])lished a map, show- 
ing the lake as represented in his letters, in the most dis- 
tinct and positive manner, which map is here before us. 

But more material than all since the days of Nicollet, 
was the actual survey and platting of these townsliips 
embracing that entire region, including Itasca and all 
lakes and streams connected therewith, by authority of the 
government of the U. S., through the Surveyor General's 
office of the State of Minnesota, six years before Capt. 
Glazier's alleged discovery. The Surveyor General. J. II. 
Baker, was fully informed of the facts touching the land 
and water to be surveyed. The lumbermen of Minneapolis 
had assured him that they had actually "counted the pine 
trees" on this very lake. They told him of waters beyond 
that (Xicollet creek), flowing into the S. W. arm of Itasca, 
through which they could float their logs into this great 
lake. The contract of surveying Township 143 Xorih, 
Bange 3G West, where these waters are located, was let to 
Capt. E. S. Hall of St- Cloud, and in Oct., ISTo, Hall made 
the surv ey. The map of the Township was duly made up 
in the Surveyor General's otlice from Capt. Hall's care- 
fully written Held notes, made upon the ground, with 
proper instruments, and attention was especially dirc'ted 
to the lake in quest ioiL This Township map was certified 
to as correct by J. 11. Baker, Surveyor General, Feb. 3d, 
187G, and was by him transmitted to the General Land 
Office at Washington, and was oHicially approved by the 
Commissioner of tln^ Geiunal Land Ollice and i)osi«h1 May 



V 



THE SOURC>:S OF TIIi: MISSISSTPI»r. 11 

3d, ]87(). Tliis map tliciiccfoi'ili IxM-ninc ])ul»lic i)i-oi)erty, 
accesible to all persons, and tlie supionK* authority to all 
{geographers and map-makers in the T. S. The lake in 
question ^vas meandered, its outlines marked and four 
large meander posts set up, two on the East and two on 
the North, and distinctly visiMu when Capt. Glazier was 
there, for they were there and visible to travelers this 
present year. By authority of instructions from the Gov- 
ernment of the U. S., Surveyor rjeneral Baker named the 
lake in question "Elk Lake," because he had been direct- 
ed to retain the name given by the Indians to meander 
lakes, if any such name was in use or known at the time 
of the sur^■ey. Capt. Hall informed the Surveyor General 
that the Indian name was Elk Lake. This corresponded 
with the traditional name of the waters. It was therefore 
so marked on the plat, and approved by the authorities at 
Washington. AVhat person had the right to change the 
name thus authoritatively given? This othcial survey and 
record, that year, became a part of the great oflicial map 
of the United States, issued under the certificate of the 
Land Commissioner at Washington, and the lake and name 
^'Elk Lake," cotild have been found there by any person 
upon the most casual examination. 

Now all these maps which are here cited, are among 
the papers of this Society-, and, with the exception of the 
Chambers' map, are distinctly olJU'ld maps, not issued by 
private individuals, but by the authority of the State or 
General Government. The}' are open and accessible to all 
persons Avhomsoever. AVas Capt. Glazier so excessively 
stupid as not to constilt all such existing official authori- 
ties, before starting upon so important an undertaking? 
If so, what value can attach to the work of a man neglect- 
ing to properly equip himself for exploration?. Ihit it is 
in positive evidence, that previous to his issuing any map 
Avhatever, he was fully informed "that he was claiming 
what did not belong to him,*' and the government maps 



12 



MINNESOTA HISTORICAL COLLFXTIONS. 



were sliown him with "Klk Lake'' thrM-eon.* Hni h<' 
defiantly persisted in his assunij)! i(»n. 

But there were still other sonrces of infornnition. he- 
sides these, ready at hand, to throw light npon the siib- 
jectj if they had been sought, or wanted. Charles Lannian 
alleges that he was there in 1S4G5 the Kev. ^Fr. Aver and 
his son, Lyman Ayer, of Little Falls, Minnesota, were there 
in 1849; Wm. Jiangs, of White Earth, Minn., was tlH-r.- in 
1SG5; O. E. Garrison, for census bureau, 1880; W. E. Xeal, 
of Minneapolis, was there both in 1880 and 1881 ; the Kev. 
J. A. Gilfdlan, of White Earth, Minn., was there in :May, 
18SL The facts pertaining to most of the foregoing vis- 
its, could have been easily found in the Minnesota Histor- 
ical Society, a proper place for any man to go, who desired 
intelligently to embark in such work. 

More than this, in so important a State document as the 
"Ninth Annual lieport of the Geological and Natural His- 
tory Survey of Minnesota/' 1880, p. 321, C. M. Terry, in a 
paper therein on the "Hydrology of Minnesota," describes 
"Elk Lake'' as a tributary of Itasca, and with judicious 
and intelligent criticism adds: , v 

"It is rathor a reliiienient of exactness to call Elk Lake, na 
some explorers have, tlie ultimate source of the Mis^^ls^^il>l)i. Itasca 
Lake has been in possession ot the liorior so lonij that its claim 
ought not to be dispuiod, and certainly it is sntlicienily minute, 
remote, and sylvan to answer all the recjuirements of an ideal 
source." 

This Mr. Terry, who was employed by State auihoviiy. 
was a Congregational clergyman and had made natural 
science a special study, and was a son-in-law and pupil 
of Dr. Edward Hitchcock, of Amherst College, the eminent 
geologist. Xo man in the Northwest was better equipi)ed 
for a close study, and intelligent understanding, of the 
water systems of Minnesota. In that report, issued by 

* G. Woolworth Cotton. In .imTicnn Cino^i.^t, Nov. 1SS(»: Mr. Co!t<>u 
made Ghizlcr's iu;ii> accordinir to liis du^tation and gives reniarkahlo testi- 
mony as to tlie .shamele&sness of Glazier's insistauce on pervcriiiii; the 
faets. 



1 



THE SOURCES OF THE MISSISSIPPI. 



13 



tlie State, Mr. Glazier could have road the full account of 
the lake he pretends lo have discovered. 

lUit this is not all, for the scientific world in Kurope 
were also familiar with the results of Nicollet's explora- 
tions, and with the situation of Lake Itasca and vicinity. 
])r. reternian's "Stieler's JTaud Atlas," i)ublish('d by Jus- 
tus Terthes, of the CJoiha Institute of Geography, contains 
distinctly this very lake. So that even in European geog- 
raphies, the redoubtable Glazier could have found ilic lake 
he so brazenly claims. 

Docs not this record of facts show, that if Glazier had 
been in any respect whatever a student and a scientist, 
turn whichever way he might, he would have found the 
"lake" ^^"hicli has whetted his appetite for glory, or had 
he avoided the paths of the scholar and entered any '*Keal 
Estate Cilice" in St. Paul or Minneapolis, he would have 
found his lake distinctly marked and named "Elk Lake" 
on "Warner & Foote's Map," which is in such common use 
everywhere in the State. 

In the face of these facts, the bold assumption of the 
man Glazier, is without a parallel in the annals of geo- 
graphical history. His conduct is a total disregard of all 
the rules and dignities of a true scientist. ScientiHc 
knowledge has scarcely before been made the prey of a 
charlatan. The measure of his astounding fraud has not 
yet fully penetrated the public mind. To begin his absurd 
undertaking, he must thrust aside the work of the noble 
Schoolcraft; the more careful and exhaustive explora- 
tions of the great scientist, Mcollet ; to ignore the con- 
firmatory examination of neai'ly a dozen explorers and 
travelers through a series of years: and finally to sot aside 
the work of the government surveyors, with the official 
map staring him full in the face I Glazier's motto must be, 
^Tau<l(tc(% foujonrs VaiuJacr/'' 

But in what manner did he conduct his alleged explora 
tion? With what element of scientific equipment was he 



V 

14 MINNESOTA HISTORICAL COLLECTIONS. 

clothed? 'Willioiit maps and documents throwin^r sucli 
light as may be upon the rci^ion to be ex]>lnr(Ml; wiihoui 
any instruments wliatever,* aiways so neccssaiy for thr 
solution of a to])ographical i)robk'm, this geo^h-lic cham- 
pion advances to a review of tlie ^\^(n•k of tlie «;reat Xitol- 
let! His own account is tlie authority for (lie facts of tliis 
most extraordinary exph)ration and discovery. He sijj:hts 
Lake Itasca between three and four o'clock on July 21st, 
1881, and passed directly to Schoolcraft's Island, where he 
at once went into camp, and retiring; oarly, he did not 
begin the exhaustive Avork of exploration until 8 a. m., of 
the 22d; then putting his canoes into the water, and fol- 
lowing the guidance of an Indian, he goes (lirrdhj to ihr 
waters to be (limx'cred. He enters the lake, hoists a flag, 
fires a volley, they make speeches, as he alleges, and an- 
nounces that he has completed the work begun by De 
Soto in 1541! They immediately left the lake, and paddled 
back into Itasca, and at three o'clock in the afternoon of 
the same day began the descent of the river.** Thus in 
seven hours of the 22d of July, 1881, did Capt. ^\'illard 
Glazier, by his account, accomplish more in the discovery 
of the sources of the Mississippi, than had been done from 
the time of De Soto, three hundred and forty years, rill 
that memorable hour! Shades of Columbus, of Magellan, 
of De Soto, of Henry Hudson, of Nicollet! To what a 
refiuement of labor and economy of time, has Willard 
Glazier reduced the work of notable geographical explora- 
tions and discovery! Think of th.e painstaking Nicollet, 
devoting days to toilsome labor, and nights to astronomi- 
cal observations! Think of the months of ])rivation and 
danger endured by Schoolcraft and Nicollet, in the inter- 
ests of true science; modest, loyal to their noble work, 
blazing an unknown path to the fountains of the Mis- 

• Those •svho ncoompauiod biiu have so stated. 

♦* See CUazior's paper In -Arnorican >[t't. Journal," pages ;V-.'4, 
325, 327; "Sword and I'eu," pages 477, 478. 



THE SOURCES OF THE MISSISSIPPI. 15 

sissipi)i, aiKl waiting years of rollcction and vovicw. before 
givinjj: a rei>oi't lo The world I TUil fifty years lat<'r r-onies 
a stripling tourist, and in the iniflst of a civilized State, 
with a milliou of people, enters a surveyed township, 
blazed at every quarter seetion with the axe of the sur- 
veyor, and in an exploit of seven hours duration, endeavors 
to steal the well earned chaplets from bronzed brows of 
Schoolcraft and Mcollet, and strives to set them upon the 
head of a conscienceless "adventurer'' instead I 

There were full twenty miles of shore to be examined 
along the indentions and arms of Itasca, with its "Elk 
Lake" annex; there were at least tifteen miles of streams, 
with theii' sinuosities to be explored. 

This point is of special importance, as it is made inferen- 
tially to appear in his writings, that he had explored some, 
at least, of these aOluents. But Willard Glazier, being 
present in our nistorical Society Rooms, Feb. 7th, at four 
o'clock in the afternoon, confessed to Gen. Baker, in the 
presence of witnesses,* that he had not ascended any one 
of them, a fact which was known to this committee by 
other testimony. Glazier, thus by his own confession, 
coritributed nothing whatever to geographical knowledge. 
He addressed himself to no work of a scientist. He did 
not find, or attempt to find Xicollefs creek, which is the 
main tributary of Itasca; he did not even visit the chief 
tributary of Elk Lake itself. His maps of the lake are 
in themselves misleading, as he caused them to be made out 
of all proi)ortion to its real area, and extravagant in its 
c(miparative relation to Itasca. He makes one map in 
ISSI, and another, locating the lake four miles further 
South, by his own scale of miles, in 1S8(). Tlu^ latter is to 
be considered a revision, and places the lake where it does 
not belong. In neither map is it correct. His maps are 
therefore, in themselves, outrageously erroneous, and can- 
not be trusted for truth and fidelity. 

* Present, J. B. Chancy an<l Gck). Ilnniiltuii. 



IG 



MINNESOTA HISTOKICAL COLLIXTIONS. 



Furtlier than iliis. lie distorts geoj:iai»hy in the most 
reckless niannei* in his lotti'i- to the "Koyal Oeoj^raphical 
Society of Enjihind." In that, conmuinirat ion, ho locales 
his lake "not h'ss than an entire dej;ree of latitude South 
of Turtle Lake." This ])lac('S it South of Trow Winj,' river 
and iivv miles north of the town of AVadcnal reo])le of 
Minnesota, how this man i)ei'V(*ris the -zcoui-aphy of your 
State I It is here to be observed thai in this extraijrdinary 
letter to the Eoyal Society, tln^ entire concludinii: para- 
graph is stolen bodily from Schoolcraft (Ed. IS-'U, pag<' 59), 
changing only the woi-ds of Scliooh-iaf t "piobably." into 
^hiot less than,'^ tU.as adding blunder to theft. JMirsuc this 
adventurer in any of his statenuMits concerning this wliole 
thing, and how marvellous are his })jilpable errors. In one 
phice he fixes the level of the Avat ,'r of his lake ^ feet 
above those of liasca; in another at 7 feet. The facts are. 
from actual levels taken ^vith instruments, the level of Klk 
Lake above Itascau waters, is just 13 inches. 

Again, Glazier claims that the water from a lakelet, he 
calls lake "Alice,"- (really lake Whi})ple, as I>Ir. Oiliillan 
has named it), empties into Elk Lake, A\hen, as a topo 
graphically determined fact, they debouch into the West 
arm of Itasca. Any searcher after geographical truth, in 
following this jattle-brained adventtirer, would be led 
into hopeless njazcL; of error and confusion. 

His work in distorting the geograi)hy of our State, is 
simply incredible. He has issued and scattered broad- 
cast a map, entitled: "A map illustrative of Capt. Wilhud 
Glazier's voyage of ex])loration to the souree of the Mis- 
sissippi river.'- Coming into Minnesota, a strolling tour- 
ist, he has, in this map, made a bold and outrageous 
attemi»t to change the names of our lakes in an area of 
country 320 square miles in extent, beginning just West of 
Leech Lake, thence across to the Itasca basin, then follow 
ing the meanderings of the ;Mississip]>i river to Lake 
Winnebegoshish. In this territory he disjjlaced the ancient 



THE SOURCES OF THE MISSISSI IM'I. 



1^ 



Iiieliaii names, saciod to tlie people of Minnesota, and old 
in nomenclature as Leecli Xake, Turtle Lake-, Winne- 
begoshisli or Cass Lake, coming down from immemonal 
iiuies, and in their place substituted the f(jllowin<^, chaiij;- 
inj? as here noted: 

Kabekona Eiver to Kabekanka. 

Kabekona Lake to Lake Garfield. 

Xeway Lake to Lake George. 

Bowdich Lake to Lake Paine. 

Assawe Lake to Lak'e Hattie. 

l^lauiaj^enet Lake to Lake Hennepin. 

Ija Place Piver to Lake De Soto. 
He assumes to name a long chain of lakes and ponds 
lying bet^Yeen Leech Lake and La Place I'iver, after his 
army associates; those from La Place river to Itasca, he 
devotes to his rela lives. 

Do the people of this State desire to have their ancient 
and honored nomenclature overthro^^'n by such authority, 
and graft the Glazier family tree in lieu thereof? Does 
this Historical Society wish to admit this quack explorer's 
name on the map of this State, honored by such historic 
and treasured names as Cass, Le Sueur, Morrison, Olm- 
sted, Sibley, McLeod,, Kittson, Faribault, Panisey, Pice, 
Marshall, Aitkin, Steele, Becker, Freeborn, Stevens and 
other household names, identified with early days and 
noble deeds? It is in evidence that his lake is named 
after himself by collusion; the lakelet in Sec. 27 after his 
daughter; a lake near La V\ace river, after his brother, 
George; another Hattie, after another of his family, and so 
on. This shows that he is consumed by egregious vanity, 
and an inordinate desire for notoriety. 

As we pursue his devious record, step by step, we find 
that not in one thing touching our geography he has told 
the truth. He has perverted the facts of our early history; 
told stories of imaginary adventures along our noble 
streams; deluged the country with false and erroneous 



18 



MINNESOTA HISTORICAL COLLECTIONS. 



maps of the Xorilieru portion of our State, and soii^'lit to 
rob us of ancient names. 

KicoUet s work Avas done years before a white man had 
permanently settled within the boiindaiies of (jur State. 
Glaziers was a jovial picnic within the limits of civiliza- 
tion. The settler had already tayen up homesteads wiiJi 
ill sight of Elk Lakes, years before Glazier was there. 
Your committee have before them an oHicial letter from 
the Kegister of the Land Office at Crookston, showing the 
date of the first settlement, by homestead, to have been 
Aug. 22d, ISTS, by Austin Sigimore, on Sec. 22, three years 
before the alleged advent of this tourist. 

His record of this imaginary exi)loration abounds in 
atrocious falsehoods. lie dignified his geographic romance 
with beautiful speeches by his Indian guide, Ge-no-wa-ge- 
sic. Your committee are in receipt of a letter from the 
Rev. J. A. Gilfillan, which explodes even this element of 
wild romance into atoms. Eead the following: 

White Larth, Minu., Jaiiuiiry Ttli, 18S7. 

Dear Sir:— In accordance Avitb your suggestion, I went a few 
days ago and saw Che-no-wa-ge-sic, with whom I have long been 
well acquainted. I took with rae Glazier's book **Sworcl and I'en," 
and read him from it his speech as reported on page begiu- 
uing ''My Brother, etc.," and asi;ed him how it was about that? 
He said he never made the speech reported, "Never made any 
speech at all at Leech Lake, nothing whateve I then read him. on 
page 474, about hin^ stepping to the front, assuming an oratorical 
attitude, etc.. and li's speech following, beginning "My brother, I 
have come with you through many lakes and rivers to the head 
of the Father of AYaters." and asked him how about that? He 
said he never stood up and extended his arms; never said that 

white man had yet seen the source of the great river, or that 
tliat Lake was it The only hing there was to that, was that 
they, when the canoes arrived there, told (Glazier that that was 
where he had planted corn, and that he had h\mte«l all round 
those shores for many years. As to that spec eh on page 474. he 
only told him the above about planting corn and hunting; never 
told him that he had now got to the true head, for hv (Cl>e-no- 
wa-ge-sic) well kninv that Lake Breek, the Llk Lake of the maps, 
was not the true head, but only the "place where the waters 
were gathered;" that lie knew that the true head was a little 
stream a mile or tMO to tiie West, nmuing into the West arm of 



V 



THE SOURCES OF THE MISSISSIPI'I. 19 

Jyjiko ItMsc-a, pultiu.L,' his liii.i^^i'r on tlio map and rinmin;^ it, aloii^' 
iht' sln'aui up to tlio little laUc. I.alco A\'liii»pU', at \. W. ( (mii.t 
<»f Section :\\, ai'coi-diiii: to tlu» (Jovcrnineiit Siii vcy. "'riiat (Ila/irr 
never asked him to take him to tho true head. aii<I he well kn<'\v 
that lie did not take him there. That (Hazier only asked him If 
ho #H>uld take him to that lake which the Indians rail roke;:ama. 
and tliat he repli«'d that lie coidd; but that he know that that was 
uot the true source; it was only a place wliere tho waters \\ere 
jrathorod.'" 

Tho above I have coi)ied from the minutes of the interview 
with Che-uo-wa-,!ze-sic. made immediately after. He is evidently 
ail honest fellow and tells a true story. He did not know why I 
nsked him: I did not let him know whether 1 was in Glazier's in- 
terest or otherwise, and he has heard nothinir. 1 believe, of there 
belui^ any dispute about tlie matter, and had no interest but to 
toll the truth. 

To tlie people of Minnesota y\ho know Mr. r.jltiUnn, 
this will be conclusive. Glaziers other staiements have 
been repudiated by Cliannino- Paine, tlie only wliite ])(M-son. 
except his brother George, who acconipani(Ml him, and now 
liis noble Indian, his former Che-no-wa-fce-sic, he too has 
abandoned this falsifier of history, and left him alom^ in 
his fabric of lies. 

If it be urged by his friends, that, notwithstanding all 
that has been said, he was yet, as he claims, the first to 
demonstrate that there were other waters beyond Itasca, 
and that he showed those waters to be the lake indicated, 
there are plenty of answers to that. Chambers had so 
averred, in 1872, and called the lake '-Dolly Varden ;" A. 
H. Siegfried, in Lippincott's Magazine, Aug. 1880, who 
developed that whole theory of sources; and that Glazier 
knew of it, is shown by his plagiarizing boldly, as usual, 
from the magazine articles in question. 

If he still pushes the claim beyond, into his ''Lake 
Alice," by debouching its Avaters into Elk Lake, as he has 
dime, and there rests his claim, still the government sur- 
veys and careful subsequent scientific research, show that 
that lakelet empties, far away, into Itasca itself. There is 
no longer a place, nor an evasion, where he can hide from 
the disgrace of his false and fraudulent pretensions. 



20 



MINNESOTA niSTOlJICAL COLLECTIONS. 



But the flaj]^rant fraud, ])ol(lly atteiiii)tc(l to l)e ]ml upon 
the world by this proi ended diseovei-y, is only one of 
Capt. Glazier's sins against the literary and seientitie 
world. There is another, e(iually j^larin;^-, i;4n(jl)le and con- 
temptible in a scientist, which is kin to his rape of the 
lake. It serves further to ilhis(rat<' the character of the 
man: 

In 1SS4, Capt. Glazier contributed to tlie "American 
Meteorolofrical Journal," what purports to be an elaboraic 
account of his "Kecent Discovery of the True Sources of 
the Mississippi.'' In that account, he conimits th<} bold»*sL 
and most flagrant literary piracy to be found in the 
curiosities of all literature. Cliallengiug and denying 
Schoolcraft's title to the discovery of the sources of the 
gi'eat river, he yet evidently had in his possession a copy of 
Schoolcraft's ''Narrative of an Expedition to Lake Itasca 
in 1832," the same as published by Harper & Brothers, 
1834, and if Glazier did not believe in the genuineness of 
Schoolcraft's discovery, it is patent t^hat he had implicit 
faith in the fidelity of the careful Schoolcraft's d(^scrip- 
tions of the Indians and of the localities. His plagiarisms 
are so bold, that Glazier has never presumed to deny the 
charge. "Stolen from Schoolcraft'' should stand at the 
head of every printed column. These extraordinary co- 
incidences of whole pages of identical language, were 
brought to light by the laborious researches of Henry ]). 
narrower, an accomi)lished scholar and geographer, and 
published by Ivison, Blakeman, Taylor Co., of New 
York, 18S(). ^Iv. Harrower has so com]>letely pilloried the 
unfortunate Glazier, that he must be solid brass if he can 
again lift his liead among literaiy peopl(\ It must (h^siroy 
confidence in all his literary pcM-formances. We have care- 
fully gone over ^Ir. Harrower's exliibits of parallel col- 
umns, comparing l)0th wiili th(ur oi'iginals. and are dazed 
at Glazier's audacity. The lapse of lifly years since 
Schoolcraft wrote, had no effect upon Glazier's judgment 



THE SOURCES OF THE MJS«ISSI1TI. 



21 



in appropi'iatin,!? tlie work of tlie former. The nuiterial 
incidents of time, place and cnstoms, as chan;(<'d diirinj: 
(he lime amon^: the rilhi^ier hand of Indians, are out- 
raj^^eonsly defied by Glazier. He sticks to Schoolcraft in 
spile of the results of a half century of schools, fai'min;^, 
and the civilizing effects of the <?overnment's care of these 
Indians. Their present condition is well knov.n to these 
citizens of Minnesota, and Glazier s stolen account of them 
fifty years ago, as applicable to-da}', is stupid beyond be- 
lief, fechoolcrjift's fine description of a noted chief of 
IS32, is taken bodily by this literary thief and ai)pli(}d to 
White Cloud in 18S1. All this is like putting the girl of 
to-day in the clothes of her great-grandmother, and declar- 
ing it is the fashion of the hour. 

Even in his purported trip of discovery, he follows, with 
unreserved confidence, Schoolcraft's description of port- 
ages, trails, marshes, swamps, elevations, waters, etc. 
Identical, also, is his copy of the .meteorolgy, zoology, 
and botany of the country. The track and the foot-prints 
of Schoolcraft are never missed by a hair's-breadth by 
this faitliful plagiarist of the great scientist. Schoolcraft's 
fidelity to nature was never so complimented. If Glazier 
was there at all, he saw^ only with Schoolcraft's eyes. 
The same Indians, the same customs, same dances, same 
sacrifices, sanie houses, same meals, same salt-cellar, same 
grass, same pond-lilies, same rushes, same canoes, same 
Hocks of pigeons, same ripe strawberries, — everything 
alike I Indeed, it was not necessary for Glazier to have 
visit (xl Lake Itasca, if he ever did, for he could have copied 
the noble pages of Schoolcraft as well in his study, with- 
out the inconvenience of mosquitoes, or the expense of his 
journey. 

To crown his bold plagiarisms with the mode of per- 
fection. Glazier gives a table in "Am. Met. Journal," 1SS4, 
p. 328, 'Oleteorological Observations at the Head Waters 
of the Mississippi.'' It is true we have the evidence that 



22 MINNESOTA illSTOKICAL COI-LKCTIONS. 

ho h;id no instrunu^iil s w ilk liiin, and look no obsn val ions 
whatovcr. ]»n1 it is only :i slop fioni plaj^iarisin to lyin^. 
In anollier \'ohnno of Scliooli raft, "Narrative of an Kxim' 
dition to tlio Soiii-ccs of tlio M ississi]»jii in IS-JO," ]»iiMisli«'d 
in Albany, X. Y., ISlM, arc two met corolo^iical ial»l<-:5. 
taken at Big Sandy Lak(\ ])a^es ln;s and L dla/irr 
reproduces these idcnllcal iahlcH as his own, as if tak<*n 
'*at the head waters of the ]\rississippi.'' 

We have the two/al)les before ns, (^Fr. Harrower's keen 
Avorh), and every date, and every baronietrieal obsei valion, 
every lionr of the notations, the character of each day and 
the direction of the wind, the vc^ry tlumder, the rain fall 
all are identically 1he same, for every fij^nre has been com- 
pared. They tally to a dot. But, just sixty-one years 
before, Aug. 2d, 1820, Schoolcraft broke his instrument 
and his observations ceased at two p. m. of that day. 
Loyal and faithful ever, to the cireat man whose work he 
so religiously copied, Glazier ceases his barometrical rec- 
ord at just two ]). m., Aug. 2d, 1S81! I 

Did Glazier think lie was plundering neglected and for- 
gotten books? rs'o American scholar A\ill forget School- 
craft, no more than he will neglect .Vudnbon, or bury 
Agassiz, and more and more as tln^ Indian perishes, Avill 
Schoolcraft be recognized as authority and a classic. 
Glazier does not seek to conceal, or veil his thefts. A 
thief Avill seek to disguise his stolen horse by cutting off 
his tail or clipping his hair; but Glazier struts in all his 
borrowed plumage, oblivious to every chjince of discovcM-y 
and dead to every sense of sbame. Though his rank 
^)lagiarisms have long been made pnblic, he neither modi- 
fies his story nor abates his ])retensions. It si>ems useless 
further io unmask ami displunn^ so stolid a man. Ibit 
what the public ari^ entitled to, is the truth of history and 
an honest geography. 



TUE SOUKCKS OF THE MlSSISSirPI. 



23 



A CRITICAL REVIEW. 

A critical review of the wliole situation was inadr In* 
Hopewell Clarke, a citizen of ^liimesota, well known for 
his eminent fitness, experience and capacity for the work, 
who was engaged by Ivison, lUakeman, Taylor «& Co., book 
jniblislicrs of the City of Xew York, to visit tlie sources of 
the Mississipi)i river for an aciirate topographical survey 
of that region, with a purpos(> to carefully review the work 
of former explorers, and to determine any matters yet 
doubtful. Mr. Clarke, after a full study of the case, with 
competent assistants, properly equipi)ed with, maps and 
instruments, did the Avork thoroughly in ISSG. The results 
of his patieut and exhaustive labors, which are before us, 
confirm the accuracy of the government surveys. It cer- 
tifies to the general correctness of ZS'icollet's report and 
maps. Unlike Glaziers, this expedition explored every 
bay and indentation of the Itascan waters, and followe<l 
every aflluent to its tiltimate source. They trod in the 
lionored footsteps of the indefatigable Nicollet. Every 
level was taken with instruments, and every distance 
measured with a chain. They confirm a visit of Xicollet 
to Elk Lake, by his minute notations of its feeders, which 
could only be observed by actual exploration. They fix the 
location of Elk Lake precisely where the goveniment sur- 
veyors located it; and they demonstiate that (Jlazier both 
distorted its size, and placed it too far from the Itascan 
wat^Ms. lie concurs fully with Nicollet, and other reliable 
<^\j)lorers, that the longest and by far the most important 
of (he atUuents of the Itascan basin is the river, a creek 
which debouches into the Southwest arm of tln^ lake, being 
sixtebn feet wide, two and one-half deep at its mouth, and 
tin* one most elevati^I in source, being ninety-two f(^et 
al)ove Itasca, while Elk Lake is but thirteen inches higher. 
'I'his exj)edition confirms the statement by water-marks 
found, that Itasca, waters were once higher, and Elk Lake 



24 



MINNESOTA UISTOKICAL COUJ-XTIONS. 



once lower, tlian they now are, and tlial the latter, as here- 
tofore stated, was doubilcss but an estuary of Itasca at 
the time of Schoolcraft/s and Nicollet's (^\])loi-ations. He 
fully confirms the general idea of XicolU*t that ''Lake 
Itasca is the first important reservoir and basin of all tli<* 
springs that feed the head waters of the :\Iississij)i)i rivci-." 

They tind the posts and blazings of ihe governnicnt 
surveyors still visible. Men of our own Slat(\ worlliy 
to be trusted, they did their work without prejudice or 
bias, intent only on finding out the truth as to the primal 
^vaters of our gi^eat river. They confirm the fidelity of 
Schoolcraft and Nicollet to every essential fact, and renew, 
to those daring explorers, the honors they so nobly won. 

But v,h\ pursue this investigation further? Let this 
perverter of history and distorter of geography be <lis- 
missed as a charlatan adventurer with the contempt ho 
so richly merits. 

CONCLUSIONS. 

After a most diligent and laborious examination of all 
the rocerds, maps and documents bearing upon the case, 
which are now so complete and exhaustive as to be no 
longer liable to any material change, your committee, beg 
leave respectfully to submit the restilts of their findings: 

1. That Henry Eowe Schoolcraft, accompanied by hi. 
James Allen, in a scientific expedition made by him, July 
1832, to the head Avaters of he Mississippi river, did 
discover, locate, delineate and map the general basin, 
which is the first great gathering place and reservoir of 
'the head waters of that continental stream, and was by 
him named Lake Itasca,, from the Latin words Veritas 
caput, the true head. That he announced the discovery in 
a narrative written in a modest, honorable and distinct 
manner. That his companion, Lt. Allen, the topograjther 
of the party, drew a map, which map was deposited, and is 



THE SOURCES OF THE MISSISSIPPI. 25 

now, in t\w Geiienil Liiiid OfUce of tlio W S., in iho City of 
Wasliinfxton, which map exhilnts the substaulial outlines 
of Lake Itasca and its ♦general sni roiindings. That Scliool- 
crafl's right to the original honor of this discovery can- 
not be rightly questioned or chaUenged. 

Tiiat Jean X. Xicollet, a distinguished French scholar 
and explorer, did, in August, 1830, visit and minutely ex- 
plore the same region in and about the Itascan basin. That 
his work exhibits all the care of a trained scientist, and 
that his map, deposited in the office of Engineers, U. S. A. 
1S3G--T, is so complete in detail, that all subsequent ex- 
aminations and surveys have been but certificates of its 
general accuracy. That his report is clear, coinpreliensive 
and scientific. 

That Xicollet did discover and explore to its sources, a 
creek, or river, whose primal springs are now found by 
government surveys, to be in Sec. 34, Town 143 N., R. 3t> 
W. 5tli Principal ^leridian, and 92 feet above the level of 
Lake Itasca; which creek, or river, has its rise at the foot 
hills of the Hauteur des Terres. which curve like a 
orescent, around its sources, and this is the longest, as ir 
is by far the largest, tributary of the Itascan basin. To 
use ^Nicollet's own language: "In obedience to The geo- 
graphical rule, that the sources of a river are those that 
are most distant from its mouth, this creek is truly the in- 
fant Mississippi; all others below, its feeders and trib- 
utaries." Then he modestly and courteously adds: 

"The honor of having first explored th(,' sources of the 
>lississip])i, and introduced a knowledge of thmi into 
physical geography, belongs to ^Fr. Schoolcraft and Lieu- 
tenant Allen. I come only after these gentlemen; but 1 
may be permitted to claim some merit for having com- 
pleted what was wanting for a full geographical account 
of these sources.' ^Moreover, I am, I believe, the first 
traveler, who has carried with him asf roncuuical instru- 
ments and put them to profitable account along the whole 
< ourse of the ^rississipi)i. from its mouth lo its snui'Ccs.** 



) 



2G 



MINNESOTA III.S'JOKICAL COJ.IJOCTION.S. 



This is llio essence of tlie whole stoi-v. To tht-se two 
eminent schohirs and scientists belon;;- all ilie glory of 
the discovery of the primal sources of iIh? Mississippi 
river. 

Your committee recommend that this chief tributary 
of Itasca, should be named "^S'icollet Kiver'' in honor of 
its great discoverer, and that the lakelet in Section 27, be 
named Alpha, as significant of the absolute ultimate 
source. 

Eecommended, that the name "Glazier Lake" be ex- 
punged from the lake in Sec. 22, of the same town and 
range, and that the name "Elk aLke'' be continued as 
rightfully and appropriately named by th(^ authority of the 
Government of the United States. 

That we earnestly and respectfully recommend all 
geographers, map-makei-s and historians, to follow the con- 
clusions herein reached, as final to a matter of geography 
within our ov\n State. 

That we respectfully recommend that the present Ix'gis- 
lature, by joint resolution, or otherwise, as to them may 
seem best, take such action as will fix and maintain the 
nomenclature of the waters as herein indicated. 



At the conclusion of the reading of Gen. I>aker's Keport. 
Ex-Gov. Alex. l\amsey mOved that the repoi'i be adopted, 
and published by the Society, which motion prevailed. 

The following Eesolutions were then read, and unani- 
mously adopted : 

Whereas. Tho members ot* this Society have listened to tlic 
readin,:,' of tho report prepared by Gen. James Heaton Baker on 
the claims made by Capt. Willaid Gh\zicr. to the credit of havini: 
hi 18S1 "di^eovered tho source of the Mississippi river," to-wit: 
A lake adjoinin;; I.ako Itasca, desitrnatod on the United States 
surveys as Elk Lake; therefore bo it 

Ttosolved, That wo hereby expiess as the deliberate judjjmcnt 
of this Society that the assertions and assumptions of said 
Olazier. in the matter nam(>d. are liaseless and false— that he is 



TUE SOUKCEjS of THE MISSISSIPPI. 27 

ill no sense whatever a "discoverer" or "explorer," ih^t lake which 
he is now endeavoring to have called by his name having been 
originally visited and nuippod by Schoolcraft in 18^32; again care- 
fully explored and scientifically examined and described in 
otticial reports and maps by tliat accnrate and conscientious 
scientist, Joan Nicholas Nicollet in IS'iG, and was in 187') fully 
surveyed and maped by the United States surveyoi-s. and soon 
after claims and pre-emptions were filed on lands adjoining said 
lake. 

Resolved, That we assert our unqualified belief, based on the 
thorough and careful investigations of Nicollet, O. E. Garrison 
and others, and again, more recently, of those made by Hope- 
well Clarke, that the lak'e which Capt. Glazier asserts is "the 
true source of the Mississippi river," is not such in reality, but 
that the real source of the river is Lake Itasca and its tributaries, 
arising in scciions 27 and 28 of the township in which it is 
located. 

Resolved, That we feel amazed at the presumption and assur- 
ance displayed by Capt. Glazier; first, in hastily making such an 
audacious claim, based, at best upon an uncertain and doubtful 
foundation; and again, in arrogantly heralding himself to the 
world as a discoverer, without first submitting his claims to 
some tribunal competent to pronounce on their merits and having 
his alleged discovery examined. And further, in deceiving geo- 
graphical and scientific societies by sending them an account of 
his pretended discoveries, and causing to be published books and 
magazine articles in which he is praised and puffed in un- 
measured terms and held up to the admiration of the country as 
one who had achieved some praiseworthy feat; also, in publishing 
maps in which the lake in question is represented as four times 
its real size and placed in a wrong position; and lastly, in poi*suad- 
ing. by persistent solicitations, map and school book publishers 
to place his name to "Elk Lake" and declare it "the source of the 
Mississippi river." 

Resolved. That the wholesale and unblushing plagiarisms by 
Capt. Glazier from the descriptions of Itasca in the writings of 
Schoolcraft, Siegfried and others, and of the meteorological tables 
In the former, tend to throw discredit on all his assertions and to 
render him unworthy of the respect and confidence which would 
be due to him. were he really the discoverer which he claims 
to be. 

Resolved. Th.at we respectfully ask the legislature to pass, with- 
out delay, the bill recently introduced into the house by >rr. Don- 



28 



MINNESOTA HISTOJilCAL COJ.LECTJONS. 



nelly, to li\ invvooably on the juap of the Statu ilio iiaiues of 
ihe larkes and streams comporbinj^ihe Itnsoau sources of the Mis- 
sissippi river, so that its earliest e-\i»lorers be not rol)bed of their 
just laurels, and to remove tempuitions to adventurers in future 
to gain notoriety by attnchin;,' their names to said hikes. 

Kesolved, That we call upon the various ;,'eographical, histuriral 
and other learned societies throughout the world to join with us 
in repudiating Glazier's claims, and ask them, in tlie spirit of 
trutli and right, that if they have in their possession, maps with 
the lake in question so named, they erase Glazier's name from 
them and substitute therefor that of "Elk Lake." 

Resolved, That our thanks are due, and are hereby tendered, 
to Gen. James H. Baker, for his able and exhaustive report; and 
also to H. D. narrower, Esq., of New York, the Kev. J. A. Gil- 
fillan of White Earth, Minn., and to Messrs. Alfred J. Hill. Hope- 
well Clarke and J. B. Chaney of St. Paul, for valuable aid 
rendered in the investigation of maps and documents relating to 
the question. 



THE HENNEPIN BI-CENTEN A Y . 



CELEBRATION 



BY THE MINNESOTA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



OF THE 



200th anniversary 



OF THE 



Discovery of the Falls of Saint Anllionj 

IN 1680, BY FATHER LOUIS HENNEPIN. 



Note.— The Minnesota Historical Society, early in the year 1^^S0. resolved to 
appropriately celel)rHte tlie two hundreth anniversary of tlie di>covery of the 
l alls of Saint Anthony, by Father Louis Hennepin, which occurred in 16S0. In 
this ilioy were penerously and energetically aided by tlie citizens of Minnneapolis, 
whoso liberal and well-planned arranienients made the celebration a complete 
Tlie exact date of the discovery cannot be Gxed, but the third of .Inly 
(i!io fourth fallin;; (.n Sunday) was selected as the day for the celebration, on 
a»'<'oiiiit of its being a public holiday. The subjoined account of the exercises Is 
fr-'tn thi. Saint Paul Daily Globe, of July 4, ISSO: 

The city of Minneapolis never saw such a day as yes 



torday. It almost appeared as though the inanimate 



«'arlh on which the cit}^ is built — her magnificent blocks 




V 



30 MINNESOTA HISTORICAL COLLECTIONS. 

of buildings, her immense mills and even the grand Falls 
themselves, were aware that something more than ordi- 
nary was taking place. The broad avenues were teeming 
with life, and every artery of the city pulsed witii a glad 
and gleesome feeling, which developed itself in the smil- 
ing countenances of her citizens, and the outward emblems 
of general rejoicing. Most of the business houses and 
many private dwellings were decorated with flags, ever- 
greens, etc., all testifying to the general joy felt by all. 
In fact, it was Minneapolis' ''Saturday out," and she en- 
joyed it. The privacy of home and the conventionalities 
of society which ordinarily "doth, hedge us in" were for the 
once laid aside, and all, whether old or young, regardless 
of previous condition, gave themselves up to a gala day. 
The moving tide of humanity, the gaily decked blocks of 
buildings, the floating stars and stripes, and the general 
air of pleasure everyw^here visible, conspired to give the 
locality a holiday appearance never seen before. Cer- 
tainly not since the day Father Hennepin looked upon it 
and pronounced it good, two hundred years ago. 

THE GRAND PROCESSION. 

The official program for the day had announced that the 
procession would be formed promptly at 9 a. m. Commit- 
tees of arrangements may propose, but it not infrequently 
happens that those who take part in pageants of this 
character, dispose of time to suit their convenience. It 
so happened yesterday. As early as 8 o'clock all the 
principal streets of the city were filled with people on 
foot, in carriages, on horseback and in arms, waiting for 
the procession to form. It was somehow understood that 



HENNEPIN BI-CENTENARY. 



31 



General Sherman, Secretary Ramsey* and other notables 
were to arrive at an early hour at the University, and 
come from thence to the Nicollet House, where arrange- 
ments were to be made for assigning them positions in 
the grand procession. An immense throng of people as- 
sembled in front of the hotel and for over an hour waited 
patiently, in the broiling sun, to catch a glimpse of the dis- 
tinguished visitors. About half past ten their curiosity 
was satisfied, for at that hour a number of carriages con- 
taining General Sherman, Secretary Ramsey, Hon. E. B. 
"Washburne and other distinguished gentlemen, drove to 
the main entrance of the hotel. The features of nearly 
all were familiar to the dense throng, and as they alighted 
from their carriages they were greeted with a succession 
of cheers. A few moments were spent in the parlors of 
the Nicollet to allow for introductions, refreshments, etc., 
when the party once more took their places in carriages 
and proceeded to Bridge Square where the grand proces- 
sion was formed in the following order, under the com- 
mand of Gen. T. L. Rosser, marshal of the day, assisted 
by some aids: 

THE ORDER OF PROCESSION: 

Gen. Rosser, Marshal of the Day and Aide, Officer Hoy. 
riatoon of Sixteen Minneapolis Police, Commanded by Sergeant West. 
Great Western Union Band. 
Hon. W. D. Washburn and Mayor Rand in Carriages. 
General W. T. Sherman and Secretary of War Ramsey. 
Governor Pillsbury. 
Ex-Governor C. C. Washburn and Rev. Mr. Neill. 
Hon. E. B. Washburne, D. Morrison and Anthony Kelly. 
Members of the City Council. 

• lion. Alexander Ramsey was, at tliat date, Secretary of War. 



32 



MINNESOTA HISTORICAL COLLECTIONS. 



Members of the County Board. 

City and County OlHcials. 
Hon. W. S. Kinj? and Friend. 
Fort Snelling Military Band. 
, Two Companies of U. S. Regulars. 
Veterans of the War for the Union. 
Mounted Zouave Lancers. 
Zouave Drum Corps and Band. 
Minneapolis Zouaves. 
Minneapolis Light Infantry. 
St. John the Baptiste Society. 
Swede Brothers' Society. 
Odd Fellows' Encampment. 
Korth Star Lodge, 1. O. O. F. 
Sons of Herman. 
Father Matthew Cadets. 
Father Matthew T. A. B. Society. 
Woman's Christian Temperance Union. 
Father McGolrick and Priests. 
Citizens in Carriages. 

It required some time to bring order out of the chaotic 
mass, which had not only filled Bridge Square, but all 
the streets adjacent with a surging tide of humanity on 
foot, in carriages, and in eveiy other species of convey- 
ance. The throng had come "from the north and south, 
from the east and from the west," all intent upon seeing 
all they could and taking part in this pageantry. The 
grand marshal and his aids had a most difficult task to 
perform, but they finally succeeded, and the procession 
took up its line of march across the suspension bridge, 
in the order above given. When the carriage containing 
General Sherman and Secretary Ramsey reached the east- 
ern end of the bridge, and the vast crowd recognized the 



HENNEPIN BI-CENTENARY. 



33 



familiar countenances, cheer after cheer greeted the two 
distinguished men, who manage and control tlie military 
arm of this great republic. This hearty greeting was 
continued all along the line of march, and was re- 
sponded to by both gentlemen rising and bowing in 
res])onse. They rode in a splendid English drag, drawn 
by four beautiful horses, gaily caparisoned, and driven 
hy Mr. R. F. Jones, the owner of the magnificent turn- 
out. 

Words are inadequate to describe the appearance of the 
procession and the streets along the line of march. The 
sidewalks and the streets also w^ere a complete moving 
mass of humanity of all ages and both sexes. The 
suspension bridge never before was put to such a test, 
and hereafter it may be considered safe. Every available 
space was occupied by people on foot, while for fully 
a lialf hour the driveway was filled with two lines of 
carriages from end to end. The scene on University 
avenue when the procession w^as passing, baffies descrip- 
tion. The procession formed across the street, but on 
either side of it were dense throngs of carriages, four or 
tlve abreast, w^hile the sidewalks and private grounds of 
the residents were crowded with men, women and children. 
At every street crossing, numbers of vehicles were added 
to tlie throng, and yet all moved on. slow^ly it is true, 
but without accident. Gen. Sherman was of course the 
lion of the day, and next to him came in for many com- 
I'liinonts, a number of the organizations that formed a 
l'''U't of the procession. The Union Great Western Band, 
the Seventh Infantry Band from Fort Snelling, and the 
Minneapolis Zouave Band Drum corps, elicited well de- 



34 



MINNESOTA HISTORICAL COLLECTIONS. 



Served praise for their excellent music and splendid 
appearance. Companies C, K and H, of the Seventh In- 
fantry, under command of Major Benham, marched as 
only veterans can. The Minneapolis Zouaves made a fine 
appearance in their strange uniform, and the squad of 
mounted Lancers of the same organization, were a marked 
feature of the procession. The Union Francaise, of St. 
Paul, who turned out 150 strong, and were led by the 
Great "Western Band, did themselves proud, being the 
largest organization in the line. Suffice it to say that it 
was a grand demonstration, in which not only the cities 
of St. Paul and Minneapolis, but the country for miles 
around, united. 

Over the entrance to the University grounds a grand 
arch had been erected, beautifully ornamented with 
national colors and evergreens, and bearing the inscrip- 
tion, "Soyez les Bienvenus." 

THE APPEARANCE OF THE GROUNDS. 

While so many were waiting on the avenue, some hun- 
dreds had gathered on the University campus at an early 
hour, and before the head of the procession arrived at 
the green arch, under which it entered upon the field, 
thousands were assembled. The spacious campus — over- 
looking the river and falls, and a goodly part of the city 
— covered with a fine sward and shaded by noble trees, 
was supplied for the occasion with a covered stand for 
the Historical Society and its guests and seats for the 
audience, and also with numerous tables for free refresh- 
ment of visitors, and with many tents for their shelter 
and entertainment. Around the north and west sides 



V 1707574 



HENNEPIN BI CENTENARY. 35 

of the campus were arranged the various tents and 
headquarters of the dilTerent bodies taking part in the 
celebration. A short distance from the main entrance to 
the grounds, on the right, was located seven tables, each 
210 feet in length. These tables were loaded with sub- 
stantial food, enough to feed thousands, and thousands 
were fed at this hospitable board. All were invited, and 
among the many thousands there not one went away 
hungry, except at his or her accord. This branch was 
under the supervision of George A. Brackett, Esq., and 
he managed it with a method and beaming hospitality 
that will be long remembered by thousands whom he 
fed. In fact it may be said that " all went away prepared 
to say: **I was a hungered and ye gave me meat; I was 
thirsty and ye gave me drink; I was a stranger and ye 
took me in." Passing on down to the right was a tent 
reserved for the members of the councils of the cities. 
Under this canvas were two tables, sufficient to accom- 
modate the number expected to be present, and supplied 
with good things enough to satisfy even an alderman's 
stomach. 

Next to this was a canopy supplied with chairs, where 
the weary might find rest. 

Then came the grand tent, under which Governor 
Pillsbury had provided a repast for the distinguished 
visitors and the members of the Historical Society. Un- 
der this large canopy were fifteen tables arranged in cir- 
cular form. The tent was tastefully decorated with the 
national colors and evergreens, and the tables were 
adorned with a profusion of flowers, presenting a picture 
of great beauty. Under this canvas the Governor received 



'v 



36 MINNESOTA HISTORICAL COLLECTIONS. 

and feasted his friends after the formal exercises were 
over. Never before did such a collection of distinguished 
men and fair women meet within sight and sound of St. 
Anthony Falls. Connected with this was another tent, 
where, during the entire day, such refreshments as lemon- 
ade, sandwiches, etc., were dispensed to the hungry and 
thirsty. 

A number of other tents were scattered around for the 
accommodation, convenience and comfort of ladies, the 
various visiting organizations, etc., etc. Probably the 
most important of these tents were two— one large and 
handsomely fitted up where ladies could obtain lemonade, 
ices, etc., and the other called the "house that Jack 
built," for gentlemen, where they could obtain a bountiful 
supply of ice water. In this tent they had on exhibition 
specimens of water said to have been bottled by Father 
Hennepin at the time he discovered the falls. It had im- 
proved w^onderfully with age. A large number tasted it 
(purely out of curiosity) and they informed the Globe 
reporter that it was not bad to take. 

Many columns might be filled with accounts of all there 
w^as to be seen and done on the grounds. The imagina- 
tion of the reader must supply the deficiency. It is suffi- 
cient to say that the citizens of Minneapolis, both in their 
private and corporate capacity, dispensed a boundless 
hospitality on the occasion, and all, the many thousands 
present, went away satisfied that it was good for them to 
be there. 



HENNEPIN BI-CENTENARY. 



37 



THE SOCIETY AND ITS GUESTS. 
It was about 10:30 a. m. when the head of tlie proces- 
sion arrived on the grounds, and some time was necessa- 
rily taken in placing the military and societies, and in 
.seating the people, who wished to listen to the oration 
and addresses. Meantime the Historical Society and its 
♦quests were seated upon the grand stand. Among this 
notable company the following were recognized from the 
reporter's table: Gen. H. H. Sibley of St. Paul, president 
of the Historical Society; Hon. Alex. Ramsey, Secretary 
of War; Gen. W. T. Sherman. U. S. A.; Archbishop Tache 
of St. Boniface, Manitoba; Bishop La Fleche, of Three 
l^ivers, Lower Canada: Bishops Grace and Ireland, St. 
Paul; Mgr. J. Neve, Rector of the American College, Lou- 
vain, Belgium; Rev. Fr. Desaulniers, St. Bonaventure, 
Canada; Rev. G. Dugast, St. Boniface, Manitoba; Rev. J. 
A. Andre, Inner Grove. Minnesota; Rev. James McGol- 
rick, Minneapolis: Justice Miller, of the U. S. Supreme 
court; Judge Gilfillan of the State Supreme court; Judge 
McCrary of the U. S. Circuit court; Judge Nelson, of the 
U. S. District court; Gen. Terry and other army officers 
from department headquarters. St. Paul; Gen. Gibbon and « 
ofticers of the Seventh Infantry, Fort Snelling; Col. Bar- 
ry, Washington; Hon. E. B. Washburne, Galena, and Al- 
bert D. Hager, Chicago, the latter secretary, and both 
delegates of the Chicago Historical Society; Hon. C. H. 
Berry, "Winona; Hon. John S. Pillsbury, Governor of Min- 
nesota; Ex-Gov. C. K. Davis; Ex-Gov. Wm. R. Marshall; 
Hon. C. C. Washburn, Wisconsin; Gen. R. W. Johnson, 
St. Paul; Hon. W. D. Washburn, Minneapolis; Hon. S. J. 
K. McMillan, U. S. Senator; Ex-Senator H. M. Rice; Mr. 



V 



38 MINNESOTA HISTORICAL COLLECTIONS. 

Sprague, of Minneapolis, a soldier of 1812; Rev. Mr. Ri- 
heldalfer, of the State Reform school; Rev. E. D. Neill, 
Mayor Rand, Wm. S. King, W. W. McNair, Jno. H. 
Stevens, H. Mattson, O. V. Tousley, D. Morrison and 
N. B. Harwood, all of Minneapolis; I. De Graff, Russell 
Blakeley, E. S. Goodrich, Edmund Rice, J. Fletcher 
Williams, H. L. Moss, I. V. D. Heard and J. B. Cha- 
ney, of St. Paul; Hon. O. P. Whitcomb, State auditor; 
Hon. D. Burt, Superintendent of public instruction; and 
President Fohvell and the Faculty of the State Univer- 
sity. 

When Gen. Sherman escorted by Gen. Sibley, and 
Secretary Ramsey escorted b}^ Gen. Terry, came upon 
the stand they were warmly applauded, and Gen. Sher- 
man especially seemed to be the favorite. In fact, 
throughout the exercises, he could hardly move without 
starting a round of applause. It was evident there was 
present a goodly number of the boys who marched 
through Georgia with Sherman. 

While the procession was marching into the campus, 
a salute was fired by a section of artillery from Fort 
^Snelling; and as all arrangements were about concluded, 
at 11:35 A. M., the Union Great Western Band opened 
the exercises by playing the national airs, after which 
Gen. Sibley addressed the multitude. 

He said that he welcomed, as President of the Minne- 
sota Histoi:ical Society, such a large concourse of citizens 
to assist in celebrating this interesting anniversary. He 
said we owe a debt of gratitude to the citizens of Minne 
apolis, for their liberality and energy in getting up this 
celebration in so complete and splendid a manner. With- 



'v 

HENNEPIN BI-CENTENAKY. 39 

out occupying more time, he would now introduce Hon. 
Cushman K. Davis, the orator of the day. Ex-Gov. Davis 
api)cared amid an outburst of applause, and addressed the 
audience as follows: 

HON. C. K. DAVIS' ORATION. 

It is not without cause that nations, sects, communities 
and individuals, by a custom w^hich seems world-wide, 
observe with commemorative ceremonies the recurrence of 
certain days with which events of great national, reli- 
gious and personal importance began. 

There is a satisfaction in looking back into "the abysm 
of time", w^here generations have been swallowed up and 
forgotten, to gaze at some luminous diurnal spot which 
marks the occurrence of that without which an empire 
could never have existed, or a faith never been defined for 
belief, or a human right never ceased from being an eth- 
ical abstraction to become a concrete and beneficent fact, 
or a person never born, to taste the joys and sorrows of 
life and to fall heir to the inexpressible heritage of im- 
mortality. 

At one day in each year the Christian traverses the 
tract of eighteen centuries, gazing from obscure Bethle- 
hem over the civilized world, and over the enormous epoch 
of liis faith traces the sublime consequences of the nativity. 
He sees that in a period so short that it attests the miracle, 
the entire skeptical, dogmatic and practical Roman world 
v.'as penetrated and possessed by the cardinal idea of a 
^'lith which sprung from the despised Semitic i)rovince, 
aiul overcame the indurate prepossessions of the Aryan 
family. He sees the vast and unending political conse- 



40 



MINNESOTA HISTOPJCAL COLLECTIONS. 



qiiences of the event which he commemorates. He sees 
how thoroughly Christianity took possession of the place 
providentially left for it in the interstices of the Roman 
structure, and speedily transformed it in color, shape and 
proportions. He aj-jpreciates the fact that the functions 
of a kingdom not of this world needed, to make efficient 
its propagandizing idea of personal equality, the aid of 
secular institutions. It found them in the marvelous ma- 
chinery of the Roman iDolity. He sees the submergence 
of all this under the northern torrent — a submergence so 
complete that nothing but the cross can at times be seen 
over that waste of waters ; the hopes of civilization and 
progress seem ended. But barbarism itself was in time 
subdued by that which it had conquered. It had brought 
from its northern forests a practice of parliamentary par- 
ticipation in affairs by every free man which by elective 
affinity combined with the religious dogmas of personal 
equality, and the Christian world was at once placed upon 
a line of logical consequences which, by asserting the 
freedom of the individual and the equality of man to man, 
has found its most perfect development in the United 
States. 

The Mahometan, mindful of the ignominious Hegira of 
the Prophet, commemorates its day, and standing at 
Mecca, sees the crescent, within the period of seven hun- 
dred. years, compassing nations with its arc of conquest, 
one point touching Grenada, and the other shining over 
Vienna. 

What day more than this thrills every sensibility of the 
American citizen — this day of days— when our charter of 
human rights was signed with dedications to its mainten- 



'v 



HENNEPIN BI-CENTENARY. 41 

anco of lives, fortunes and sacred honor — winch has been 
for more than one hundred years preserved inviolate, 
which has been confirmed by an extension of its extrera- 
est declaration that all men are created equal, to the 
emancipation of the slave and his participation as a free 
man in the administration of the institutions by which he 
was committed to ignorance and bondage. 

Two hundred j^ears ago the Franciscan father Hennepin 
saw the Falls of St. Anthony. He was the first white 
man who ever saw and heard the throbbings of that 
great artery of power which now gives life to thousands 
of people and moves those great mechanical agencies 
which in our hearing almost, are doing the work of hun- 
dreds of thousands of men. For unnumbered ages the 
cataract had spent its forces wearing away the ledge over 
which it fell, receding northward through gorges which 
it cut, and in which it has recorded its recession. The 
wildest dreamer of two hundred years ago could not have 
foretold the wondrous changes which would be worked 
upon the scene. 

The indomitable courage of the French in discovering 
and opening up the territory west of the Alleghanies, 
their utter failure to hold it and its relapse into obscurity 
form one of the most interesting and obscure problems 
of our history. 

By the year 1680, La Salle, a gentleman by birth and a 
scliolar by education by the Jesuits, then the best school- 
masters in the world, had built a ship above Niagara 
Falls, made the circuit of the great lakes, landed near 
the western extremity of Lake Michigan, traversed what 
is now the State of Illinois, and rested at a point on the 



42 



MINNESOTA HISTORICAL COLLECTIONS. 



shores of Peoria lake, where he built a fort. Attached 
to this company of adventurers was Hennepin. He was a 
man of great resolution, faithful to bis vocation, and of 
remarkable power of observation — so remarkable that his 
footsteps can be traced to-day in the changed condition of 
this region, most distinctly by the account which he left 
of his adventures. 

During the winter of 1679-60, he, with two compan- 
ions, had by the order of La Salle, descended the 
Illinois river to its mouth, and was directed also to ex- 
plore the Mississippi river above the Illinois. They as- 
cended the river without molestation, probably as far as 
the mouth of the Wisconsin river, where they were cap- 
tured by a war party of Sioux, and from that time their 
journey northwards was an enforced one. Their captors 
held debate over their lives, but finally concluded to spare 
them. They were brought by the Sioux up the river to 
a point doubtless a few miles below where St. Paul now 
stands, where the band then left the river and followed 
the trail over the country to Mille Lacs. A journey of 
five days brought them to the Indian villages in the valley 
of the Rum River, and there the captives were separated, 
each band conducting a Frenchman to its village. They 
seem to have been treated with rude kindness. Henne- 
pin now endeavored to acquire the Indian language, and 
to instruct the savages in the faith, but they were in- 
different and he made no converts. He baptized and 
christened by the name of Antoinette, a sick Indian infant, 
who shortly afterward died. He seems to have inspired his 
captors with a certain feeling of awe, and yet at the same 
time to have been regarded by them quite contemptuously. 



HENNEPIN BI-CENTENARY. 



43 



He settled, however, an important geographical ques- 
tion. The hope of a direct westerly ocean route to the 
Kast Indies which inspired Columbus and resulted in the 
discovery of America in the search for India, was at this 
time an inspiring cause of the persistent intrusion of the 
French into this region. It was supposed that the Mis- 
sissippi river emptied into the Gulf of California. The 
northwest passage was laid down on maps as through the 
t)ie Straits of Anian, which was represented to be not 
far from the water system which has its source in Min- 
nesota. 

While Hennepin was detained in this vicinity of Mille 
Lacs, four Indians came to the village, who stated that 
thoy had come from the west fifteen hundred miles, and 
that their journey had occupied four months. They were 
([uestioned by Hennepin and told him truly that they had 
seen no sea nor any great water. They described the 
country northwest of here with general accuracy, saying 
lliat it contained no great lakes, that it had many rivers 
and that there were few forests in that region. From 
tins narrative Hennepin concluded that the straits of 
Anian as delineated upon the maps of that time, had no 
existence, and he conjectured that the route to the Pacific 
was by the rivers of which these Indians told. 

The time came in June for the departure of the In- 
dians to the hunting grounds west of the Mississippi 
river. The assemblage of the bands for this purpose 
brought Hennepin and his companions together again, 
^hey descended the Rum River and encamped where Day- 
is now. Starvation threatened the Indians, and Hen- 
iii'l)in was of course anxious to be released. By stating 



V 



44 MINNESOTA HISTORICAL COLLECTIONS. 

to them that he expected to meet a party of Frenchmen 
at the mouth of the Wisconsin river with goods for the 
Indians, he prevailed upon the savages to allow him and 
his companions to go to meet them. One of the French- 
men preferred to remain with the Indians, and staid. A 
small birch canoe was given Hennepin and Du Gay, and 
they started down the river and came to the falls of St. 
Anthony. 

It w^as a sacred spot with the tribes. Indians were 
there invoking the spirit of the waters in voices of lam- 
entations and hanging offerings of beaver skins upon tlie 
trees. 

Hennepin named the cataract the Falls of St. Anthony 
in honor of St. Anthony of Padua. He proceeded on his 
journey, and at some distance below the Falls encoun- 
tered Daniel Greysolon Duluth and four other Frenchmen, 
who had made their way from the head of Lake Superior 
to the Mississippi river. The Frenchmen then returned 
to Mille Lacs with a party of Indians, remained there till 
the following autumn, and then resumed their southward 
journey by the way of Rum river and the falls of St. 
Anthony. They i^roceeded to Green Bay by ascending the 
Wisconsin river. From thence Hennepin made his way 
to Europe and in 1683 published at Paris an account of 
his adventures. 

After the death of La Salle and about fourteen years 
after the publication of this book, Hennepin is said to 
have published in Utrecht another edition of his travels, 
in which he pretended for the first time that before he 
started up the Mississippi river, he had followed its course 
from the Illinois to the sea and returned in time to start 



HENNEPIN BI-CENTENARY. 



45 



iiDrtlnvard from the mouth of the Illinois river by the 
eleventh of March, 1680. The dates in the two narratives 
kIiow that he must have done all this in a month, and of 
course conclusively establish the falsity of this portion of 
his second narrative. The first narrative, published in 
1093, is, however, undoubtedly a true one. His topog- 
rap])y, capable of verification to-day, and his use of Sioux 
words, fully establish the fact. 

The edition of 1694 was dedicated to the King of Eng- 
land and the surprising claim then advanced was doubt 
loss due to some political reason, for it is stated that its 
contents caused William to send vessels to the Gulf of 
Mexico to enter the river, and Callieres, the Governor of 
Canada, wrote a letter to Pontchar train, the French min- 
ister, warning him that William was about to take posses- 
sion of Louisiana upon the relation of Hennepin. Louis 
XIV was greatly incensed at Hennepin, and hearing that 
he intended to revisit Canada, directed Callieres in that 
event, to arrest him and send him to Rochefort. He died, 
probably in Italy, after the year 1701.* 

Hennepin's experience as a discoverer was small com- 
pared with that of other adventurous Frenchmen. The 
most illustrious of those men who two hundred years ago 
followed the Mississippi valley from the Falls of St. 
Anthony to the Gulf of Mexico was undoubtedly Robert 
Cavelier La Salle. This heroic man starting from Montreal, 
Jisconded the St. Lawrence, sailed the great lakes, made 
the portage to the Illinois river, and descending thence 

•It should be stated, however, that the complicity of Hennepin with the 
I tfv:hl edition Is denied with ?ood support of internal testimony. It is -.greatly 

l>e lu.pod that criticism will expunge the blemish which has heretofore 
^-tiHCii to rest upon his veracity. 



46 



MINNESOTA HISTORICAL COLLECTIONS. 



into the Mississippi, reached its mouth in the year 1G82, 
after years of incredible hardships. In the month ol 
April of that year, standing where jetties now spring from 
the unstable shore, and through which the commerce of 
the world passes rejoicing in stately ships, he planted the 
cross, took possession of a vast country for and in the 
name of Louis XIV, while the voices of the great hearted 
companions of his quest joined in the Vex ilia Regis. 

The region thus claimed was the entire valley of the 
Mississippi and all of its tributaries. It stretched from 
the Alleghanies to the Rocky Mountains. It was the most 
imperial domain which ever accrued to a king by the 
claim of discovery. Far-seeing men of that age foretold 
that it would, in its time, be what it is now\ Its military 
importance and commercial and agricultural capacities were 
quite well understood. The energies of a church whose 
sons have set their feet in tropic jungles, on polar snows, 
in Saharas of sand, on every place on earth where there 
are souls to be saved, the sagacity and power of the great- 
est king and the wisest statesmen of that age, the ad- 
venturous private spirit inspired by the hope of gain, the 
romantic gleams of El Dorados which even then shone in 
the "West like golden sunsets, the colonial policy then car- 
dinal with the great European powers, all these confeder- 
ated to make this immense domain a province of France. 

JIad it remained so, the French possessions would have 
extended from the mouth of the St. Lawrence nearly to 
the Rio Grande; the domain of England would have been 
east of the Alleghanies. Spain would have had only the 
province of Florida, and the whole of all the remainder 
of North America east of the Rocky Mountains, excepting 



HENNEPIN BI CENTENARY. 



i7 



Mexico, would have belonged to France to colonize and 
civilize by way of the Mississippi river, instead of by that 
painful and slow process overland from east to west, by 
which this country has been occupied. 

Why France did not succeed in so doing is a most re- 
condite yet instructive question. 

There was at that time every reason why she should 
have done all this. Louis XIV was then at the zenith of 
his power. His intellect was in its prime; his pride was 
at its height; his will had never been curbed; his armies 
were victorious everywhere; he had the finest navy in. 
the world; his treasury overflowed. 

The grandest statesman whom France — perhaps Europe 
—ever produced had been at the head of alfairs, and the 
propulsive force of his genius still operated unspent. It 
is doing its work to-day. Colbert had wrought the work 
which Louis was then enjoying. He was so great to the 
men of his own age, that the Mississippi river was named 
l)ie Colbert, but the great stream — greater than the stream 
of history — has effaced even his name from the water in 
which it was written. 

England, as a power, was utterly contemptible. She 
was panting under the incubus of the disreputable old 
age of that heartless voluptuary Charles II, and he was 
pensioner of the French king. Her finances were 
disordered, her army was despised, her navy was weak 
Jtnd rotten, her statesmen were profligate and corrupt 
h<'r literature was mere bawdry, and she was through- 
<-'^it a state diseased. 

William of Orange, constitutionally weak of body and 
broken by sickness, was battling for mere existence with 



48 



MINNESOTA HISTORICAL COLLECTIONS. 



the overwhelming power of France, and was thouglit to 
be a vanishing factor in the problem of national and 
personal supremacy. 

Why then was it that, though France held for almost 
one hundred years nearly all that La Salle proclaimed 
was her's east of the great river, and held until the 
reign of the great Napoleon, nearly all that was pro- 
claimed as her's west of the great river, she eventually 
lost everything, and left but little or no trace of her 
presence, excepting what is now the state of Louisiana? 

The cause was not conquest. Conquests then were, 
but they were merely the secondary and proximate 
agencies of the transfer. 

And here we are presented with one of the grandest 
examples which time has given to history, of the diver- 
sion of a great region from one empire and its attach- 
ment to another, by the moral power of contending in- 
stitutions. For this was effected by the collision of 
institutions, and by nothing else. We have seen France, 
starting from Montreal, engirdle the North American 
continent from the mouth of the St. Lawrence to the 
mouth of the Mississippi, and shutting up the English 
occupancy into a tract which was practically bounded 
by the St. Lawrence, the Alleghanies and the Savannah. 
We understand the proportions of the physical compet- 
itory powers by which these rival institutions were sus- 
tained. 

I do not think that differences of dogma or victories 
in proselyting had anything to do with the result. The 
Puritan of New England, the Quaker of Pennsylvania, 
the Catholic of Maryland, and the Churchman of Vir- 



HENNEPIN BI-CENTENARY. 



49 



pinia, each represented a political tendency, witli which 
Jiis religious faith had little to do. either by way of cre- 
ation or modification. The result would have been the 
same, had James the Second succeeded in restoring Eng- 
land to the ranks of the Catholic powers. 

Behind and beyond the mere questions of faith, ruling 
and overruling them by providential destiny, carrying 
them along as the world revolving east carries a ship 
that is sailing east, were the great and peremptory ideas 
of personal freedom and self government, based upon 
Christianity and not upon any of its creeds, which were 
fighting their way to institutional . recognition in the per- 
son of every English-speaking man. 

Englishmen had fought for centuries this momentous 
fight. They had extorted Magna Charta from John. 
They had enacted in parliament the declaration of rights, 
and so far annihilated the feudal system as to leave 
nothing but its fictions. They had passed the statute 
of habeas corpus. They had increased the powers of 
the commons, until that house became the immediate 
ai:ont of the people in the administration of the State. 
More than all, they had so dilated their capacity for 
K'lf-government through their love of freedom that it 
"^vas as certain then as it is to-day that the mountains 
^vould be removed into the sea before the stock of that 
I^'ople could ever be forced back into the dungeons of 
absolute power. 

In Prance there was no counterpart to all this. There 
on the contrary, a complete system of antithetical 
iLisiiiutions. The whole kingdom was feudal. It was 
^-•nfcoCfed to despot over despot through all the ascend- 



50 MINNESOTA HISTORICAL COLLECTIONS. 

ing degrees of tyranny, until the king was reached, who 
absorbed into himself the sum of all despotic powers. 
There was no parliament. Judges were so purchasable 
that judgments were finally sold as common commodi- 
ties. The land was filled with private prisons, in which 
the seigneurs incarcerated their offending underlings with- 
out pretext of trial. The king took away personal lib- 
erty by simple lettre de cachet. There was no liberty of 
conscience, nor was there anything in the tendency of 
the institutions which promised it. The system of tax- 
ation was an abominable device of spoliation by which 
a host of intermediaries tolled the product, so that but 
a fraction reached the royal exchequer. 

Such were the two systems which started in the race 
of empire upon this continent. The French colonial sys- 
tem was feudal, and was governed from Versailles. The 
English colonial system was allodial and substantially 
governed itself. Each was a reproduction of its original. 
That of the French was cumbrous, but it had an artificial 
perfection like that of an organized army. The Frencli- 
man who founded a colony laid off a seigniory and had 
his vassals. The English colonists on the contrary, owned 
their farms and their houses were their castles. They 
had their provincial parliaments and enacted their own 
laws. Every English settlement was a nucleus from 
which growth sprang. Every French settlement was a 
lordship or fort — it stood by itself; its neighbor was an- 
other lordship or fort. The English settlements were 
confluent. Those of the French were marked by bounda- 
ries established from the beginning. The former tended 
to identification; the latter were indurated into separa- 
tion; contact was friction and private war. 



HENNEPIN BICENTENARY. 



51 



Under such conditions of growth it is easy to under- 
stand how the French, moving with the celerity of organ- 
ization, at first covered so much territory. After the 
first act was done, progress stopped. 

The French settler looked to his lordship, and was at- 
tached to the soil. If he removed, he entered a vagrant 
life. The English immigrant, who was his own man, 
bettered his condition. His children stood higher in the 
ranks of wealth and society than he did. The result was 
that when the English became ready to pass the Alle- 
phanies, they took with them ready made all of the ma- 
chinery of an independent government. The mere presence 
of Boone and his companions in Kentucky ended the 
Fhadowy French claim to that region. The French in 1762 
finally ceded the territory by the treaty of Versailles. 
The capture of Kaskaskia by Gen. George Rogers Clarke, 
who was sent upon that campaign by Thomas Jefferson 
while governor of Virginia, seems to have ended the 
French institutions and customary laws over all the coun- 
try in the valley of the Mississippi. The passage of the 
ordinance of 1787 gave to the territory northwest of the 
Ohio a republican constitution, and from that time En- 
frlish immigrants poured into that region, while the 
French institutions disappeared like a cloud. 

The hold of France upon the territory west of the 
river became less eager. She ceded it to Spain and then 
t<x)k it back. The iron hold of Napoleon became flaccid 
Uiore and he finally ceded it to the United States in 1303, 
arid nothing was left of France upon this continent save 
Ixuisiana (which exists like an area of geologic drift) 
*ihI the names of counties and cities where French and 



52 



MINNESOTA HISTORICAL COLLECTIONS. 



Indian words alike mark the former presence of vanished 
institutions. 

The political consequences of the tendencies and results 
of which I have spoken, were most momentous to tlic 
cause of liberty. Did anybody ever conceive of a declara- 
tion of independence by French colonies? Had the French 
institutions at all kept pace with those of the English 
over what is now the United States, there would have 
been no declaration of our own independence, for Louis 
XV and George III, assisted by their colonists, would 
have been fighting a war of conquest and defense. Let 
no one permit these words to disparage the Frenchman's 
love for liberty or his devotion to its cause. That race 
has stood since the days of Caesar in the forefront of in- 
expungable nationalities. But the Frenchman begins his 
political revolutions at Paris and overthrows tyranny in 
its central fortress. The Englishman has never regarded 
London as the place where the crown jewels of his liber- 
ties are kept. He will in any contest for his right, 
move upon London from every antipodal point where his 
''morning drum beat" sounds. When the French revolu- 
tionist fails to secure Paris, his cause fails to the 
remotest extremities of the French dominions. But to his 
dauntless love of liberty, the Frenchman makes every sac- 
rifice. Wherever the scaffold has become an altar for the 
immolation of human victims dying for human freedom, 
the sons and daughters of France have stood upon that 
scaffold gloriously triumphing — stood singing songs of 
deliverance in the gat^s of the morning of freedom, like 
the angel Uriel in the sun, watching the world on which 
its light is sent. 



HENNEPIN Bl-CENTENARY. 



53 



Mere political speculation might pause at this point, 
standing to-day at the great anniversary of our inde- 
jx'ndence, and seeing what forces contended against each 
for a century before it was declared, we cannot help rec- 
ognizing the work of Providence in all this. Through 
all time this new world had slumbered, hidden by the 
ocean from conquest, preserved" from the operations of the 
events which in the long course of thousands of years had 
brought the Europeans to civilization. The Greeks and 
the Romans did their work and passed away, and not a 
hint of this great world came to them from sea or shore. 
The long night which settled over Europe, and in the 
hours of which were slowly formed the models of our 
present institutions, w^as not illuminated by a single gleam 
fi'om the west. 

The Mongol peopled this continent from the northwest, 
but by some process left behind him his institutions and 
his faith. Precisely at the time when man was ready 
to fill the sphere of his natural rights; when printing was 
discovered and men were thereby enabled to reason to- 
gether and to come to think alike over vast areas, when 
conscience was beginning to assert its liberty, when slav- 
<'ry was denounced by the church and by publicists, when 
^var, become more humane, required some real justifica- 
tion for its commencement, when the law^ rose from its 
tomb and, reasserting itself as a science superseded the can- 
onical jargon which had been administered by ecclesiasti- 
cal incompetence, when the divinity which inheres in 
>^cience was breeding wings for its flight among the stars, 
"^vlion the real rulers of men were rising from the people 
and the world was ceasing to hope or dread the results 



54 



MINNESOTA HISTORICAL COLLECTIONS. 



of dynastic chance, when force and fraud were becoming 
merely the "crownless metaphors of empire;" this wat- 
ery vail of ocean was first withdrawn from the new world 
and every agency which works under the providence of 
God for the well-being of man, entered upon its heritage. 
It took possession. The Englishman, the Dutchman, the 
Frenchman, the Irishman, the Scandinavian and the Ger- 
man here found refuge and gratified the aspirations for 
that personal liberty of thought, speech, belief and action, 
w^ithout which the most exalted man is but a splendid 
slave. In all this, the wondrous works of God, who holds 
the nations in the hollow of his hand, are as plainly to be 
seen as if some unpeopled planet had touched this earth 
on its way and taken from it its agencies for the well be- 
ing of man. 

The Franciscan priest died in obscurity, and his burial 
place no man knows. His monument is here. His name 
is ineffaceably written upon this very place in the county 
which bears it. Where he stood two hundred years ago 
a despised captive, sit to-day the rulers of a great state; 
the professors of a university; the brave men and the lovely 
women of his race; the general of the armies of the most 
powerful and the freest people on earth; the judges of its 
greatest courts and the ministers of Christianity. Every- 
thing has changed. Two great cities occupy the scene. 
The .cataract has been manacled by the hand of man and 
works like the blind Sampson in his mills. And the final 
results have not yet been reached. In all that we see 
there is nothing but the infancy of a great people. From 
the west and the northwest come the murmurs of awaken- 
ing empire, and the prophecies of that riper time when a 



HENNEPIN BI-CENTENARY. 



55 



race — composite of the mingled blood of the nations of 
Europe — shall present to humanity its highest type of 
physical, intellectual and moral development. One hun- 
dred years from to-day they who shall stand in this place 
and repeat these ceremonies, may from their vantage- 
ground of knowledge, refinement and luxury, look upon 
us as their crude forerunners merely. Let us play well 
our part however, and cause them to say of us as we say 
of those who have preceded us, that these men acted well 
that part, and secured that larger liberty, that greater 
knowledge, that more perfect civilization which we of to- 
day know must forever bless this favored spot if we do 
our duty as our predecessors did theirs. 

The conclusion of Gov. Davis' address was the signal 
for a prolonged applause. This was followed by an air 
from the band, when the president introduced, as poet of 
the day, A. P. Miller Esq., editor of the Worthington Ad- 
vance, who read the following poem: 

MR. MILLER'S POEM. 
I. 

Down these great rocks the mighty river poured, 

And like an endless tempest beat and roared, 

Ages on ages of uncounted years, 

Before its thunder fell on human ears; 

In one great song that made the woods rejoice, 

Praising its maker with a ceaseless voice! 

Then the Mound Builders came, with awkward toil, 

And built their mounds and tilled the barbarous soil. 

Yoked the wild bison to some uncouth plow, 

And cleaved the rivers with a birchen prow. 



MINNESOTA HISTORICAL COLLECTIONS. 

How long ago? , Perhaps ere Tubal Cain 
Began to build his cities on the plain, 
Perhaps ere Eve and Adam, hand in hand, 
Went out from home to tame the savage land. 
Then came the Red Man, stoical and brave, 
Of whom no power on earth can make a slave, 
True to the true and good toward the good. 
And, like his Christian brother, spilling blood. 
Human as we, whate'er his savage arts, 
For veins of gold run through his heart of quartz. 
Here round the Falls he built his rude tepee, 
Made love and danced and fought and died as we. 

II. 

And centuries went by, and then there came, 

For love of Mother Church and France and fame, 

The man who gave the Falls their saintly name. 

O Priests! destined to pierce the wilderness, 

Yours to explore and ours to possess. 

Yours to uplift the cross by every stream, 

And ours to build and realize your dream! 

Anon the Saxon came, whose iron hand, 

Has one strong finger laid on every land. 

Who through his loom runs all the threads of race, 

And leaves a grander Saxon in his place. 

The doughty Dutchman from his dykes escaped, 

With wives and ships to one plump model shaped. 

Spreads round the Hudson in phlegmatic ease, 

And smokes his pipe and trades to every breeze; 

The gifted Frenchman, panting to be free. 

And smit with love of fame and liberty, 

Kisses Columbia on her river mouth. 

And builds his New World Paris in the south; 

The swarthy Spaniard plants his homes and vines 

Where down the coast the yellow metal shine*, 

And counts his beads and tells his herds and ilock 



HENNEPIN BI CENTENARY. 

Till at his floor the sturdy Saxon knocks; 

But build where'er they may, they build in vain, 

The land is not for Holland, France nor Spain; 

The all-absorbing Saxon, east or west, 

Like Aaron's serpent, swallows down the rest I 

His tongue and faith, his name and laws he leaves 

On every soil his conq'ring plough-share cleaves, 

Yet, blood-stained Saxon! storming round the world, 

With battle-ax and bloody flag unfurled. 

Cleaving the skull of every weaker race. 

Shall DOt God's lightning smite you on the face? 

Beware I for though the Red Man flnds no God 

To keep his waning race above the sod, 

Yet every wrong to white or black or red. 

Falls back at last upon the culprit's head. 

For every Black man killed in Slavery's name. 

Two white men perished when the crisis came, 

And twice the wealth amassed by unpaid toil, 

Went down in war's grim waste and debt and spoil 

And is the Bed Man, though foredoomed to fall. 

Less dear to him who made and loves us all? 

III. 

Kow came the time (so near it seems to stand 
That one might almost reach it with his hand,) 
When the great human tide rolled up the strand, 
And bird and beast and savage fled the land! 
Andlo! the infant Lowell of the West, 
Lay like a Fondling on the prairie's breast! 

To-day the child to stalwart manhood grown, 
Has won a name that round the world is known ! 
I see the tow'ring stack that cleaves the air. 
The pond'rous engine-stroke, the furnace-glare. 
And hear the roar of trade, the whirr of wheels. 
The buzz of saws, the hum of giant mills. 
On every wind is heard the signal scream 



58 MINNESOTA HISTQKICAL COLLECTIONS. 

Of iron chariots made alive by steam, 
While, like great shuttles, flashing' to and fro 
And ever in and out, they come and go, 
As in this warp they weave the woof of wealth, 
And through our commerce pour the blood of health. 
Forth from this mart, through empires near and far, 
Flies the iron chariot and the thund'ring car, 
Like some great Dragon from the Furies hurled, 
Yoked to a Juggernaut to crush the world I 
Fleet as the arrow from the Red Man's bow, 
Down through the vales and up the steeps they go, 
Dive through the hills and bursting forth again. 
Shout to the busy towns and shake the plain: 

IV. 

'Tis fit that we should meet to celebrate, 
Here at the heart of this great Summit State, 
Which, like a mountain summit, raised on high, 
Bathes her pure head in the azure sky. 
Whence all the streams, as from a mountain crest 
Flow down to south and north, to east and west. 
All ways lead downward from her upland height, 
All ways lead up to her ideal site. 
The Pivot Statel on which shall turn and rest 
The balanced continent, when East and West 
And iNorth and South shall teem with human handi 
As thick as those that toil in Asian lands ; 
For up to us, so Nature has decreed. 
From every point the Water Highways lead! 
The Water State! that to her bosom takes, 
In mother love, ten thousand crystal lakes, 
Mother of Mighty Waters, who gives birth 
To the two Giant Rivers of the Earth! 
Grandmother of the Waters, mighty dame. 
From whom the Father of the Waters came! 
Far to the north a thousand streams and lakes. 



HENNEPIN BI-CENTENARY. 

In her strong hands the mighty mother takes, 
And into one great river gives them form, 
Then pours it southward, like a bridled storm, 
Here, at our side, it thunders down the Fall, 
And far-off rivers hear the mighty call, 
And from a thousand miles come sweeping free, 
To join the glorious march toward the sea! 
And give their all to swell one river tide. 
Where the vast commerce of the world may ridel 
Far to the north again, a net of lakes 
And thread-like streams the mighty mother takes, 
And into one vast river spins them all, 
The grandest stream on this terrestial balll 
Which, flowing down the world toward the east, 
And by a thousand affluents still increased, 
Expands its tide to Ave stupendous lakes, 
And four great rivers in its progress makes. 
Till far away it leaps the world's great Fall, 
And meets the sea at storied Montreal! 
Nor yet content to call the South and East 
To her own free yet sumptuous water feast, 
The Mother of the Waters gives the West 
Another river from her teeming breast, 
Which to the vast Pacific rolls away 
Through chains of lakes and through the icy bay. 

V. 

Here, as was said by wiser men than I, 
Shall the great seat of future empire lie. 
Here springs the Dual City which shall fill 
The plain for miles and cover every hill I 
Playmates in childhood, hand in hand they went, 
And grew and loved till their glad youth was spent. 
Soon shall the nuptials come and man and wife 
Go forth one flesh to one illustrious life. 
And nations see the twain in wedlock given. 



MINNESOTA HISTORICAL COLLECTIONS. 



And say, ''Behold a marriage made in heaven 1" 

Now, while the Muse withdraws the veil, I see 
The wondrous vision of what is to be: 
For miles and miles along the river banks 
The blocks of Commerce tower in massive ranks, 
A thousand domes are flashing in the sun, 
A thousand streets between the structures run, 
Pown which I see a human ocean pour 
With rush and surge and heat and stormy roar, 
And far around the river wharfs and slips, 
Like a dead forest, rise the masts of ships; 
For now, through channels made by human hand 
The seas and lakes and rivers of the land 
Are linked together, and, with flags unfurled. 
The ships come up from all the busy world I 

And now the scene expands beneath my eyes, 
I see, far out, a mile long depot rise. 
Where, with a great and never-ceasing din. 
The long-drawn trains from all the world come in ! 
Far to the north I see a great train glide. 
And sweep across to the Pacific side, 
And, turning northward through the Polar gate, 
Thrid a long tunnel under Behring's Strait, 
Then shout to Asia and go thundering down 
Through many an old and many-peopled town. 
And fleeing westward through an hundred states, 
O'er classic streams and under tunneled straits. 
Rise screaming from the ground on Britain's shores, 
And London, sea-like, round it breaks and roars! 

VI. 

Around these Falls, if we believe the wise, 
The world's great Capital may yet arise ! 
One constitution then shall join mankind, 
And rights before obscure be well defined. 
And here from year to year, in all men's cause, 



HENNEPIN Bl-CENTENARY. 



61 



Tlie world shall meet to frame its general laws! 

The day dawns now in which your sons shall view 

The place you built better than you knew; 

For you shall build the City of the P>ee; 

The heart of Man's Great State which is to be, 

The Capital of Men and not of Kings, 

Where Toil and Merit are the honored things, 

Whose halls of learning and of art shall rise 

Free as the air to make the many wise, 

And o'er whose domes the flag shall be unfurled 

Of one United States of All the World I 

Mr. Miller's clever poem was greeted with warm ap- 
l»lause, after which the Great Western Band regaled the 
audience with a fine selection. Gen. Sibley, President of 
tlie day, then called on Hon. Alex. Ramsey, Secretary of 
War, for a speech. Secretary Ramsey spoke as follows: 

HON. ALEX RAMSEY'S ADDRESS. 

My friends, I should be very much embarassed indeed, 
to be thus suddenly called upon before such an audience 
as this, if I supposed you expected a speech from me. 
1 know you do not. You will not be disappointed. 
[Laughter and applause.] I looked at this magnificent 
audience, as I sat here and heard the eloquent address 
<»f the ex-Governor of this state, and said to myself, that 
••1:0 of the great things that we might be under obligations 
Father Louis Hennepin for, was that he had discovered 
'he Falls of St. Anthony in the 45th degree of north latitude. 
iKviiewed laughter and applause.] My friends, think for 
a iiioment, and suppose that he had made the great dis- 
i<»very possibly away down in the island of San Domin- 
[Great laughter.] You recollect very well what 

'3 



62 MINNESOTA HTSTORICAL COLLECTIONS. 

Mark Twain said about that country, about those lati- 
tudes, and the people inhabiting them. "Why," said he, 
"if you took five hundred deacons from the State of 
Massachusetts, and five hundred elders from Connecticut, 
and sent them down there, in the third generation all 
their boys would be riding upon little jackasses, with 
a fighting cock, each one, under his arm, going, on Sun- 
day, with a broken umbrella, to fight chickens." [Great 
laughter.] Now. as I looked upon this exhibition of in- 
telligence, which I see in the faces here, and at a pop- 
ulation such as would well compare with the most ad- 
vanced places in the world, I said to myself, that among 
all, and above all things that we are under obligations to 
this ancient father for, is that he located the Falls of St. 
Anthony just where he did, in about the 45th degree of 
north latitude. [Laughter and applause.] 

But, my friends, as I said, I have no speech to make- 
I recollect very well, as do many of my venerable friends 
who sit around me here to-day, when we heard the "first 
low tread of nations yet to be," and witnessed the "first 
low wash of waves, where soon shall roll a human sea.'' 
And, my friends, under the dispensation of Providence, 
just as likely it is, that when our day comes, as it soon 
will, to go out of the world, we may go hence with 
peace and contentment, feeling that those who come after 
us will say, that w^e have done enough to satisfy the 
.ambition of the most sanguine. I thank you for this 
■jkindness, in giving me this reception. [Great applause.] 



HEXNEPIX Bl-CENTENAUY. 



63 



GEN. WM. T. SHERMAN'S ADDRESS. 

In response to repeated calls for * 'General Sherman," 
iliat officer appeared, amid tumultuous applause. When 
this had subsided, he said: 

Ladies and Gentlemen of Minnesota, and Gentlemen of the 
Historical Society of Minnesota: 

1 am one of those referred to by the Orator of the da}^ 
!is having came a long distance to be here to-day to do 
honor to the memor}' of him who discovered the Falls of 
Siiint Anthony. I have come more, however, to recognize 
the worth of the Historical Society, and to do what I can 
in iny humble sphere, to encourage them in collecting the 
data, not only relating to that one great adventure, but 
of La Salle and of Marquette, and of all that noble body 
of men, who, two centuries ago, roamed over this land, 
and told their fellows of its wealth and resources, and 
printed books to induce others to follow in their footsteps; 
and I am glad that that duty has fallen to this Society, 
whose orator has this day dravm out lessons of wisdom 
wliich we may all heed. He has pointed out why the 
French had failed in making a permanent lodgment in the 
Kre'at valley of the Mississippi, and, still more, why the 
Spaniards, the ablest and bravest men of that day, had 
uiso failed; and why the English and other colonists who 
M-tlled along the Atlantic Coast, came over rivers, mount- 
ains and plains, and finally settled here. That one lesson 
is suflicient to pay us for coming here to-day, and I have 
listened to it with great pleasure and profit. The day is 
coming, young men, when we will not go back to Homer 
i*nd /Eneid for our epics, but these brave men of two 



64 



MINNESOTA HISTORICAL COLLECTIONS. 



hundred years ago will be the heroes of a volume quite 
as good as the uEneid. [Applause.] 

But there is one thing which your orator did not touch 
upon, to which I will briefly advert. I am very glad, as 
the Secretary of War said, that Father Hennepin located 
this great falls in the forty-fifth parallel, and not down 
at the mouth of the Mississippi ; but, still more, that he 
did not discover any gold here. [Laughter.] The black- 
soil over which we have been traveling now for eight 
hundred miles is far richer than the gold mines of 
California [applause], and I, therefore, hope that you 
young people won't be caught with the gold fever. There 
is more gold in the wheat fields, the oat fields, the tim- 
othy fields of Minnesota, than in the Black Hills, or in 
Colorado. [Applause.] Moreover, the soil raises children, 
and such as we see here, and makes homes where people 
may be virtuous and good. If you go into the gold mines, 
you have to carry a pistol on one side and a knife on the 
other, and work hard always, and when your year's work- 
is done you have nothing left. Therefore, I am very glad 
that your fate has brought you to this beautiful valley of 
the Mississippi. I hope each and every one of you will 
enjoy it, and realise and improve your advantages. 

I hope this Historical Society may live and prosper. I 
honor them from my heart, and have come here for that 
purpose. I also thank you, ladies and gentlemen, for 
giving me so much of your time and applause. I am 
much obliged to you. [Prolonged cheering.] 

President Sibley here remarked, that it had been ex- 
pected that Archbishop Tache, of Manitoba, would have 
made an address, but that the hitter had asked to be 



HENNEPIN BI-CENTENARY. 



G5 



oxciised on account of great fatigue from his journey. 
Ho would call on Bishop Ireland, of Saint Paul, a mem- 
l>or and ex president of our Society, to address us in his 
place. Bishop Ireland then came forward, amid a hearty 
and earnest applause, and said: 

BISHOP IRELAND'S ADDRESS. 

Mu. President, Ladies and Gentlemen: The scene 
which this assembled multitude commemorates to-day is 
indeed one well deserving, on this two-hundreth annivers- 
ary, the attention of the people of the Northwest. A 
group of w^eary voyagers, Louis Hennepin and his two 
companions, Accault and Auguelle, stood in mute aston- 
ishment before yonder cataract — the first white men into 
wliose ears pealed its solemn music — whose eyes feasted 
upon its tumultuous w^aters, then free and unfettered, as 
th«.'y hurried over the precipice in wild, unbridled play. 
There was, however, to the scene a significance far 
broader than its exterior outlines might suggest — it was 
I ho dawning upon the Northwest of the bright day of 
civilization. It was the registration of the state of Min- 
nesota on the page of history. [Applause.] Hencefor- 
^vard. the name of Louis Hennepin can never be spared 
from our history. His name is the first which the pen of 
*^nnalists will trace. The first picture which the painter 
^'f noted events in the history of Minnesota will color 
^vitli his pencil, will be the long-gowned Franciscan, with 
his two companions at his side, hands uplifted, christen- 
the cataract under the name of one of the heroes of 
llio church, Saint Anthony, of Padua. [Applause.] 



66 



MINNESOTA HISTORICAL COLLECTIONS. 



Hennepin, immediately upon his return to Paris, Franco, 
chronicled his discovery, and narrated in quaint and pic- 
turesque language, his story of the Northwest, and owing 
to his book, this northwest was henceforward before the 
eyes of the world. On all the maps which afterwards 
Avere traced of the American Continent, maps which still 
revealed the fact that a great portion of our country was 
wrapped in obscurity, the Falls of St. Anthony were 
always one of the greatest landmarks, as if around them, 
as it seemed, should cluster in the future, the destinies 
and the glories of the land of Columbus. [Applause.] 
Hennepin must remain the hero of this anniversary, the 
hero of the early history of Minnesota. His is a name 
which we cannot forget. Is it a name, I will briefly ask, 
that we can to-day pronounce with affectionate pride? 
Certainly, in many respects, he is not unworthy of our 
admiration. Hennepin was a brave voyageur. He was a 
scholar. He was a zealous and disinterested missionary 
of the cross. It has been said that his writings show a 
little vanity; that he dw^ells with rather too much com- 
placency on wiiat he himself has said and done. But we 
can well overlook the w^eakness when we remember that 
having been for long years, during his solitary journey- 
ings, accustomed to dwell only on himself, and what he 
did, he naturally continued, without any preconceived ef- 
fort, to still talk, a good deal, in his narrative, abou 
himself. [Laughter.] 

We can well believe that his little vanity, or what is 
called vanity, was the love of narrating peculiar to trav- 
elers in distant, and in our own, lands, and not at all 
the result of a deep-seated or odious pride. 



HENNEPIN BI CENTENARY. 



67 



But it has been said that Hennepin stands forth in his- 
tory as an untruthful writer, as having designedly made 
false statements. Is this assertion proved? 

Hennepin, in 16S3, three years after his discovery of 
the Falls, published in Paris, his "Description of Louisi- 
ana.'' This volume has never been translated into Eng- 
lish. It will, in a few weeks, be given to the American 
public, from the pen of John Gilmary Shea, of New York. 
Now, this volume is undoubtedly the work of Hennepin, 
and, we may add, it is undoubtedly accurate and truthful. 
There is no one statement in any contemporary writer, 
that would lead us to doubt the statements of Hennepin 
in this volume. His description- of the life among the 
early Sioux, is admitted to be very accurate by the Amer- 
ican historian, Parkman. Hennepin was the first writer 
to give to the world Sioux words, and the Sioux scholars 
to-day recognize all of those words, though his notation of 
them, at times, was somewhat singular. 

A letter addressed to Paris by Sieur Duluth, at 
the same time that Hennepin was in Paris, in the 
Monastery of Saint Germain, writing this book, sub 
stantiates Hennepin's account of his captivity in the 
northwest. Duluth says that having been on Lake Super- 
ior, he followed a river leading to the Mississippi, where 
he heard of the captivity of Hennepin and his companion, 
and, having rowed down the Mississippi for over eighty 
leagues, he found Father Hennepin, and re-ascended 
v."ith him the Mississippi. He gives the details of Henne- 
pin's captivity. He states even the fact that his sacer- 
dotal vestments had been stolen from him by the Sioux — 
thus corroborating the details of Hennepin's book. Hen 



68 



MINNESOTA HISTORICAL COLLECTIONS. 



nepin, wheii he wrote this book in Paris, appeals to the 
testimony of his companion, Accault, then also in Paris. 
And, seven years later, LoCIerq quotes Hennepin's work 
as one of undoubted authority, referring his readers to it. 
Here, then, we have Hennepin, the author of the volume 
published in Paris in 1653, undoubtedly- a truthful narra- 
tor; and whatever accusation could be, or has been, 
raised against him, cannot be based upon this volume. 

What, then, was the occasion of this accusation? It 
was this: Fourteen years later, in the 3-ear 1697, a 
volume of travels, "New Discoveries," as it was called, 
was published at Utrecht. This is the volume which was 
at an early day translated into English. Through this 
volume, mainly, Hennepin has been known to our Eng- 
lish and American writers. Now, in this volume, there 
are really pages which cannot be said to contain a truth- 
ful narration. In these pages, it is related that Henne- 
pin made a voyage down the lower Mississippi, in the 
spring of 1680, allowing himself so short a time to make 
the voyage, that it becomes at once an absolute impos- 
sibility. If Hennepin wrote all the volume, we must 
abandon the defense. Now, this book has lately been 
subjected to a very close scrutiny by one of our most 
renowned American scholars, John Gilmary Shea. Some 
years ago, Dr. Shea wrote on Hennepin, and wrote very 
bitterly about him, stating that he could not be put 
forth' as a truthful historian. On later, and more careful 
examination. Dr. Shea has changed his opinion. His book 
will be before the public in a few weeks, and will pre 
sent in full, liis line of arguments. He has compared, 
one with the other, the two volumes, the volume writ 



HENNEPIN BI-CENTENAHY 



G9 



liMi at Paris, and the one at Utrecht. The style is 
dilTcrcnt. The Utrecht edition embraces all that was 
said in the first edition, with additions, the object of 
wliich additions seems to have been, to bring the volumes 
up to date. Errors occur, blunders of which Hennepin 
could not be supposed capable; blunders in the wording 
of things relating to the Catholic church, which shows 
that the compiler of the second volume could not even 
have been a Catholic. For instance, Catholic priests — 
who in French, are always set down as curvs, are 
called imsteurs — while the wwd pasteiir, in the French 
language, essentially indicates a Protestant minister. 

AVhen Hennepin came over to America, he was the com- 
panion of Bishop Laval, later appointed Bishop of Que- 
bec. It was under his jurisdiction that Hennepin was 
to labor in this country. Bishop Laval had been pre- 
viously Bishop for twenty years, of Petrea. Now the com- 
piler of the second volume says that at the time of 
Hennepin's voyage to America, Bishop Laval had been 
lately appointed Bishop of Petrea. 

Again, one of the missionaries in Canada was Fenelon, 
Now any Frenchman of any sense whatever who had ever 
been in France could not have dreamed that this Fen- 
elon was the famous Archbishop of Cambrai; and yet 
this volume says that this was the Fenelon who after- 
wards became the Archbishop of Cambrai. 

Again, Hennepin was a scholar. He knew geography 
too well to give himself only a few days (I do not now 
remember the exact number of days this second volume 
lakes for the voyage, but something less than a month) 
to go down to the Gulf of Mexico and return. Some- 



70 



MINNESOTA HISTORICAL COLLECTIONS. 



thing yet more to the point: Dr. Shea remarks that it 
"is evident, whatever we may think of the remainder of 
the book, that the ten pages containing the so-called 
voyage on the lower Mississippi, were an interpolation 
in the volume, after it had been issued from the press." 

The volume is numbered to page 313, then these ten 
pages, differing in type and in the spacing of the lines 
from the balance of the book, are all inserted in the 
volume under the same paging, with a star after the 
number of the page (313*), showing plainly that these 
ten pages w^ere added to the book after it had come 
forth from the hands of the printer. 

Now, w^hat is the conclusion " of all this? Simply that 
it cannot be proved that Father Hennepin was ever the 
author or publisher of this Utrecht volume. 

In those days, literature w^as not governed by the same 
rules and customs as now. There were then no interna- 
tional laws protecting the rights of publishers. Those 
were not the days of railroads or telegraphs, or literary 
reviews; and it was no unusual thing when a book had a 
great ''run" in one part of the world, to bring it out 
under the same name, in another part. Thus, another of 
La Salle's companions, Tonty, wrote three volumes, which 
were published under his name, being his genuine works; 
and afterwards, as Parkman tells us, a fourth one was 
put forth under the same name (of Tonty), which had 
never come from Tonty's pen. 

Hennepin's book had made much noise in France. 
Utrecht was a great literary center. It is very easy to 
suppose, then, basing our verdict upon the facts which I 
have put before you, that the second volume, the one 



HENNEPIN BI-CENTENARY. 



71 



published at Utrecht, was made up, and published, not 
by Hennepin, but by some stranger, some man who had 
adoi)ted the principal part of the Paris edition, adding 
on certain notations, which he got from Le Clerq's "Es- 
tablishment of Christianity," in the new world, to bring 
it up, so to speak, to date. 

About that time, much was said in Europe about the 
discovery along the Gulf of Mexico, and it is quite natural 
to suppose, that these ten pages were interpolated after 
this book had been published, to give to the curious 
public all that would be desired by them. 

The very matter of these ten pages, shows that they 
were interpolated. The pages tell us that Hennepin was 
at the mouth of the Arkansas, on the 24th of April, and 
yet, in the following pages, he is said to have been 
captured near the Wisconsin, on the 24th day of April, 
the date a<;cording to the Paris edition. Besides, in 
these ten pages it is stated that Easter Sunday occurred 
on the 23d ,of March. Now, Hennepin could never have 
made such an error. In 1680, Easter Sunday occurred 
on the first of April, and it is so stated in Hennepin's 
first volume. These are very significant facts, which 
cannot be overlooked, and when we take them all into 
consideration, together with the general appearance of 
this second volume, when we remember him as the scholar 
and close observer, which the Paris volume shows him to 
have been, when we remember the habits of literary 
piracy that were then common in Europe, have we not 
solid foundations for saying, that it cannot be proven that 
Father Louis Hennepin wrote and published, himself, the 
second volume? This Utrecht volume is the one upon 



72 



MINNESOTA HISTORICAL COLLECTIONS. 



which all the accusations against him have been based, 
and once take away from it Hennepin's name, there is no 
ground whatever to impeach. 

It affords me much i:)leasure, on this day, to be able to 
say a few words in defence of the old hero — to be able 
to advance a few arguments by which to attempt to wipe 
from his venerable brow the stain which historians have 
placed upon it. [Great applause]. 

One thing is certain. Hennepin loved the northwest. 
In the first volume, he describes it as a most fertile and 
beautiful country. "I wash," he says, '-that the day 
would come, when large and enterprising colonies from 
the over-populated countries of" Europe, would come and 
possess the rich land." "We can, without much effort, 
fancy the spirit of Hennepin hovering over this multi- 
tude to-day and rejoicing that the desire of his heart 
has more than been fulfilled. [Great applause.] For, 
however great or extravagant might have been his 
dreams, two hundred years ago, never could he have 
fancied that on this, third day of July, 1880, such a 
spectacle would be witnessed, as the pne which this 
assembled multitude now offers. [Applause.] Hennepin, 
two hundred years ago, offered prayers for the rapid 
development of the country. While congratulating our- 
selves on the past history of Minnesota, let it be the 
prayer and desire of our hearts, that this development 
may be i)roportionately greater in the future, than what- 
ever it has been in the past, and when, in 1980, our 
own spirits, with that of old Hennepin, will hover over 
this campus, amid the throngs commemorating the three 
hundredth anniversary, we will rejoice, as we do to-day. 



HENNEPIN BI-CENTENAKY. 



73 



that the Creator has given to the children of men, a 
land as beautiful, and as richly teeming with treasures, 
as our beloved Minnesota. 

The conclusion of Bishop Ireland's address was marked 
by enthusiastic applause. The exercises were then ter- 
minated with a brief address by Gen. Thos. L. Rosser, 
marshal of the day. 

FROM LABOR TO REFRESHMENTS. 

The exercises of the day being completed, while the 
military companies, societies and bands were entertained 
at their headquarters and visitors generally were supplied 
with refreshments at the tables spread in the groves, 
the Historical Society and its guests with their ladies 
and many friends, were the guests of Gov. Pillsbury 
in a grand marquee covering tables at which two or 
three hundred persons were seated and were fed boun- 
teously. After refreshments, Gen. Sherman and Gov. 
Pillsbury were at home to everybody for a long time 
during which both gentlemen had a steady succession 
of friendly greetings and hand- shakes. 

Slowly, as if loth to leave the place of pleasure, the 
organized companies and societies gathered and marched 
away and the visitors and their hosts of the day one 
by one dropped away. But so great was the number 
present and so leisurely their departure that it was 
near nightfall before the campus began to assume a 
deserted appearance. 

All the incidents and pleasures of the day could not 
be well described in one issue of a journal, attempting 
also to give the general news of the day. There were 



,/ 



74 



MINNESOTA HISTORICAL COLLECTIONS. 



exhibition drills by the militia companies, interesting 
reunions, and pleasant social and personal events worthy 
of mention, which have to be omitted. In fact, while the 
great crowd was at and around the grand stand, there 
was enough going on in other parts of the field to 
have left a score of reporters busy. 

It was a great day for the Historical Society, for 
Minneapolis, and for the Recollect Missionary of two hun- 
dred years ago. 



EARLY DAYS AT RED RIVER SETTLEMENT, 

AND FORT SNELLING. 



REMINISCENCES OF MRS. ANN ADAMS. 



1821-1829. 



PRELIMINARY NOTE. 
During the winter of 1350-87. I learned that Mrs. Adams, whose very interesting 
;irjd valuable reminiscences of a long and eventful life, (a portion of it passed at 
Tort Snelling) is given below, was visiting one of her grand-children in West St. 
I'aul. and I took advantage of this fact to call upon her. and secure lior statement 
uf events and occurrences in early days at Red River and Fort bnelling. The iL- 
t»Tview3 consumed most of two days, and I wrote down, under her dictation, quite 
u lengthy narrative of her reminiscences of life on our frontier. I found Mrs. 
Adams to be a lady of much intelligence, with a tenacious memory of the events 
of seventy years ago, and narrating them with vivid interest, and in the most des- 
criptive and graphic language. Her story is a very entertaining one, and gives 
Valuable data for our early history. In person, Mrs. Adams is a handsome woman, 
notwithstanding her age, and possessed of a vigorous and elastic physique, which 
has sustained her during all the hardships of her adventurous career on the fron- 
tier, as narrated in the following pages. 

J. FLETCHER WILLIAMS. 

I cheerfully consent to your request, to give you an 
account of the hardships and adventures of the party of 
Swiss emigrants, who, in 1821, went from their native 
land to Selkirk's Settlement, and many of whom eventually 
settled in Minnesota: of which party, by the will of Divine 
Providence, it was my fortune to have been a member. 

I was born in Switzerland, in the Canton of Berne, 
December 18, 1810. and am now in my 77th year. Uy 



76 MINNESOTA HISTOHICAL COLLECTIONS. 

parents and my grand parents were Huguenots. My full 
name is Barbara Ann Shadecker (since Adams). My 
father's name was Samuel Shadecker.* He spoke the Ger- 
man and French tongues, and had been educated for a 
physician. He married Ann Kertz, also a native of Berne. 
To this cou^Dle were born five children, two girls and 
three boys. My brothers' names were John, Samuel and 
Christopher. My sister's name was Marianne. She was 
older than I. 

LORD SELKIRK'S EMIGRATION SCHEME. 

My father and mother were, both Protestants in faith, 
and were devoted members of the Reformed Lutlieran 
Church, in which belief they also raised their family. 
We always lived happily and contentedly in Berne until 
the year 1820, and supposed that the peaceful valleys of 
Switzerland were to be our home always. But this was 
not to be. In 1820, a person named Capt. Rudolph Mae, 
or Mai, came into that locality, and soon made himself 
known to the simple Swiss, by a flattering scheme which 
he proposed. Capt. Mae was a native of Berne, and 
had been some years in the military service of England, 
where he became acquainted with the Earl of Selkirk. 
Selkirk had been for some years engaged in a scheme 
of emigration, the object of which was to induce persons 
in Scotland and elsewhere, to remove to Rupert's Land 
in the center of North America, and form an agricul- 
tural colony there. This colony had been planted since 



*Mrs. Adauis spelled it thus. But In the records of the colony at Red River, 
the name is spelled Schcide^gcr, aud Scheidecker. 



V 



MRS. ADAMS' REMINISCENCES. 77 

1812, but the Scotch settlers from the Highlands and 
Orkneys whom he had induced to go there, were dis- 
satisfied and many had left. He now conceived the idea 
of securing Swiss immigrants. Capt. Mae was entrusted 
with the work, and was w^ell fitted for it, being a native 
of Berne himself, and speaking the language of its peo- 
ple. The Earl of Selkirk prepared and caused to be 
])ublished in the French and German languages, a 
pamphlet giving a full, but over-colored description of 
the new^ country, its climate, soil and productions, and 
offered to all heads of families, or those who were un- 
married and over twenty-one years of age, land free of 
cost, with seed, cattle and farming implements, all on a 
credit of three years. The route from Europe to the 
new colony, was to be via Hudson Bay, Nelson River, 
and Lake Winnipeg. The pamphlet alluded to, was 
freely distributed by Capt. Mae, and others of Lord Sel- 
kirk's agents, in the French-speaking cantons of Neu- 
chatel, Vaud and Geneva, and in the German-speaking 
canton of Berne. 

THE SWISS COLONISTS. 

The false, but tempting accounts of the country, and 
(he inducements held out to colonists, soon did their 
work, and shortly over 150 persons agreed to enroll in 
the party being made up. About three-fourths of these 
were French-speaking persons. All were Protestants, 
and generally intelligent and well-to do persons, some 
them possessed of considerable means. Among them 
were several persons quite prominent in their commu- 
nities, and who afterwards, in America, became citizens 
-4 



78 MINNESOTA HISTORICAL COLLECTIONS. 

of repute and wealth. At the same time, it should be 
remembered, that but few of these adventurers were 
fitted for such a life as they were about to embark in. 
But a small number of them were agriculturists, and in 
general they were watchmakers, or skilled in some 
other branch of artizanship, totally unsuited to the 
wilderness into which they were going. My parents 
were among those captivated and seduced by this 
agent's glowing accounts and his promises, and after 
daily consulting together about the project, they con- 
cluded to go with the party which was soon to leave 
their native mountains for the distant and unknown spot 
in the new world, that seemed bright with promise for 
the poor Switzers. I was then but eleven years old, 
and little realized the importance of the fateful step 
which my parents were about being enticed into. At 
this very time (the summer of 1820) the Earl of Sel- 
kirk, the originator and promoter of this scheme, was 
already dead, but we did not know it for more than a 
year subsequently. 

Considerable preparations were made by the colon- 
ists for the life in their new home. All of tliem in- 
vested what they could in goods and merchandise, to 
trade with in the new world. My father's intention 
was to establish himself as a weaver in Red River. A 
tan yard was another industry which some of the party 
made- preparations for.* 



*Abram Ferret (or Perry), one of the earliest settlers of St. Paul, wltli 
his -wife and four children, ^vere aiuoui? this party of Swiss iniiuijjrants.— J. F. W. 



MRS. ADAMS' REMINISCENCES. 



79 



THE PARTY SETS OUT. 

On May 3, 1821, the party of adventurers, not one of 
whom were ever to see their dear native mountair.s 
again, left Berne and other places near by, and assem- 
bled, to the number of 1G5 persons, at a small village on 
the Rhine near Basle. Why they did not assemble at 
Basle, which is a city of some commercial importance, 
seems a little strange. It was afterwards conjectured 
that the managers feared to take them to a large city, 
lest some unfavorable facts regarding the wild country 
to which they were being taken, should bo communi- 
cated to them by persons who might have suspected 
that they were victims of deception, and would point 
out to them the fallacy of the promises and hopes 
which had engaged them in the enterprise. However 
this may have been, two large flat boats or barges 
were provided for their use at the point of embarka- 
tion above named, and in these they floated down the 
Rhine, delighted with its picturesque scenery, and the 
many historic spots and points along its banks. Still 
their hearts were burdened with the responsibilities of 
the imx^ortant step they w^ere about engaging in, and 
perhaps oppressed with grief at leaving their beautiful 
homes among the vine-clad hills and lovely valleys of 
dear Switzerland, one of the most beautiful countries of 
Europe. And the Switzers are a people who are pro- 
verbially attached to their homes. Yet. with their 
cheerful disposition and their strong religious faith, they 
bravely and hopefully looked forward to their future 
lite in the new world as a realization of the dreams 



V 



80 MINNESOTA HISTORICAL COLLECTIONS. 

which all must have indulged in, of fortune and hap- 
piness greater than could ever come to them in the 
humble chalets of Helvetia. 

THE OCEAN VOYAGE. 

The voyage down the Rhine occupied ten days, when 
the colonists reached a small village, Dort, or Dord- 
recht, near Rotterdam, where the party embarked on 
the vessel Lord Wellington, and on May 30, 1821, cleared 
for Fort York, Hudson's Bay. After setting sail, their 
course lay east and north of Great Britain and just south 
of Greenland, to Hudson Strait. Soon after leaving 
Holland, the unpleasant discovery was made that the 
provisions issued to them were of quality greatly infe 
rior to that stipulated before their departure. Complaint 
was duly made to the commander of the vessel about 
it — a stern, but kind hearted old seatoan. The latter 
acknowledged that the complaint was just, but said that 
he was not responsible for it, which was doubtless true. 
The water was also bad, and issued in insufficient quan- 
tities. Arriving at Hudson Strait, latitude 62' north, 
the Lord Wellington overtook two English ships bound 
for Fort York, or York Factory, situated at the mouth 
of the Nelson river, laden with Indian goods and sup- 
plies for the garrisons at Forts York and Douglas, and 
for employes of the Hudson's Bay Company. Tlie strait 
was filled with floes and bergs of ice, and the ships 
were thereby detained over three weeks. One day, in 
August, as the Lord Wellington lay moored alongside an 
ice field, a number of the passengers got out and danced 
on it. One of the supply ships was seriously damaged 



MRS. ADAMS' REMINISCEN'CES. 



81 



and nearlj' lost, by coUisiou with an iceberg. Finally 
with much difficulty and no little peril, Hudson's Bay 
was entered, and after a long and tedious voyage of 
nearly four months, the wearied colonists were landed 
at Fort York, about Sept. 1st. Seven children had been 
born on the voyage out. As soon as " Mackinaw boats 
coukl be procured, which took about a week, the party 
began the slow and toilsome ascent of the Nelson river. 

FURTHER HARDSHIPS OF THE COLONISTS. 

They had to propel their heavily laden boats, of which 
there was quite a fleet, by rowing, or poling, frequent- 
ly against a very strong current, and, of course, pro- 
ceeded slowly. Twenty days alone were occupied in the 
passage to Lake Winnipeg. Here they encountered fur- 
ther difficulties. The season was now quite advanced. 
The autumnal gales had set in, and their progress, 
skirting along the west shore of the lake, was slow 
and laborious. Head winds and high waves delayed 
them. They were frequently drenched with water, and 
chilled with cold. At night, hungry, fatigued, and be- 
numbed with cold, we would land on ' some sheltered 
spot, prepare a camp, build fires, and make ourselves 
as comfortable as possible. In addition to our other 
troubles, our store of provisions ran short, and we were 
compelled to resort to fishing to keep from starving, but 
soon the supply of these was scanty. While we were 
traversing Lake Winnipeg, my brother Samuel, a boy, 
died suddenly. We stopped on an island and buried him 
hastily, not having anything to make a coffin of, even. 

At the end of the third week, our party arrived, half 



82 



MINNESOTA HISTORICAL COLLECTIONS. 



famished, at the mouth of Red Kiver. Here more sad 
news awaited us. All the crops of the colonists in the 
settlement, had been completely de^itroyod by grasshop- 
pers, and the supply of breadstuffs which the colony 
had depended on for subsistence, thus destroyed. With 
heavy hearts, our party proceeded on up the Red River 
about thirty-five miles, to Fort Douglas, situated on the 
west bank of the river, below Fort Garry. This was 
then the principal trading post and headquarters of the 
Hudson's Bay Company. Governor Alexander McDowell, 
and other prominent officers of the company, were there 
at the time. The}'' received us with kind and encour- 
aging words, and what was of more importance to us 
just then, gave us a good supply of palatable food, and 
otherwise provided for our wants. 



THE NEW COMERS HEAR BAD NEWS. 

"VVe here had an opportunity of conversing with some 
of the colonists and residents who had been here for some 
years, many, indeed, since 1813, when Selkirk's first col- 
ony had settled here. They did not give a very fiattering 
account of life in the colony. They had all suffered great 
hardships. The climate was excessively severe, the win- 
ters long, and tho' the soil was rich, the shortness of the 
summers made it difficult to raise crops. Then there had 
been for several years past a cruel warfare between the 
two rival fur trading companies, the "Hudson Bay" and 
the "Northwest, " and considerable blood-shed. This, how- 
ever, they said, was now changed, by the consolidation of 
the two companies. 



MRS. ADAMS' REMINISCENCES. 



83 



At this place, we heard another item of discouraging 
news, which, for some reason, had been concealed from 
us before. This was the death of Lord Selkirk, which 
liad taken place, in fact, in April of the year preceding, 
in Euroi)e. Still, as there was then only one mail per 
year to that distant point, brought by the annual expedi- 
tion via Hudson Bay, with supplies for the posts, it may 
be that the officers of the company had not heard the 
news of Selkirk's death, until the arrival of their mails by 
the company's ships, which arrived simultaneously with us 
at Port York. But it tended to further discourage the 
colonists, and to fill them with gloomy forebodings. 

A SHARP COMPETITION FOR WIVES. 

We had hardly landed at Fort Douglas, when a new 
sensation awaited us, which, in some of its features, was 
quite amusing, and a decided surprise to the colonists. It 
seems that there was quite a large class of men in the 
colony who went by the name of the "De Meurons." 
They had been recruited in Canada by Lord Selkirk, sev- 
eral years before, to act as soldiers in the hostilities men- 
tioned a moment ago, and were (if I remember correctly) 
called De Meurons because their commander had borne 
that name. After the hostilities were over, and the men 
discharged, Lord Selkirk induced many of them to settle 
on lands which he donated to them, around Fort Douglas. 
They all became well-to-do farmers, but were without 
wives, a very necessary help-meet to farmers, and were 
all anxious to obtain them, but that was out of the ques- 
tion in the colony. When they heard that a colony of 
Swiss settlers were coming, with a number of females, 



84 



MINNESOTA HISTORICAL COLLECTIONS. 



they resolved to repair to the Port on its arrival and en- 
deavor to secure partners. ^Ye had not been at this place 
more than 24 hours, before the Dc Meurons, notified of 
our arrival, began to flock in, each eager to get a wife. 
And some were very eager. They went at it without any 
hesitation or backwardness. On finding a maiden that 
suited their fancy, they would open negotiations at once, 
either with her or her parents, and would not take any 
refusal. I saw an amusing incident during this matrimo- 
nial fair. An eager De Meuron seized a woman by the 
hand, saying, "I want to marry you," but was much dis- 
appointed when she told him, ''I have a husband." The 
result of this aggressive oiiset "was, that not a few of the 
De Meurons did get waves among the families of the set- 
tlers, and generally both parties were suited. My sister 
was one w^ho thus consented to share the lot of a Red 
River farmer. The weddings were celebrated with as 
much gaiety as- w^as possible, considering the circum- 
stances of both the colonists and the settlers. 

The elders of our company (for w^e children did not 
understand much of these troubles), soon began to realize 
into what a predicament they had come, and there were 
heavy hearts and sad countenances. Governor McDowell 
plainly told the newly arrived emigrants that there were 
not provisions enough in the Colony to carry them all 
through the winter, and the problem seemed for a time 
to be a very serious one. After some consultation, it was 
deemed best to divide the party. He directed that about 
seventy-five of the youngest and strongest should proceed 
about sixty miles farther up the river, to a place called 
Pembina, on the United vStates side of the boundary line 



MRS. ADAMS' KEMIXISCKXCES. 



85 



(though then supposed to be north of tliat line), where it 
was believed that game, such as butlalo, elk, deer, fish, 
etc.. were more abundant, and where a good supply of 
"pemmlcan'' could be obtained from the Indians and half- 
breeds in that locality. 

THE COLONISTS PASS A HARD WINTER. 

This was consequently carried into effect. My father's 
family was one of those selected to go to Pembina, and 
we proceeded thither, arriving just at the beginning of 
winter. Here father secured a habitation, such as it 
was, but it at least gave us a shelter. But we were ab- 
solutely destitute of food, and winter was just commecc- 
ing with all the severity known in that climate. For- 
tunately, my father had money, and he at once hired two 
Indians to hunt buffaloes. We soon had an abundance 
of meat, and lived on that kind of food as long as we 
remained there. Sometimes his Indians had to bring it 
a long distance, but fortunately our supply did not fail 
us, most of tile time, although at one period, when there 
had been very deep snows, we were three days without 
food. Another privation was, that we had no salt, and 
were compelled to eat our buffalo meat without it. 

There was a post of the Hudson's Bay Company near 
there, and when our food gave out, my father applied 
there to purchase some. The agent was absent, and his 
wife absolutely refused to sell him any. But during the 
argument, she espied a handsome gold watch which my 
mother carried, and demanded that in return for the food 
needed. Although its intrinsic value was considerable, 
it was prized more on account of its associations, and my 



8G 



MINNESOTA HISTORICAL COLLECTIONS. 



parents were reluctant to give it up. But they at length 
yielded to necessity, and gave the watch for the food, it 
being many fold greater in value than what we received 
for it. 

After some time of enduring these hardships, my father 
heard of a place down the river some ways, where we 
would doubtless fare better, and had us taken there in 
dog sleds. We were two days in going there, and had 
to camp out at night, in the snow, with nothing to eat 
but buffalo broth. The place to which we went, was a 
trading post. There was a house there, where the owner 
rented us one room, in which we lived the balance of 
the w^inter. We had nothing to sleep on but buffalo 
robes, but we had abundance of food, and thus got along 
very well. The cold now began to be intense. It was 
said to be the severest winter known for years. At 
night the trees would crack, with the fierce cold, like the 
reports of guns. But w^e passed the rest of the winter 
without any serious discomfort. 

THE SEASON OF 1822. 

In the spring of the next year (1822), the two sec- 
tions of the colony were again united, and land having 
been apportioned to them, under the original agreement 
made by Selkirk's agents, they all commenced to make 
settlements, near Fort Garry, and erect houses. Tlie lo- 
cation chosen by my father was about three miles above 
Fort Garry, on the Red River, w^here he had a log 
house built for him. He w^as engaged in partnership in 
his farm enterprise with a Mr. Fletcher, an English- 
man. I may here remark that not one of us could, at 



MRS. ADAMS' REMINISCENCES. 87 

that time, speak a word of English, and we experi- 
enced considerable difficulty on that account. The agri- 
culture carried on by the Swiss settlers that season was 
of a very limited and rude sort. Not one of them had 
any plow cattle, and what little they raised w^as done 
by digging the ground merely. But we lived more com- 
fortably than before, and now had hopes that our rash 
move in coming to that region would not prove so dis- 
astrous to our fortunes and happiness as we had, at 
first arrival, sup^DOsed. We all entered somewhat into 
the life of the settlement. I soon learned to paddle a 
canoe, to fish, and to swim. On June 10, 1822, my sis- 
ter, Marianna, was married (as I before mentioned) to a 
Mr. Mathias Schmidt, by the Rev. John West, an Eng- 
lish Episcopal clergyman, well known in the settlement. 

THE DISCONTENT OF THE SWISS SETTLERS. 

The poor Swiss colonists, who had been beguiled into 
making their homes in^ that region, were not long in get- 
ting their eyes opened to the fact that their credulity had 
made them the dupes of the agents of Lord Selkirk. 
Though some of them were poor in their former hemes, 
they had at least comfortable dwellings, and occupations 
which would give them bread. Here they had nothing to 
look forward to but destitution, trouble and toil. My 
father kept up a brave heart through it all, although his 
scanty means were being gradually consumed. His strong 
religious faith was one thing which sustained him. Every 
night he would gather his family together, and after 
reading the Sacred Scriptures, pray with great fervor to 
our heavenly Father for help and guidance. He never 



V 

88 MINNESOTA HISTORICAL COLLECTIONS. 

lost faith in a kind and over-ruling Providence, in the 
darkest hours we experienced, while living in the Red 
River settlements. 

The winter passed by the Swiss colonists at Pembina, 
had been one of great hardship. It was a winter of 
unusual severity, and the snow much deeper than had 
been known for years. This latter fact sometimes almost 
cut off their supplies of meat. They were compelled to 
fish through holes in the ice, and even Indian dogs were 
bought and eaten I Several settlers were maimed for life 
by the freezing of their hands and feet. 

Several families, disheartened at their privations, and 
finding that the supplies of cattle, etc., promised them, 
were not forthcoming, resolved to leave the Red River 
region at all hazards. Five families got away in the fall 
of 1821, and reached Port Snelling in safety, where they 
were permitted to settle on the military reservation. A 
general discontent prevailed among all the Swiss. There 
were only a very few who, by some fortunate chance, had 
got a good location, and felt encouraged enough to remain 
and "stick it out." Even most of these left after a few 
years, and went to Minnesota. Among them was Abram 
Perret and family, Joseph Rondo, Benj. and Pierre Gcr- 
vais, Louis Massie, and others, who left after the great 
flood of 1826, and subsequently settled at St. Paul. My 
father's means, which he had brought with him, were 
gradually becoming exhausted, and destitution would soon 
have stared us in the face. The summer of 1822 was 
another year of crop failure, owing to the grasshopper 
scourge, and it seemed that the cup of our afflictions was 
full. My father, during this winter, resolved to leave at 



MRS. ADAMS' REMINISCENCES. 



89 



all hazards, for Fort Snelling the next spring, and others 
had also made the same resolve. 

THEY RESOLVE TO ABANDON RED RIVER. 

Consequently, in the spring, of 1823, as soon as the grass 
was grown sufficiently, father and his family, with twelve 
other Swiss families, started for Fort Snelling. There 
were twelve men and a boy in the party, who were gen- 
erally well armed; all the rest were women and children, 
one or two of the latter being infants in arms. We had 
hired several "Red River Carts," drawn by oxen, which 
carried our provisions etc., and of course every body had 
to walk, except, perhaps, some of the younger childrea, 
who rode occasionally, and one or two men, who had horses. 

Two or three of the w^omen carried babes in their arms, 
walking thus twenty miles per day. We followed the trail 
on the west side of the Red River, over the prairie. Two 
mounted guides accompanied us (the drivers of the carts), 
who could speak the Sioux language, in case we met any 
Indians, and act' as hunters, to supply us wath food. They 
killed several bulfalo on the way. Our habit was -to camp 
out at night, and we always had a guard carefully patrol 
our camp during these bivouacs. Very often the women 
would thus stand guard, in order to allow the men to rest. 
Several times we met parties of Indians, whose good will 
we had to conciliate by giving them presents of food, 
ammunition, or trinkets, a small supply of which we had 
brought for that purpose. They did not seem to desire 
to injure us in any way, but when we reached Fort Snell- 
ing, a few weeks subsequently, we learned that, on the 
very road we had traversed, they had just killed part of 



90 



MINNESOTA HISTORICAL COLLECTIONS. 



a family who, like ourselves, had been on their way from 
Pembina to Fort Snelling. 

THE TULLY FAMILY. 

This w^as a family named TuUy. Mr. Tully was a 
Scotchman, and a blacksmith by occupation, who, like man}" 
others, had been living at the Red River settlement, and 
had got starved out. He had started a few w^eeks before 
our party, to go to Port Snelling, and very unwisely went 
alone. He was met near what is now Grand Forks, by 
some Sioux, who demanded of him to give up his provi- 
sions. Of course, to do this, would be to leave his family 
to perish, so he refused. The Indians then killed him, and 
his wife, and also a little baby. John and Andrew Tully, 
two boys, attempted to escape, but were pursued and 
caught, when one of the Indians partially scalped John, 
but the rest interfered and they took both prisoners. Col. 
Snelling, hearing of it, sent persons to rescue them, and 
the boys were taken to Fort Snelling, where they were 
wdien we arrived. They were cared for by Col. Snelling 
in his family. John Tully soon after died, but the other. 
(Andrew) grew up as an inmate of Col. Snelling's family, 
and is now living in an eastern city. 

TROUBLE FROM THE INDIANS. 

We had several bad frights from Indians, however. One 
evening we w^ere camped on the Bois de Sioux River, 
shortly below its exit from Lake Traverse, when I 
stepped down to the edge with a pail to get some water. 
I heard noise on the opposite bank, and limbs crackle; a 
dog also barked. I was certain it was Indians, and slip- 



MRS. ADAMS' REMINISCENCES. 



91 



ping back quietly to the camp, I told the men ^vhat I 
had heard. They carefully scouted in the direction 
named, but saw nothing. But they suspected some am- 
buscade, and resolved on a plan to baffle the red skins. 
They built a large fire, and stuffing some men's clothes 
with grass, to resemble human forms, laid them by the 
fire, so that if the savages really were lying in wait to 
attack us, they would fire into these supposed bodies, and 
thus get baffled. They did not, however, attack us, and 
it is probable were only endeavoring to steal some of our 
horses. 

Near Fort Traverse, a trading post on the Lake of that 
name, some Indians overtook us on a prairie. They were 
on horseback. We had just crossed the river by ford- 
ing. They were angry with us for killing buffalo. The 
Indians rode along with us a little distance, and just 
then some one noticed that one of them had disappeared. 
We feared some treachery, and kept a close lookout. 
We saw that we were approaching an Indian village, 
still some distance off. Apparently some signal had been 
given, for a . number of mounted Indians came riding 
towards us, firing guns, not at us, but in the air. They 
got to us, and at once mounted the carts, and threw 
everything out. A young Indian caught hold of me, 
and being alarmed, I started and ran. He pursued me 
some distance, I do not know why, when a chief, as I 
presumed him to be, rode up, and probably ordered him 
to desist, as he stopped. This same chief harangued 
the warriors, and doubtless commanded them to desist, 
as they ceased any further demonstrations against us. 
The same Indians followed us to Fort Traverse. We 



92 MINNESOTA HISTORICAL COLLECTIONS. 

were compelled to give them a considerable ransom. 
Father gave them one horse. They did not molest us 
anj^ farther, and even sent two Indians with us for some 
distance, to notify other bands we might meet, not to 
harm us. While we were with them they showed us an 
old battle field where some of their tribe had been 
killed. One of our carts ran over a bare place on this 
spot, which seemed to enrage them. It had some sig- 
nificance which we could not understand. AVe camped 
near this spot, and the Indians howled all night. 

THEY DESCEND THE ST. PETER'S RIVER. 

It now began to be late in the fall. The families who 
were with us, the Moniers, the Chetlains. Schirmers, 
Langets, and others, being anxious to reach Fort Snel- 
ling before navigation should close, so that they could 
go on down the river, hurried on ahead, leaving father 
and his family to finish the rest of the voyage alone. 
Our destination was Fort Snelling. We at once made 
for a trading house on the Minnesota River, where father 
and my oldest brother built, after some delay and hard 
labor, for they could not get the proper tools, a big 
dug-out, of a Cottonwood log. Into this we embarked 
all that we had left, provisions, clothing, etc. The carts, 
and their drivers, who had brought us so far, now left 
us, and returned to the Red River settlement, and we 
pushed off, in our rude pirogue, down the Minnesota 
River, then called "the St. Peter's." The river was 
quite low, and we experienced considerable trouble in 
getting over, or around, sand bars, or shoals. Such was 
the slowness of our progress that it was quite late in 



MRS. ADAMS' REMINISCENCES. 



93 



the season when we reached Fort Snelling. In fact, ice 
was already floating in the river before we concluded our 
trip. 

The other party of refugees, had, after a brief stay 
at Fort Snelling. been provided by Col. Snelling with 
provisions and boats, in which they started oft" as soon 
as possible, down the Mississippi. (Steamboats had 
reached Fort Snelling for the first time that yea>-, but 
their trips were few and far between.) The colonists 
mostly went to St. Louis and made their homes there, 
though some went as far as Vevay, Ind. In a couple 
of years, most of those at St. Louis went to the newly 
opened lead regions at and near Galena, and became 
prosperous citizens. My father and mother joined the 
party at that place subsequently. Descendants of this 
party are scattered all over the west, many of them 
having attained distinction. General A. L. Chetlain, of 
Galena, who was associated with Gen. Grant in the war, 
was the son of Louis Chetlain, one of this party of 
refugees. 

THE ARRIVAL AT FORT SNELLING. 

We landed at the Fort with a feeling of joy and grat- 
itude. Our journey through the great wilderness which 
stretched between Fort Garry and Fort Snelling, was 
one of fatigue, danger and privation; it had consumed 
nearly five months. "We now felt that we had gotten 
into a land where we could live with comfort, and in 
the hope of a happy future, a condition we could not look 
forward to in the Selkirk settlement. The trials, hard- 
ships and anxieties through which we had passed the past 
two or three years had told visibly on my dear parents. 
-5 



94 



MINNESOTA HISTORICAL COLLECTIONS. 



Both of them had aged rapidly, and it had sowed in the 
constitutions of both the seeds of premature decay, which 
shortened their lives . 

FORT SNELLING IN 1823. 

Col. Snelling, to whom my father applied for permis- 
sion to remain on the Military Reservation, very kindly 
acceded to our request, and expressed much sympathy 
for us, ordering that provisions should be issued to us, 
although there was a scarcity in the garrison at that 
time, for some cause, (a miscalculation on the part of 
the commander as to what amount was necessary, I be- 
lieve, ) and the troops were actually on half rations. A 
part of the old barracks at " Coldwater," as it was 
called, was assigned for our occupancy, and w^e installed 
ourselves there, and made ourselves as comfortable as 
possible, under the circumstances. Father got some em- 
ployment on ,the reservation, and Mrs. Snelling, a kind 
and benevolent lady, gave me a home in her family, 
where I aided her in the care of her little children, a 
task for which I was well fitted, as I was now 13 years 
of age, and very strong and active. Thus, again, for- 
tune smiled on us, and we began to take fresh hope, 
after all our trials and losses. I had a comfortable and 
pleasant home in Mrs. Snelling's family. Both she and 
the Colonel treated me with the greatest kindness, and 
the children soon became greatly attached to me, so 
that my position in the Snelling family was a really en- 
viable one. I think of those days as among the happiest 
of my life, and feel thankful for my good fortune. 



MRS. ADAMS' KExMINISCENCES. 



95 



Fort Srielling was not, at that time, completely finished, 
but was occupied. Col. Snelling had sowed some wheat 
that season, and had it ground at a mill wliich the gov- 
ernment had built at the falls, but the wheat had be- 
come mouldy, or sprouted, and made wretched, black, 
bitter tasting bread. This was issued to the troops, who 
got mad because they could not eat it, and brought it 
to the parade ground and tlirew it down there. Col. 
Snelling came out and remonstrated with them. There 
was much inconvenience that winter (1823-24) about the 
scarcity of provisions. Some of the soldiers had the 
scurvy, and I believe some died. Whiskey rations were 
issued to the troops regularly, however, and sometimes 
it seemed that about all they had was whiskey. These 
troops were a part of the Fifth Infantry. Adjt. Green's 
little boy died at the fort while I was there, and was 
buried in the cemetery attached to the fort. Several 
soldiers were also buried there, during the period I 
lived in the fort, and a regular military funeral was 
given each of them, the band playing a dirge, and their 
company firing volleys over their graves. 

THE SNELLING FAMILY. 

The names of the Snelling children living then were 
Henry, James, Josiah and Marian. They had lost some 
others, prior to the time I had lived with them, but the 
above grew up to adult age. James became a captain in 
the U. S. Army and died in 1855; Josiah is. or was some 
time ago, a physician in Illinois; Marian married a Mr. 
Hazard and lives in Newport, Ky. ; Henry Hunt Snelling 
was quite an able writer and poet. 



96 MINNESOTA HISTORICAL COLLECTIONS 

Mrs. Snelling was a very fond and indulgent mother, 
and spared no pains or sacrifices to make her children 
happy. As there were no schools at the Fort, she taught 
them herself, as well as she could. I taught them the 
prayers which my parents had taught to me. Col. Snelling 
also had a son. by a first wife, w^ho lived with us a part 
of the time. He was then (1823) about twenty years old. 
His name was William Joseph, or Wm. Josiah Snelling ; 
they called him "Jo" usually. Mrs. Snelling did not 
seem to have any great fondness or respect for him. and 
perhaps with good reasons; but the Colonel was greatl}^ 
attached to him, and would do anything for him. Jo. led 
rather an ungoverned life for some years. He had been 
at one time appointed a Cadet at West Point, and a son 
of Maj. Hamilton, of Fort Snelling, was there at the same 
time. These lads committed some breach of discipline 
while at the military academy, and were sent home. Mrs. 
Hamilton was much distressed at this, and wept profusely. 
Jo. Snelling married, while quite young, a French girl 
from Prairie du Chien, very handsome, but uneducated. 
They lived in a sort of hovel for awhile, and, owing to 
cold and privation during the ensuing winter, the poor 
girl took sick and died. After this, he returned to Fort 
Snelling. and thence went to lake Traverse, where he 
was engaged in the Indian trade. He subsequently' went 
to Boston, married again there, and died a few years 
later. Jo. somewhat resembled the Colonel in person, 
but his hair was darker. The Colonel's hair was quite 
red. He was also slightly bald. From this peculiarity 
the soldiers nick-named him, among themselves, the 
"prairie-hen." Once Jo. told his father of this. The 
Colonel laughed at it as a good joke. 



MRS. ADAMS' rf:mixiscknces. 97 

GARRISON LIFE DESCRIBED. 

Intemperance, among both officers and men, at that 
time, was an almost universal thing, and produced de- 
plorable effects. I regret to say that the commandant 
was no exception to this rule. Usually kind and pleasant, 
when one of his convivial spells occurred, he would act 
furious, sometimes getting up in the night and making 
a scene. He was severe in his treatment of the men 
who committed a like indiscretion. He would take them 
to his room, and compel them to strip, when he would 
flog them unmercifully. I have heard them beg him to 
spare them, *'for God's sake." Col. S. was quite improv- 
ident in his habits, and usually in debt. One time, old 
Mr. Spalding, who had been employed in the Commis- 
sary service for some years, and had saved several hun- 
dred dollars, mostly in silver, brought it to Col. Snelling, 
and asked him to take care of it for him. Col. S. said 
he would. After Col. Snelling's death, Mr. Spalding used 
to declare that it had never been returned to him. 

SOCIETY AT THE FORT. 

During my sojourn at Fort Snelling, of six years, I had 
opportunity to become acquainted with nearly all the 
officers of the Fifth Infantry stationed there during 
that period (1823-29). Among those whose names I 
can now remember, were Col. Josiah Snelling, Surgeon 
J. P. C. McMahon, Maj. Joseph C. Plympton, Maj. 
Thomas Hamilton, Maj. Nathan Clark, Captains Watkins, 
Wm. E. Cruger, St. Clair Denny, De Lafayette Wilcox, 
and Lieutenants Robert A. McCabe, David Hunker, J. B. 
F. Russell, Joseph M. Bayley, Melancthon Smith, Wm. E. 



98 MINNESOTA HISTORICAL COLLECTIONS. 

Cruger, Piatt R. Green, Louis T Jamison, etc. I believe 
that not a single one of the above are living no^r. Many 
of these officers were men of the highest ability, most of 
them having been graduates of West Point. Several of 
them, unfortunately, contracted social habits in the army 
which ultimately clouded the honor which they would 
otherwise have won from their meritorious military 
careers, and more than one of them closed his days even 
in disgrace and poverty. Army life was not favorable to 
saving money; no officer that I ever knew made any 
money while in the army. There was less blame to be 
attached to their error in the way of con\iviality, than 
there would have been to men in other occupations. Gar- 
rison life at Ft. Snelling and other frontier posts, those 
days, was a very monotonous round of existence. The 
routine duties of the day consumed but ver}' little 
time, ordinarily, and the rest of the time must have hung 
very heavy on their hands. In summer they could amuse 
themselves with hunting, as game was always abundant. 
But during the long and rigorous winters it was a great 
problem, *'how to kill time." Card playing and drinking 
thus came into an unfortunate prominence. This some 
times resulted in disputes and quarrels, which, in several 
cases, led to duels between officers. Two or three of 
these meetings occurred while I was there. I do not now 
remember the names of those who took part in them, 
but 1 can recall that they made considerable talk and 
excitement at the time. 

Nearly every officer I have named was married, and in 
almost every case to ladies of the best families, and who 
were endowed with beauty and many accomplishments. 



I 



MRS. ADAMS' REMINISCENCES. 



99 



Thus the society at the Fort at that period \vas of the 
most select and aristocratic. Many of these ladies would 
have shone in any circle. Their households in the garri- 
son were attractive places, and showed evidences of 
wealth and good taste. I remember that Mrs. Maj. 
Plympton brought the first piano to Fort Snelling. which 
was brought to Minnesota. I knew^ Mrs. Maj. Clarke 
well. She was the mother of Mrs. Van Cleve, and was 
an amiable and lovely woman. I remember the latter 
(Charlotte Clarke) when she was "a little tot," three or 
four years old, playing near the door of her father's 
quarters. She used to play with the Snelling children, 
who were in my care. When Gen. Scott visited the Fort 
in 1826 there was a great striving to do him honor. The 
resources of the larder were limited, at Fort Snelling, 
those days, but everything possible was done that in- 
genuity suggested. He was a guest of Col. Snelling, and 
the spread was a creditable one. All the officers and 
their wives were jjresent at his recej)tion in full dress. 
Many of the ladies w^ore blazing diamonds. But the dress- 
maker was an institution not at hand in those days. Op- 
portunities for frequent renewals of wardrobe were scanty. 
The arrivals of steamboats, which brought supplies from 
the states, were few and far between, even in the sum- 
mer time. Of course there were weeks in the winter time 
when there was not even a mail. The latter were brought 
by "dog-train" from Prairie du Chien, or in some such 
way, at rare intervals.. 

My parents had lived at Fort Snelling some two years 
when they concluded to remove to the Galena lead mines, 
where most of the other Swiss colonists had settled, and 



100 MINNESOTA HISTORICAL COLLECTIONS. 

were doing well. Father soon after died there, and mother 
returned to the Fort to live with ine. My brothers grew 
up, and lived in Wisconsin. John, the eldest, died at 
Fort Howard, Green Bay, where he was a trader. Chris. , 
the younger, died in the army during the rebellion. 

VARIOUS INCIDENTS OF FORT LIFE. 

The Indians used to bring buffalo meat to the Fort, 
and sell it to the soldiers, and others, who relished it 
greatly, as the meat issued to them for rations, was 
always salt. Once an ox got drowned in the river near 
the Fort, and the Indians got its body, and cutting it 
np, sold it to the soldiers as • buffalo meat. When the 
soldiers found out how they had been hoaxed, they 
were furiously mad. 

A Mr. Camp was once stopping at Col. Snelling's 
house, was taken sick and died there. He had either 
been an officer, or perhaps connected with the sutler's 
store. He was buried in the cemetery near the Fort, 
and the band played at his funeral. 

Two men of Capt. McCabe s company once quarreled, 
and one stabbed the other with a butcher's knife, so 
that he died. The murdered man was an Englishman. 
I understood that no punishment was ever meted to 
the one who killed him — why, I never learned. 

A man named Angell came to the Fort from Red 
River while I was there and had in his possession a 
considerable quantity of gold, which he buried, for 
safety. He was, not long after, taken sick, and died. 
He tried to tell those who were with him, where it 
was, but could not. So his gold slept in the ground 



MRS. ADAMS' UEMIXISCKXCES. 101 

for over fifty years, and was discovered not long ago 
by some laborers digging for foundations of the new 
buildings for the post. Burying money was common 
those days, as there were no banks, or even safes to 
keep it in securely. 

Once a soldier and his wife, both young people, were 
found to be making and circulating bogus money. He 
was drummed out of the service and both sent adrift 
from the fort in a canoe. I have often wondered at the 
fate of those persons. There was not a human habi- 
tation between Fort Snelling and Prairie du Chicn, and 
I have thought they may have perished from hunger 
and exposure. 

At various times members of the families of officers 
at the fort died there and were buried in the military' 
cemetery. Adjt. Green lost a child thus, and also Lt. 
Melancthon Smith. Mrs. Snelling buried at least one 
there, and the cemetery there in time contained quite a 
group of graves. Headstones were erected to most of 
them, but after the families would move away to other 
parts, the graves were generally neglected. 

I remember also seeing Count Beltrami, the Italian, 
who came to Fort Snelling in 1823. He had been up 
to Red River, and on his return stopped at the fort 
some time. He could not speak English, but could 
speak French. He was at Mrs. Snelling's a great deal, 
and Mrs. Snelling could converse with him in French: 
she had been studying it under the tuition of an old 
soldier belonging to the garrison. 

Major Taliaferro, the Indian agent, was another of the 
characters well known at the fort. Hardly a da}' passed 



102 



MINNESOTA HISTOIilCAL COLLECTIONS. 



without delegates of Indians of some tribe or other vis- 
iting him and having a grand palaver with him. Thus 
parties of them**were encamped almost constantly near 
the fort. Sometimes these were of hostile tribes, and 
fights very frequently tool^: place between them. 

A PERILOUS JOURNEY IN EARLY DAYS. 

In the summer of 1825, Col. and Mrs. Snelling with 
their children, and the Tully boys made a trip to Detroit 
to pay a visit to her relatives, the Hunts and Mcln- 
toshes, at that place.* I accompanied them on tliat 
journey, and it had some features which are worth 
relating. Our mode of conveyance to Prairie du Chien, 
was in Mackinaw boats, with soldiers for crew. We 
had to camp every night, which was not very pleasant 
at all times, as it rained frequently, and the mosquitos 
were excessively troublesome. Adjt. Green accompanied 
us. One day he lost his military hat, in the river, and 
could not recover it. I loaned him a sun bonnet which 
I had, and rather than go bare-headed to Prairie du 
Chien, the nearest place where he could buy another 
hat, he wore it during the w^hole river trip. But there 
was no one to make fun of him, for we saw not a soul, 
white men or women, that is, on the whole route. In 
gratitude for this favor, when we reached Mackinaw, he 
purchased me a handsome bonnet. 

When we reached Prairie du Chien, we put up at 
Fort Crawford, and tarried there a day or two, to rest. 



♦Mrs. EUet in her memoir of Mrs. Snelling, in "Pioneer Women of the 
West." p. 330, ^:ives ;i somewhat fimciful account of this trip, Mrs. Adams' 
account is far more minute, and undoubtedly more correct. W. 



MRS. ADAMS' REMINISCENCES. 



103 



The Snellings were guests of Col. and Mrs. Zachary 
Taylor, who were stationed there then. It was a daugh- 
ter of this couple which Jefferson Davis married, while 
a lieutenant in the army. I fell sick here, and wanted 
to return home, i. e., to the Port. There was really 
nothing the matter with me but home-sickness. I had 
never been separated from my parents before. Mrs. 
Snelling was alarmed, as she did not know what to do 
unless I accompanied her on the journey, to care for 
the children. She talked about it with Mrs. Taylor. 
That lady came to see me. She was a fat, motherly 
looking woman. She told Mrs. Snelling the best way 
was to divert me and I would soon forget m}' ailment. 
This was done, and the cure succeeded. 

We soon resumed our voyage, this time up the Wis- 
consin river, still in. our Mackinaw boats. But it was 
more tedious now, as it was up stream. The soldiers 
rowed and poled, and had very fatiguing work to get 
us along, and it was very slow, at times. Mrs. Snell- 
ing stood the fatigues of the trip well. We had the 
best cooks along, who prepared our meals in good style. 
We passed over the portage between the Wisconsin and 
Fox rivers, and then down the latter, to Green Bay, 
where we embarked on a schooner for Detroit, which 
we reached safely. 

We spent several weeks with the Hunts, at Detroit, 
and late in the fall started on our homeward trip, and 
retraced the same route we came. From Prairie du 
Chien, we ascended the river in keel boats. The one 
in which the Col, and his family were, had a very com 
fortable cabin. There was a crew of eight or ten men 



104 



MINNESOTA HISTOHICAL COLLECTIONS. 



We took in at Prairie du Cliien the Colonel's son, Jo, 
and also an Indian trader, going to the Sioux river. 
He ^vas attacked with the ague. Mrs. Snelling nursed 
and doctored him as Avell as she was able, but there was 
really nothing on board that could be given him — not 
even whiskey. 

Our jDrogress up stream w^as very slow% although the crew 
toiled hard. The weather began to get cold" and stormy,' 
and it seemed that winter was approaching fast. Our sup- 
ply of provisions began to look ominously small; we act- 
ually were reduced to corn. Above Lake Pepin the ice 
stopped us once, and during a gale of wind, the boat was 
driven fast among some trees. ' The Col. said, "it looks 
as if we would have to stay here for good." The men 
pulled hard. Even Mrs. Snelling and I helped at the ropes. 
Night came on cold and tempestuous. Finally, the men 
went ashore and built a fire, and prepared to pass the 
night as best they could. The women and children re- 
mained in the cabin. At night the boat sprung a leak, 
having been injured by the ice, and the water poured in, 
frightening us badly, as we expected the boat was about 
to sink. The wind was still roaring and the waves beat- 
ing against us noisily. It was at this place, or very near 
here where it had been reported that the Indians, a few 
days before had killed two wiiite men, and chopped them 
to pieces. Col. Snelling uncautiously mentioned this, and 
that again increased our terror. 

Early next morning the Colonel dispatched his son Jo. 
and a soldier named Butterfield afoot to the Port for help. 
They both knew the country well, and were used to bush-* 
whacking. Some parched corn was all the provisions our 



V 



V 



MRS. ADAMS' REMINISCENCES. 105 

cook could supply them with, so reduced our stores had 
become. Each had an ax and a blanket, nothing more. 

The Col. now rallied the men and bailed the boat out, 
when we got it loosened from the trees, and crossed the 
river, where we were in a sheltered place. Here the boat 
sank. Fortunately, the water was shallow, and we got out 
all the contents and carried them ashore. The men now 
made a rude hut or tent of poles, etc., and we (the women 
and children) made the most of this uncomfortable bivouac. 
Among the stores that was left was a barrel of cider. 
The Col. had hoped to take this home to the fort, where 
it would have been a welcome treat to his fellow officers, 
but unperceived by him, some of the men slyly tapped it, 
and were commencing to show signs of intoxication, when 
he detected the joke, and to avoid any further trouble, 
stove in the barrel with an ax. Amid all our trials, the 
Col. was merry and light-hearted and was continually crack- 
ing jokes at our expense. 

Jo. Snelling, and Butterfield, as it subsequently turned 
out, were unable to pursue their journey far. They came 
to a river (the St. Croix?) which they could not cross, 
although they made some attempt to construct a raft. Not 
long after they had left us, the Colonel started two more 
men for the Fort, on the other side of the river, so as to 
double our chances of securing help speedily. These scouts 
arrived at the Fort safely, and two mackinaw boats were 
at once started oft to our relief, with provisions, etc. 
Unfortunately, the ice had gorged at a narrow place in the 
river, (perhaps above Hastings,) and the boats were thus 
blockaded there. One or two of this crew then started 
off to meet us, carrying sacks of bread and meat. 



106 MINNESOTA HISTORICAL COLLECTIONS. 

All this had taken some time, and we were still in 
our wretched tent, liungry and shivering. It seemed the 
best way to go on and meet the expected relief, so as 
to hasten the time when we would receive it. Our men 
carried the tent and what other necessaries we had to 
have, and we Started off on our painful and slow journey 
up the river. When night came we had not made much 
advance, and again camped by the river, where a huge 
fire helped to warm and cheer us. That night was as 
near an experience of being homeless and foodless as any 
of us ever wanted to realize. The long night wore away, 
and w^hen the dull, cold morning dawned, we ate w^hat 
scanty food we had, and again started on our weary 
tramp. All that sustained us in this painful march was 
the thought that it was a matter of life or death for us; 
that if we did not soon meet the expected relief we 
would perish of cold and hunger. 

Hour after hour passed by, and it must have been 
after noon w^hen we were electrified by a cry of "they're 
coming, they're coming." The help had come, and we 
were saved. The bags of meat and bread were quickly 
attacked, and we soon satisfied our hunger. Mrs. Snel- 
ling and I cried for joy. Johnny Tully said, ''what fools 
you are to cry now. Why didn't you cry when we were 
in danger of starving?" 

Encouraged and strengthened, we soon reached where 
boats were awaiting us, and started in them, with hearts 
sensibly lighter, up the stream. It was still many miles to 
the Fort, and night came on us sooner than we expected. 
We were again compelled to camp out as best we could, 
but this was not esteemed such a hardship, as we knew 



MRS. ADAMS* REMINISCENCES. 



107 



we were so near home. That night there was a violent 
storm of snow and wind, and our tent was once blown down. 
The next morning the snow was quite deep. Just then two 
sleighs met us, which had been sent from the fort to hasten 
our arrival. The Colonel and his family and I mounted 
in these, and w^e started off. There were no roads, however, 
and our progress was very slow. We upset four times, and 
did not arrive at the Fort until after dark. Mr. and 
Mrs. Clarke had a good, warm supper ready for us when 
we arrived. The garrison fired a cannon salute when the 
Colonel drove in the gate, and there was great rejoicing 
at our safety. 

His first act was to inquire about Jo. and Butterfield, 
who had not arrived. The Col. was very uneasy, and 
dispatched scouts in search of them, with directions to 
fire shots every few minutes. They were found in due 
time, almost famished, and brought in safely. 

The Col. was much impressed by our escape from the 
dangers encountered, and said he recognized the hand of 
Providence in it. He became quite religious, and had 
prayers in his family for some time, but little by little 
the conviviality and worldliness of garrison life effaced 
these impressions, and we saw no more of them. 

INDIAN HOSTILITIES AND ITS RESULT. 

The year 1827 witnessed some exciting events. I men- 
tioned before, that parties of the Ojibwas and Dakotas, 
two intensely hostile tribes, used to encamp at the same 
time near the Port, and that collisions occurred between 
them from that cause. In May, that year, a disturbance 
of this kind happened, that was of more than usual im- 



V 



108 MINNESOTA HISTORICAL COLLECTIONS. 

portance and note. A considerable party of Ojibwas, and 
several Dakotas, were encamped near the Fort, and the 
Dakotas treacherously sent proposals of peace and friend- 
ship to the Ojibwas. The latter accepted them, and sev- ^ 
eral of the Dakotas, armed, visited the wigwam of their 
chief, and were there hospitably entertained and feasted. 
They withdrew after a time, but on getting outside the 
lodge, turned and fired a volley into it and wounded 
eight of the Ojibwa inmates, of whom a part died of 
their w^ounds. Col. Snelling and Maj. Taliaferro, the 
Indian agent, had before strongly charged on these savages 
that no hostilities would be permitted within the area 
around the Fort, that it would be an insult to the United 
States flag. ^Mien this last cowardly act occurred, he at 
once notified them that they must make ample reparation. 
Several were put under arrest, and held as hostages until 
the real murderers, who had fled, should be delivered 
up. Runners were at once sent out to the villages, and 
in a day or two, four of the Dakota culprits were in the 
guard house awaiting their fate, and were identified as 
the guilty persons. Col. Snelling, after consulting with 
the other officers, as to what way he could make an ex- 
ample of them, agreed to leave it to the Ojibwas. The 
latter proposed that the Sioux murderers be made to ' * run 
the gauntlet that is the Ojibwas should be stationed on 
the prairie, with loaded guns, and the Dakotas placed a 
few yards off, and told to run. If they could escape un- 
harmed, well and well, but the Ojibwas would do their 
best to kill them. This was all carried out, as planned. 
The place chosen was just outside the Fort, on the 
level prairie, but the Colonel would not permit any of 



I 

V 

MRS. ADAMS' REMINISCENCES. 109 

the garrison to go out and witness it. He said it was 
an Indian trouble entirely — the whites had nothing to 
do with it. Mrs. Snelling and I got up on the roof of 
their house, and thus had a clear view of it all. It was 
a lovely warm bright May morning. I remember the 
whole scene as if it had been yesterday. 

The Ojibwas tied the arms of the three Dakota mur- 
derers, and led them out 30 yards. When the signal 
was given, the Dakotas bounded off like deer. The guns 
cracked, and soon all three of the culprits leaped into 
the air and fell, either dead, or dying. One of these was 
a great coward, and showed signs of the most mortal 
terror. The other two had been brave and defiant, and 
sang a war song when the Ojibwas were tying them. 
They also upbraided the cowardly one. 

When the victims fell, the Ojibwas gave their scalp cry, 
rushed up to the two brave dead ones, scalped them, and 
dipping their fingers in the gushing blood from their 
wounds, licked and sucked them. Some caught the blood 
in the hollow of their hand and drank it. This made 
their faces look bloody and horrible, and they looked wild 
and savage like demons. The body of the cowardly one 
was not noticed, nor did they drink his blood. Colonel 
Snelling then went out and told the Ojibwas they must 
not leave the bodies lying there, and they must drag 
them away. They took the corpses by the heels and 
dragging them to the steep bank of the river above the 
fort, threw them over into the water. It chanced that 
there was a large tree on the bank, blown over into the 
water. They took the Indian that had not been scalped 
and tied his hair to one of the limbs of this tree, in 
-6 



V 



110 MINNESOTA HISTOHICAL COLLECTIONS. 

the water. For several days it rocked up and down by 
the motion of the waves, exposing the ghastly face of 
the dead to sight every moment or two. I saw it sev- 
eral times as I was going along the bank to visit my 
sister, and it horrified riie. I spoke to Mrs. Snelling 
about it, and she got the Colonel to have some one dis- 
lodge the body and let it float off.* 

THE MILITARY EXPEDITION TO PRAIRIE DU CHIEN. 

In July, 1827, some murders committed by drunken AVin- 
nebagoes on settlers near Prairie du Chien, created a great 
panic in that region, and the whites rushed into old Fort 
Crawford, to take refuge and protect themselves. I should 
have observed, before, that in the fall of the previous year, 
Fort Crawford had been measurably abandoned, and the 
two or three companies of the Fifth U. S. Infantry which 
it contained, had been sent to Fort Snelling, making that 
garrison very full. There was, really, no danger that the 
Winnebagoes would attack the people entrenched in Fort 
Crawford, because their spree was already over, and every- 
thing had got quieted down, but all the whites were so 
panic-stricken and alarmed, that an express was sent to 
Col. Snelling, imploring him to send down relief at once. 
Of course, Col. Snelling could not refuse this appeal. He 
at once hurried off with four companies, in keel-boats, and 
several days aftei-^vard, several more companies followed. 



*A very interestini; account of this incident, undoubtedly written by Wm. 
J. Snelling, will be found in the collections of this society, vol. 1, p. 4^10. Anoth- 
er account, written by jirs. C. O. Van Cleve, is jriveii in vol. :i. p. 76. The 
accourjt siven by Mrs. Adams is very similar to the two foregoing. Beyond 
doubt. Mrs. Van Cleve and Mrs. Adams, are the only two persons now living, 
who witnessed the interesting event. W. 



MRS. ADAMS' REMINISCENCES. 



Ill 



under one of the other regimental officers, leaving Fort 
Snelling almost deserted. 

Mrs. Snelling and the children went with the Colonel, 
and I accompanied them. The upshot of the whole expedi- 
tion was, that not a hostile Indian was seen on the whole 
trip, and not a shot was fired. The troops simply 
''marched down the hill," and then -'marched back again." 
Two of the Winnebagoes, called Red Bird and Wee-Kau, 
were apprehended and imprisoned on charge of murder, 
and if I remember aright, were sentenced to be hung, but 
it was, I think, never done, for fear of arousing an out- 
break of the tribe. [Mrs. Adams was misinformed. The 
Indians were executed.] 

The expedition to Prairie du Chien had quite an impor- 
tant turn for myself, because, while there, I was united in 
marriage to Jose^^h Adams, who was an officer in the Ord- 
nance department at Fort Snelling, and accompanied the 
troops on their expedition. Mr. Adams was a native of 
Derbyshire, Eng., and was a true model of a manly soldier 
in every respect. I had known him at Fort Snelling, and 
highly respected him for his fine qualities. Our married 
life was an extremely happy one. We returned to Fort 
Snelling in a few days after our marriage, and lived there 
over two years. 

THE FIFTH REGIMENT GOES TO ST. LOUIS. 

In the fall of this year (1827) the Fifth Regiment was 
ordered to Jefferson Barracks, at Saint Louis. Colonel 
Snelling proceeded to Washington in August, to attend to 
some business there, and while in that city, was seized 
with inflammation of the brain, and died suddenly, on 



112 



MINNESOTA HISTORICAL COLLECTIONS. 



Aug. 28. His death ^vas a terrible blow to Mrs. Siielling, 
and a source of grief to all of us who knew him. I had 
been an inmate of his family for four years, and his 
kindness to me had made me greatly attached to him. 
I parted with his sorrowing family, soon after, feeling 
that I had lost my best friends. 

SAULT STE MARIE, AND NOTABLES THERE. 

My husband and I went to Jefferson Barracks with the 
Fifth Regiment in 1827, and not long after reaching there 
my mother died. From this post, w^e were transferred 
to Detroit, and then to Fort Brady, at Sault Ste Marie, 
where we remained some time. At this place there were 
a few quite notable characters, that interested me very 
much. Henry R. Schoolcraft was Indian agent there at 
that time. I became well acquainted with him and his 
wife, and his wife's sister, Mrs. Hurlbut. These two 
ladies were half-breeds, but very finely educated and 
accomplished ladies. They spoke Ojibwa. French and 
English. 

JOHN TANNER, THE INDIAN CAPTIVE. 

Another noted character there, that I knew well, was 
John Tanner, the U. S. interpreter. Tanner was a white 
man, who was stolen by the Ojibwas, while a child, 
some time in the latter part of the last century, near 
Cincinnati, 0., and taken to the Manitoba region, where 
he lived some years, becoming a thorough Indian in man- 
ners and ideas. At the time I knew him in 1830, or '32, 
he was about 45 years of age. He had totally forgotten 
his native tongue while in captivity, but afterwards re- 



v 



MRS. ADAMS' REMINISCENCES. 113 

gained its use, and was interpreter at the Indian agency 
when I saw him, at Sault Ste Marie. He had again 
adopted the dress and life of a white man, and had been 
married to a squaw, by whom he had three dii*ty, black 
half-breed children. His squaw had died, or else he got 
rid of her in some way, because while we were at Sault 
Ste Marie, he conceived the idea that if he could get a 
white wife, it would raise him in the social scale consid- 
erably. He therefore secured a new outfit of clothing, 
and w^ent to Detroit, where, by false representations of 
his position and means at Sault Ste Marie, which he 
pretended were respectable, he succeeded in deceiving a 
young woman into marrying him. She was a poor girl, 
but respectable and well thought of, and a member of 
a Baptist church in Detroit. When she got back with 
him to Sault Ste Marie, and was taken to his hovel, and 
found his coarse and ignorant half-breed children there, 
she was terribly heart-broken. There was no help for it 
then, however, and she had to live with him, and make 
the best of it. We all pitied her sincerely and did all 
we could to help and encourage her. But her life for a 
few months must have been wretched. Tanner even 
abused her, as though she was a common squaw. In the 
meantime, a babe was born to her. She now saw that 
she must escape from him at all hazards. Some friends 
managed to get Tanner sent out of the way one day 
while a steamer was in port, bound for Detroit, and she 
slipped on the] vessel, and thus got away. One of Tan- 
ner's sons became a Unitarian clergyman afterwards, but 
I have heard very disparaging statements regarding his 
unclerical conduct. While we were at Sault Ste Marie, 



114 



MINNESOTA HISTORICAL COLLECTIONS. 



there was a doctor, Edwin James, an army surgeon at 
Fort Brady, who was a fine scholar. He got Tanner to 
tell him all his story of captivity among the Indians, and 
all about their daily life and customs, and wrote quite 
a book from his statements. Tanner finally came to a 
wretched end, though that was after we had left there. 
It was about 1846, I think, Mr. Schoolcraft, the Indian 
agent, had a brother living there, whom Tanner believed 
to have had improper relations with one of his daugh- 
ters. Watching an opportunity, he shot Schoolcraft and 
killed him. Tanner at once fled at full speed to the 
forest, and was never seen again, alive. It was supposed 
that he had gone back to the Red River Indians with 
whom he had formerly lived. But years after that some 
hunters found, in a swamp a few miles from the Sault, 
the skeleton of a man with a gun lying by it. On ex- 
amining the latter, it was recognized as Tanner's. It is 
thought that the violence of his exertions in escaping 
had burst a blood vessel.* 

There were two or three good missionaries at Sault 
Ste Marie, among whom was Rev. Jeremiah Porter, a 
Presbyterian, who labored hard to convert the Indians 

*The account of Schoolcraft's murder, and of Tanner's connection with it. 
was the story believed for many years by every body at Sault Ste Marie. 
But recently, (I am informed by Capt. Dwight II. Kclton, U. S. A.) that cir- 
cumstances were devehjped during a few years past, which exonerate Tanner 
from the crime of murder, and seem to prove that both Schoolcraft a!id Tanner 
were vic.tims of a third party. The really guilty party, says Capt. K.. was an 
officer of the U. S. army, stationed, at Fort Brady, at that time (lS4iji who. for 
motives which are explained by some old settlers who claim to know the facts, 
felt it necessary to get rid of Schoolcraft, and throw the suspicion of the crime 
on Tanner. He. therefore. i,so they assert positively) killed Sclioolcraft. and also 
Tanner, burning the body of the latter in his house, so that all evidence of the 
latter crime was. for a time at least, destroyed, and it was given out iliat Tanner 
had fled, after killing Sclioolcraft. The officer now believed guilty of this double 
crime, subse(iuently wont to Mexico, where he was cashiered for some ort'ence, 
and died a few years subseijuently, In an interior town of New York. W. 



4 



MRS. ADAMS' REMINISCENCES. 



115 



and held prayer meetings among them, but I do not 
believe that very many were changed much in that way. 
Some good was done in the temperance line, however. 
The Indians had been a wretchedly drunken set, but the 
missionaries persuaded many of them to sign the pledge. 
Even the squaws signed it. Some of the white men and 
soldiers were converted, however. 

THE ADAMSES GO TO CHICAGO. 

In 1833, Capt. Adams was transferred to Fort Dear- 
born, Chicago. We lived there a number of years, and 
were among the earliest settlers of what afterwards be- 
came the great city. I attend the annual re-unions of 
the old settlers now, with great pleasure. Hardly any 
one of the period of 1833, but myself, now remains. 
The wonderful changes I have seen, seem like a dream. 
Everything was primitive those days. We can hardly 
realize it now. I remember the trouble we had some- 
times to light a fire. Capt. Adams would gather a hand- 
ful of dry stuff, and fire a gun loaded with powder into 
it. Then we had to gather up the combustibles, and 
blow it, until it ignited into a flame. Others used a 
flint and steel, with tinder. 

When the Florida war broke out in 1835, Capt. Adams 
was opposed to going. He had had enough of army 
life. , So he left it, and we went to farming. Our sub- 
sequent life was quiet and happy. Capt. Adams lived 
to the age of 90 years, and enjoyed excellent health and 
activity up to that time. We have been blessed with ten 
children, and I have now some 25 or 30 grand-children, 
and several great-grand-children. 

S 



v 



PROTESTANT MISSIONS 



In The Northwest, 



BY 



REV. STEPHEN R. RIGGS, D. D. 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS. 

The writer of this paper has gathered the facts in regard to the Mission of the 
American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions, among the Ojibwas. from 
the Micsionary Herald mainly, having received some suggestions from Mrs. Leon- 
ard H. Wheeler. The materials for the history of the American Board's work 
among the Sioux have been within my own knowledge. 

For the short account of the Swiss Mission I am indebted, mainly, to Rev. S. W. 
Pond. 

Dr. Alfred Brunson. in the "Western Pioneer," and Judge Gale's "Upper Missis- 
sippi," have furnished the materials for the Methodist Episcopal Mission among 
the Sioux and Ojibwas. 

For the account of the work of the American Missionary Association among the 
Ojibwas, I am indebted to Dr. Strieby and Mr. ^^. G. Wright. 

And lastly, I am quite obliged to Bishop H. B. Whipple for the communications 
Of Rev. E. S. Peake and himself. This brief liistory of the Missions of the Protes- 
tant Episcopal Church among the Ojibwas and Sioux, is mainly in the form which 
they furnished. S. R. RIGGS. 

Beloit, Wis., May, 18S0. 

If the question be asked, why, in the first settlement 
of this country, Protestant Missions w^ere not pushed 
westward among tlie Aborigines, as Catholic Missions 
were, the answer is two- fold. First. — The pilgrims of 
New England came for the purpose of making homes, 
with freedom to worship God, for themselves and their 



118 



MINNESOTA HISTORICAL COLLECTIONS. 



children. Trading with the Indians appears to have been 
an after-thought, and elTorts to convert them to the reli- 
gion of Christ were left to be made by individuals, as 
they were moved by the Holy Ghost. On the other hand, 
the first immigrants to Nouvelle France, came for the pur- 
poses of trade, and Catholic Missions were believed to be 
necessary helpers in the fur-trade. Thus the influence of 
the government of France, and of its colony, was given 
to the extension of the Roman Catholic religion. 

Second. — The traders of New France found themselves 
located on the water that flowed from the great lakes. 
These formed a natural and convenient high-way, for both 
trader and priest, to visit the Hurons, Ottowas and the 
Illinois tribes. Hence we find them, more than two cen- 
turies ago, on Lake Huron, and at the head of the Gitche 
Gumme or Lake Superior, and on Lake Michigan, and 
even down the Illinois river. 

In the meantime, while the Protestants, hemmed in by 
the mountains, were making homes on the Atlantic coast, 
John Eliot, the Mayhew\s and David Brainerd, among the 
Mohegans and Delawares, were as zealous and successful 
in converting Indians to Christianity, as any of the Jesuit 
Fathers among the Hurons. And a century afterwards, 
before the emigration of white people had crossed the 
Alleghanies, the Moravian missionaries followed the Dela- 
wares into western Pennsylvania and Ohio, and their labors 
were crowned with success. 

But this far northwest was, until after the beginning of 
the present century, almost an unknown country to the 
Protestant communities of the United States. As the set- 
tlements came westward, the Christian churches were too 



/ 



PROTESTANT MISSIONS. 119 

much engaged in "strengthening their stakes" to do much 
at "lengthening their cords.'' 

After the American Fur Company had made Mackinaw 
their depot of supplies for the northwest, Rev. William M. 
Ferry, a graduate of Union College, and father of the 
present Senator Ferry, of Michigan, in 1822, came to 
explore the field, and in the following year, with his wife, 
commenced the Mackinaw school, where, for many years, 
w^ere gathered Indian children from all the tribes in this 
northwest territory. This may be our starting point; for 
quite a number of the half-bloods, children of traders and 
others on the upper Mississippi and Minnesota, were after- 
wards found to have been scholars in this school. 

SECTION I. 

MISSION OF THE A. B. C. F. M. WITH THE OJIBW\\S, 1830. 

The Ojibwas, or Chippewas as the name was formerly 
written, belong to the Algonkin family. Two hundred 
years ago they appear to have been occupying only the 
shores of Lake Superior and farther east. But coming first 
into contact with white people, and obtaining from them 
fire arms, they became aggressive on the territory of their 
more powerful and warlike neighbors, the Sioux, and grad- 
ually drove them w^estward and southward, so that fifty 
years ago, when Protestant Missions were first commenced 
among them, they w^ere in the possession of Yellow Lake 
and Sandy Lake and Leech Lake and Red Lake, places 
that had been occupied by bands of the Dakotas. 

Mr. Frederick Ayer was the first Protestant missionary 
teacher who visited the Ojibwas at LaPointe. In the sum- 



V 



120 MINNESOTA HISTORICAL COLLECTIONS. 

mer of 1830, ]Mr. Warren, whose trading post was on Mag- 
dalen Island, came to Mackinaw with an extra boat, for 
the purpose of taking back with him a missionary. Mr. 
Ayer, the teacher of the boys' school, was then the only 
available person. Accordingly, with one of the scholars 
of the school for interpreter, he accompanied Mr. Warren 
to his port, surveyed the field and immediately oi)ened a 
school. This he appears to have continued during the 
winter, and to have gone back to Mackinaw the next season 
with Mr. W^arren. 

In the meantime the American Board had commissioned 
Kev. Sherman Hall and his wife and Rev. W^illiam T. Bout- 
well, all of New England, and instructed them to proceed 
to establish Missions at LaPointe and elsewhere among the 
Ojibwas. 

At this time there was residing at Mackinaw, Doctor 
James, Surgeon of the U. S. army, who was skilled in the 
language of the Ojibwas, and who had already done some 
thing in the way of translating portions of the New Testa- 
ment. Mr. Boutwell elected to stop there for awhile and 
take lessons in the language. 

On the 4th day of August, 1831, Mr. and Mrs. Hall and 
Mr. Ayer embarked with the company of the Fur Trade, 
five boats and about seventy persons, and arrived at Mr. 
Warren's station at LaPointe on the 30th of the same month. 
It is a little remarkable that such a caravan of traders 
should rest on the Sabbath as they did. Thus in the 
Providence of God a Protestant Mission was now estab- 
lished where one hundred and sixty-six years before the 
Jesuits had raised the banner of the Cross. 



PROTESTANT MISSIONS - 



121 



In the summer of 1832, Mr. Boutwell made an extensive 
tour, with H. R. Schoolcraft, United State Indian agent, 
among the Ojibwa villages scattered between Lake Super- 
ior and the sources of the Mississippi river. While on this 
journey, as Mr. Boutwell has since stated, they entered a 
lake with their canoe which they had good reason to believe 
was the true source of the Father of Waters. Resting upon 
their oars, and searching for some name to express the 
thought they had, Mr. Boutwell said, "Veritas Caput,'* 
from which Henry R. Schoolcraft cut out Itasca. 

In the autumn of 1832, Mr. Ayer went to Sandy Lake 
near the Mississippi, and opened a school at the trading 
post of Mr. Aitkin; and Mr. Boutwell joined Mr. Hall at La 
Pointe. They gave themselves to learning the language, 
to teaching the school which was there altogether in Eng- 
lish, and to visiting from house to house. They describe 
the natives as very poor, often suffering for the necessa- 
ries of life — living on fish, wild rice, sugar and wild meat. 
They were idle and wasteful, and consequently often in 
want. Poorly clad, poorly housed in their birch bark 
wigwams, and poorly fed, filthy and dirty in the extreme, 
could these savages be civilized and christianized? The 
full answer will have to come after many years. In the 
meantime these missionaries will give their best life to 
them. They will learn the language and prepare school 
books in it. The^^ will sing hymns of praise to Christ, 
some of which they find already in the language, prepared 
by the Methodist Episcopal Missionaries in Canada: and by 
and by, they will preach to them in their own tongue and 
tell them of Jesus. Even at this time they speak of being 



V 



122 MINNESOTA HISTORICAL COLLECTIONS. 

helped by some converts to Christianity who came up from 
Mackinaw. 

In the Report of the Board for 1833, other helpers are 
mentioned, as, Edmund F. Ely, Mrs. Ayer, Miss Cook. 
Miss Stevens, and Miss Crooks. Mr. and Mrs. Ayer witli 
Miss Crooks opened a new station at Yellow Lake; Mi*. 
Boutwell and Mr. Ely take up the work at Sandy Lake, 
and Mr. Boutwell looks over to Leech Lake and prepares 
to occupy that field the next year, by marrying Miss Hes- 
ter Crooks. Then Mr. Ely leaves Sandy Lake and opens 
a station at Fond du Lac, near the head of Lake Superior. 
At every place they sow some seeds which will bear some 
fruit after many days. Mr. Ayer's etfori, at Yellow Lake, 
is on the plan of separating those who desire to be edu- 
cated and adopt civilized habits, from their heathen neigh- 
bors, and it is in a good measure successful. Such are of 
course persecuted and opposed by their heathen relations, 
and they are branded with the name of "Praying Indians." 
Some such there are already. During the winter of 1835-6, 
both at LaPointe and Yellow Lake there was much relig- 
ions interest. Several conversions are mentioned at each 
place. 

In the spring of 1836, the mission of Mr. Ayer was 
removed from Yellow Lake to Pokeguma. This was 
deemed to be, on all accounts, the most favorable place to 
commence a civilized community. The lake called Poke- 
guma, though small, was well stocked with fish, and was 
connected by a short channel with Snake creek and the 
St. Croix, and so with the Mississippi. They were, here, 
but two days and a half by canoe from St. Peter's (now 
Mendota), which became the base of supplies. In the sum- 



v 



PROTESTANT MISSIONS. 123 

mcr of 1837, while we were stopping at tlie Lake Harriet 
station, we were rejoiced to meei Mr. Ayer and an Ojibwa 
native convert, at our first celebration of the Lord's supx)er 
in Dakota land. At this time, Mr. Ayer had the assistance 
of Mr. John L. Seymour, and the work went on bravely, 
both here and at the other stations. At LaPointe, Mr. 
Hall was supported by Mr. Joseph Town and wife. Mr. 
Ely of Fond du Lac was married to Miss Bissel of Macki- 
naw, and had for his assistant Mr. Granville T. Sproat; 
while Mr. and Mrs. Boutv/ell labored alone at Leech Lake. 
In the judgment of missionaries, the prospects were very 
encouraging, 

Mr. Town appears to have remained but a little while at 
LaPointe, as in the Report of the Board for this year 1337, 
his name is omitted, and Mr. Sproat has gone to LaPointe, 
leaving Mr. Ely alone at Fond du Lac. 

In the spring of 1838, other changes were made. At 
Leech Lake, as recorded, "Mr. Boutwell had little encour- 
agement in his labors, and at times, was greatly annoyed 
by the savage and violent conduct of the Indians." Then 
Mr. and Mrs. Boutwell withdrew to Pokeguma, and Mr. 
and Mrs. Ayer went to Fond du Lac for a time. During 
this year, the gospel of John and the Acts of the Apostles 
were printed in the language of the Ojibwas. Luke had 
been printed previously. The gospel had been taking 
effect, especially in the little civilized ("partly) community 
of Pokeguma. Seven couples had been married; a num- 
ber had erected houses, and were living somewhat like white 
people, while eight or ten persons were regarded, in the 
judgment of charity, as christians. Quite a spiritual 
quickening had been experienced during the winter pre- 



12-1 



MINNESOTA HISTORICAL COLLECTIONS. 



ceding. But, as was natural, this very progress of the 
gospel aroused the opposition of the heathen part3% who 
proceeded greatly to annoy the missionaries, by killing 
their cattle, and threatening to drive them from the coun- 
try. This was partly owing also to the fact that they had 
ceded to the United States in the summer of 1838, a por- 
tion of this land, and immediately, before the Treaty was 
ratified, white p>eople began to take possession. 

When this trouble had passed, as was supposed, and 
christian Indians and missionaries were hopeful again, sud- 
denly war camei upon them. The Ojibwas and Sioux were 
immemorial enemies. Peace was made only to be broken. 

In the early spring of 1838, Hole-in-the-Day with a party 
had come over to the Chippewa river near Lacquiparle. 
They came to three teepees of Sioux, who entertained them 
in princely style with a dog-feast. They lay down to rest, 
but arose and killed their entertainers. 

In retiring from this treacherous massacre, the party of 
Hole-in-the-Day took one women prisoner. Elder Alfred 
Brunson, of Prairie du Chien, was at this time establishing 
Methodist Missions among both the Sioux and Ojibwas. 
In the first days of July 1838, he passed Sauk Rapids and 
Little Falls, and reached the village of Hole-in-tlie-Day, 
while the agent was holding a council with the Indians 
about returning this Sioux captive. As Mr. Brunson repre 
sents the matter, Hole-in-the-Day himself was the last to 
consent to her return, because he "hated the Sioux." But 
finally the matter was arranged and the agent took the 
Sioux woman down to Fort Snelling, and she was restored 
to her friends. In a week or ten days after, for what 
reason is not apparent, Hole-in-the-Day took five braves 



PROTESTANT MISSIONS. 



125 



and went down to Fort Snelling. They were quartered at 
Baker's stone house a mile from the Fort. Their presence 
becoming known to the Sioux, two young men secreted 
themselves and fired upon the first man who made his 
appearance. This hap]:)ened to be an Ottawa who was liv- 
ing among the Ojibwas. The party of Hole- in- the -Day 
sallied forth and killed two Sioux. The white soldiers 
interfered and prevented a general war. 

In June of 1839, a thousand Ojibwas came to Fort Snell- 
ing. They were under the protection of the military and 
so the Ojibwas and Sioux fraternised. They started home 
in two companies, by Rum river and the St. Croix. The 
night after they left, two Ojibwa young men,* to avenge 
the killing of their father, waylaid and killed a Dakota 
man on the shores of Lake Harriet. This made the war 
spirit boil in the hearts of the Dakotas. Two war-parties 
were made up to follow the Ojibwas, and more than ninety 
scalps were brought home. One of the battles was fought 
where Stillwater now stands, which had its influence on 
the little settlement at Pokeguma. By these occurrences 
three Mission stations were eventually broken up — the 
station of the American Board at Lake Harriet, and the 
one at Pokeguma; and the Methodist Mission station at 
Little Crow's village. 

SECTION II. 

MISSION OF THE AM. HOARD WITH THE SIOUX, 1835. 

The Sioux or Dakotas were the enemies of the Ojibwas. 
Hence it is supposed they were called, by tribes farther 

♦Said to be nephews of the man killed the year before. 
-7 



V 



126 MINNESOTA HISTOKICAL COLLECTIONS. 

east, " Nadouessioux." But tlie Ojibwas proper called the 
Dakotas by the name of "Bwau." which is perpetuated in 
the name Assinaboine. On the other hand the Dakotas 
named the Ojibwas " Hahatonwan," DireUers at the Falls — 
not the falls of St. Anthony, but of the St. Louis river, 
probably, or the falls of Sault Ste Marie. 

Mr. Jedediah D. Stevens and wife had come, from cen- 
tral New York, in the summer of 1827, to the mission 
station at Mackinaw, where they continued two years. In 
the summer of 1829, Mr. Stevens was sent on an explor- 
ing tour among the Ojibwas of Wisconsin, and to the Da- 
kotas of the Mississippi river. This journey w^as extended 
to Fort Snelling. But after his return, he and his wife 
labored with the Stockbridge Indians on Fox river, near 
Green Bay. In 1834, they were commissioned by the Am. 
Board to commence a Mission among the Dakotas, but 
they were prevented, by circumstances, from reaching 
Fort Snelling until the sj^ring of 1835, and spent the win- 
ter preceding at Mackinaw. 

Thomas Smith Williamson, M. D., was the son of Rev. 
William Williamson and Mary Smith, and was born in 
Union District, South Carolina, in March, 1800. He was 
converted during his stay at Jefferson College, Cannons- 
burg, Pa., where he graduated in 1820. Soon after he 
began reading medicine with his brother-in law. Dr. Wil- 
liam Wilson, of West Union, O., and after a very full 
course of reading, considerable practical experience, and 
one course of lectures at Cincinnati, O., completed his 
medical education at Yale, where he graduated in medicine 
in 1824. He settled at Ripley, O., where he soon acquired 
an extensive practice, and, April 10, 1827, was united in 



PROTESTANT MISSIONS. 



127 



marriage with Mariraret Poage, daughter of Col. James 
Poage. 

Dr. Williamson continued in the successful practice of 
medicine nearly ten years, but in the spring of 1833 ho 
placed himself under the "care of the Chillicothe Presby- 
tery and commenced the study of theology. In August of 
that year he removed witli his family to Walnut Hills and 
connected himself with Lane Seminary. In April, 1834, in 
the first Presbyterian Church of Red Oak. he was licensed 
to preach by the Chillicothe Presbytery. 

Previous to his licensure he had received from the 
American Board an appointment to proceed on an exj^lor- 
ing tour among the Indians of the upper Mississippi, with 
special reference to the Sacs and Foxes, but to collect 
what information he could in regard to the Sioux, Winne- 
bagoes, and other Indians. Starting on this tour about 
the last of April, he went as far as Fort Snelling, and 
returned to Ohio in August. At Rock Island he met with 
some of the Sacs and Foxes, and at Prairie du Chien he 
first saw Dakotas, among others Mr. Joseph Renville, of 
Lacquiparle. On the 18th of September he was ordained 
as a missionary by the Chillicothe Presbytery, in Union 
Church. Ross county, Ohio. , 

A few months afterward he received his appointment 
as a missionary of the A. B. C. F. M., to the Dakotas; 
and on the first day of April, 1835, Dr. Williamson, with 
his wife and one child, accompanied by Miss Sarah Poage, 
Mrs. Williamson's sister, who afterward became Mrs. Gid 
eon H. Pond, and Alexander G. Huggins and family, left 
Riple3^ Ohio, and on the 16th of May they arrived at Fort 
Snelling. 



V 



128 MINNESOTA HISTORICAL COLLFXTIONS. 

But a year previous to this, in the spring of 1834, two 
^ brothers from Washington. Conn., Samuel W. and Gideon 
/ H. Pond, had come self-moved, or rather God-moved, to 
the land of the Dakotas. AVhen they reached Fort Snell- 
ing and had made known their errand to the commanding 
officer of the post, Maj. Bliss, and to the resident Indian 
agent, Maj. Taliaferro, they received the hearty approval 
and co-operation of both, and the Agent at J once recom- 
mended them to commence work with the] Dakotas of the 
Lake Calhoun village, where some steps had already been 
taken in the line of civilization. There, on the margin of 
the lake, they built their log cabin. 

While stopping there for a few weeks, Dr. Williamson 
presided at the organization, on the 12th of June, of the 
First Presbyterian Church — the first Christian church or- 
ganized within the present limits of Minnesota. This was 
within the garrison at Fort Snelling, and consisted of 22 
members, chiefly the result of the. labors of Major Loomis 
among the soldiers. 

Having concluded to accompany Mr. Joseph Renville, 
Dr. Williamson's party embarked on the Fur Company's 
Mackinaw^ boat on the 22d of June; j reached Traverse des 
Sioux on the 30th, where they took wagons and arrived 
at Lacquiparle on the 9th of July. There, on the north 
side of the Minnesota river, and inC sight of the "Lake 
that speaks," they established themselves as teachers of 
the religion of Jesus. 

Mr. Stevens immediately proceeded to erect Mission 
buildings, on the margin of J Lake Harriot, in the vicinity 
of the village at Lake Calhoun, and opened a small Board- 
ing School, which, for several years, was taught success- 



'v 



PROTESTANT MISSIONS. 129 

fully by Miss Lucy C. Stevens, a niece of Rev. Mr. Ste- 
vens. Thus the Mission of the American Board among 
the Dakotas Avas fully commenced. The brothers Pond 
had spent the previous year in learning the language and 
lielping the Indians. Mr. Gideon H. Pond aided Mr. Stev- 
ens in the erection of the Mission buildings, and the next 
year was transferred to the station at Lacquiparle, where 
he was married to Miss Sarah Poage and remained until the 
spring of 1839. Mr. Samuel W. Pond went back to Con- 
necticut in the autumn of 1836, where he was licensed and 
ordained as a missionary to the Indians, and soon after 
his return his name was placed on the Roll of the Ameri • 
can Board. 

On the 1st day of June, 1837, the writer of this article, 
born in Ohio, and graduated at Jefferson College, Pa., 
with his wife, born in Massachusetts, and educated in the 
schools of Miss Lyon and Miss Grant, arrived at Fort 
Snelling, as missionaries of the American Board to the 
Dakotas. They were kindly entertained by Lieut. Ogden, 
in the garrison, and soon proceeded to the station at Lake 
Harriet, where they spent the summer, and then were 
transferred to Lacquiparle. 

From the commencement, the work at this station was 
very promising. Mr. Joseph Renville, the Bois Brule 
trader at this place, was earnestly desirous to have his own 
family educated, so that as soon as possible after their 
arrival. Miss Poage commenced teaching a class in Eng- 
lish. Mr. Renville himself professed to be a christian, and 
in less than a year. Dr. Williams had organized a native 
church, which, in the autumn of 1837, when I joined the 
mission force at Lacquiparle, counted seven Dakotas. Five 



130 MINNESOTA HISTORICAL COLLECTIONS. 

years after, the number received from the beginning had 
been forty-nine. This was a very successful commence- 
ment. 

The language of the Dakotas existed only in sounds. It 
was to be written. During the three years of occupancy 
before my arrival, the system of notation had been, in the 
main, determined upon; though a number of changes have 
since been made. The brothers Pond rightly claim the 
honor of teaching the first Dakota to read and write his 
own language. Mr. Samuel Pond thus tells the story: "In 
the spring of 1835, while my brother and I lived at Lake 
Calhoun, a young Dakota named Maza hda-ma-ne came to 
our house and asked us whether we thought Dakotas could 
learn to read. There was then nothing printed in the 
Dakota language, and we had only a short time before 
arranged an alphabet in which it could be written ; so that 
we could furnish him with lessons only b}' writing them 
with a pen. It was not much trouble to teach him, for he 
learned ra^Didly, both to read and write, and was sood able 
to write letters to us which we could understand very well, 
so far as we then w^ere acquainted with the language." 

Previous to this time, some elforts had been made by 
officers of the army and others, to write the language by 
the English alphabet alone, and a collection of four or five 
hundred words had been made. When we commenced 
learning the Dakota language in the summer of 1837, this 
collection, together with one made by Rev. J. D. Stevens, 
the result doubtless, in great measure, of the gathering by 
the Messrs. Pond, came into our hands. And, when to 
these were added what Dr. Williams had gathered, the 
vocabulary amounted to over two thousand ^vords, which 



V 



PROTESTANT MISSIONS- 131 

was the nucleus of the Dakota grammar aud dictionary I 
published fourteen years after. 

The mission station at Lake Harriet, which was estab- 
lished with the band of Dakotas then most advanced in 
civilization, was not destined to continue long. The fresh 
outbreak of the war-spirit, and the triumphant battles of 
the Sioux, fought wath the Ojibwas in midsummer of 1839, 
referred to in treating of the Ojibwa mission, were fatal 
to the occupation of the village on Lake Calhoun. The 
Indians w^ere afraid to I'emain there longer, and so moved 
over to the Minnesota river. Thereupon Mr. Stevens, re- 
ceiving the appointment of farmer for Wabasha's band, 
living near where Winona now stands, withdrew from the 
service of the Board. In the summer of 1842, he was 
, preaching to white people at Prairie du Chien. Mr. G. 
H. Pond accepted the position of farmer for the Lake 
Calhoun band. He and his brother occupied the mission 
houses at Lake Harriet for a while, and then took up 
quarters near the Fort, w^here they resided until they 
established their station in 1842, at Oak Grove, eight 
miles up the Minnesota. 

At Lac qui Parle among the Dakotas, the same kind of 
obstacles had to be met that are spoken of by the mis- 
sionaries among the Ojibwas. The winter of 1838-9 Dr. 
Williamson spent in Ohio, getting some printing done. 
By the aid of Mr. Joseph Renville the gospel of Mark 
had been translated from the French. This was the first 
printing of any portion of the Bible in the Dakota lan- 
guage. Before his return in the summer of 1839, Eagle 
Help w^ent on the w^ar-path to avenge the killing of the 
three families a year jjrevious. The mission strongly ad- 



I 



132 MINNESOTA HISTORICAL COLLECTIONS. 

vised against the war party, and in return we had sev- 
eral of our cattle killed. This form of opposition was 
carried to such an extent, in the next few years, as to 
make it well nigh impossible for the missionary to re- 
main. But in the meantime, notwithstanding the perse- 
cutions that came upon them, some Dakota men were re- 
ceiving education and seeds of gospel truth, which be- 
gan to germinate and bring forth some fruit. 

When Dr. Williamson returned from Ohio, he brought 
wi'th him Miss Fanny Huggins, who afterwards became 
Mrs. Jonas Pettijohn. It was thought that some manu- 
facturing industries might profitably be introduced among 
the Dakota w^omen. Accordingly several spinning wheels, 
both for flax and wool, were purchased by the mission. 
Mr. Renville had a flock of sheep, the remnant of a drove 
lost by a white man some years before. Mr. Huggins 
sowed the seed and raised the flax. He also made a loom 
for w^eaving. Thus the materials and the machinery were 
furnished the Indian women, to spin yarn, knit stockings, 
and weave cloth for short gowns, skirts and blankets. 
Mr. Huggins and Miss Fanny gave a good deal of time 
to teaching these industries, and with very considerable 
success. Quite a number of women made articles for 
their o^\n and others use. This effort had its place in 
the civilizing influences, but it could not be made profita- 
ble. One that was less pretentious in the commencement 
has borne much larger -fruit, to- wit: Teaching the Da- 
kota w^omen to icuhIi. It had been their custom to put on 
a garment and wear it uiUil it could be worn no longer. 
They were quite ignorant of the gospel of soap, as well 
as of the gospel of salvation. Mrs. Riggs had been less 



PROTESTANT MISSIONS. 133 

accustomed than some others to do the hard work of the 
wash-tub. Hence she was more willing to give time and 
patience to the education of Indian women in this line. 
At first it was impossible to obtain any but the lowest of 
the Dakota women for this service. But by and by it 
became popular, and has done much for their elevation. 

Thus the work of education was carried on at Lac qui- 
Parle. In the mean time a good deal of work was done 
in the line of Bible translation and the preparation of 
books. Under date of May 10, 1842, Dr. Williamson wrote 
thus to the Prudential Committee: "Much of the time of 
Mr. Riggs and myself, for a 'year past, has been em- 
ployed in this business, though most of the translating 
was done more than a year ago. Beside preparing a 
small Dakota hymn book and some school books, he has 
translated the Acts of the Apostles, the book of Revela- 
tion, and all the Epistles of Paul, also about one- third of 
the Psalms. He has also copied and prepared for the 
press the Gospel of John and a number of Psalms trans- 
lated by Mr. Renville. I have carefully read over his 
translations and made suggestions, and he has done the 
same for me in resj^ect to the book of Genesis, which I 
have translated." To the above was added the Gospel of 
Luke, translated by Mr. G. H. Pond. To oversee the 
printing of them in Boston and Cincinnati, the Board 
authorized me to make a visit east. We left one child 
and took two with us. On our return in the spring of 
1843, we were authorized to commence a new station, 
which we did in June, at Traverse des Sioux. 



134 



MINNESOTA HISTORICAL COLLECTIONS. 



SECTION III. 

THE SWISS MISSION AMONG THE DAKOTAS, 1836 TO 1840. 

About the same time that the American Board deter- 
mined to send missionaries to the Dakotas, two young 
men, Rev. Daniel Gavin and Rev. Samuel Denton, ^vere 
appointed by a society at Basle, in Switzerland, as mis- 
sionaries to the Indians of North America. They selected 
as their field of labor the land of the Dakotas. Both 
were unmarried w^hen they came to this country ; but 
before commencing his labors with the Dakotas, Mr. 
Denton was married to Miss Paris Skinner, who had, 
for several years, been engaged in the service of the 
American Board at the mission school at Mackinaw. In 
1839, Mr. Gavin married Miss Lucy C. Stevens, at Lake 
Harriet. 

They first located at Trempeleau, with the Wabasha 
band of Sioux; but the next year Mr. and Mrs. Denton 
removed to Red Wing, where IMr. Gavin soon afterwards 
joined them. In the autumn of 1838, Mr. Gavin came up 
to Lac qui Parle and spent the winter with us, giving 
aid in our work of translating and other missionary labor. 
From the following spring the tw^o families were associa- 
ted at Red Wing, until 1845, when Mrs. Gavin's ill-health 
•compelled them to leave tlie Dakotas. Thenceforward 
Mr. Gavin labored with success among the French Cath- 
olics i^ Canada, until his death, which occurred about 
1859. Mr. Denton remained a few years after 'Mr. Gavin's 
departure, when he too was obliged to leave on account 
of ill-health, and died soon after in Missouri. 

While the Dentons were still at Red Wing's village, 
in the summer of 1846, the present writer made a canoe 



'v 



PROTESTANT MISSIONS. 135 

vo3'age, with his wife, down the Mississippi, and stopped 
for ten days with them, at the Wood- Water- Hill villag-e. 
Here I remember visiting a young man who was si civ, 
and who now is the stalwart and honored pastor of our 
Santee Agency Mission church— Rev. Artemas Ehnamane. 
So that, if the question '-cui bono," is asked in regard 
to the ten years of the Swiss mission, I reply: It was a 
time of seed sowing. Quite a number of children and 
young folks learned to read more or less in both English 
and Dakotah ; and many older ones heard prayer and 
instruction from the word of God, from these earnest 
workers. The harvest came a score of years afterwards 
in the prison and in the camp.* 

SECTION IV. 

MISSIONS OF THE METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH, AMONG 
THE SIOUX AND OJIBWAS, 1837. 

Early in the present century the Methodists embarked 
in missions among the Indians. In 1819, John Steward, 
a free colored man, commenced a successful religious and 
educational work among the Wyandots, on the upper 
Sandusky. The influence of this effort extended over into 
Canada, to others of the Hurons. John Sunday and John 
and Peter Jones, of the Ojibwa tribe, were converted 
and became active helpers. This was in 1823. In 1830, 
and onward, we find John Sunday and George Copway 
and others, going on missionary tours on Lake Superior. 
In 1833, they established a successful and permanent 
mission at L'Anse, on Kewenaw bay, in Michigan. Here 
was commenced a civilized and Christian community— 

*The statements in rcirard to the lul.ssioii are, nianj" of them. taUcii from an 
aiticle furnished by licv. S. W. Poud. and publislied in tlie lupi Oaye of April. 1874. 



136 MINNESOTA HISTORICAL COLLECTIONS. 

the Indians laying by their annuity money, after 1842, 
to enter their hinds as white men. Of these and other 
missions. Rev. John Clark, whose headquarters were at 
Sault Ste. Marie, was the Superintendent. 

Rev. Alfred Brunson, of the Pittsburg Conference, had 
become interested in the Indians of the Northwest, by 
reading Lieut. Allen's account of his voyage with School- 
craft, when on search of the head of the Mississippi. 
He communicated this interest to the conference at its 
meeting in July, 1835, and receiving an appointment to 
that wwk, he immediately set out on horse back and 
traveled through the states of Ohio, Indiana and Illinois, 
and up to Fort Crawford, at Prairie du Chien. In the 
winter he rode back to his home in the Meadville dis- 
trict, and found his family ready w^ith a boat to remove 
in the early spring. It was the middle of July when 
they reached Prairie du Chien, too late to commence 
operations in the Indian country. But in the meantime 
Mr. Brunson, considering that an interpreter was needed 
in commencing mission work among the Sioux, and learn- 
ing that James Thompson, a slave, who had a Sioux 
woman for a wafe, was with his master, an officer, at 
Fort Snelling, and could be purchased for ^1,200, he 
wrote on to his friends in the east. This was the time 
when the anti-slavery feeling ran highest in Ohio, and 
multitudes of people w^ere only too glad to contribute to 
the fund that was started in Cincinnati, for the purpose 
of obtaining for James Thompson his liberty, that he 
might serve in the Methodist church in giving the gospel 
to the Sioux nation. No doubt this transaction had a 
good result in keeping the anti- slavery fires burning 



PROTESTANT MISSIONS. 



137 



brightly, but as a missionary investment it was an act 
of very doubtful utility. So it appeared to us of the 
Presbyterian mission. Thompson was a very indifferent 
interpreter and not a reliable man, and so was dismissed 
from the mission before its disbandment. 

During the winter of 1S36-7, Elder Brunson made his 
arrangements, and on the 19th of May, embarked on a steam- 
boat for Fort Snelling. After consulting with the agent 
and officers of the garrison, the village of Kaposia, six or 
eight miles below the Fort, on the west side of the Missis- 
sippi, was the place selected for their first station. This 
was long known as ''Little Crow's village." At this time 
the name of the chief was Wamde-tanka, Big Eagle. His 
father's name was Chatan-wakoowar-mani — Wio-iualks- 
pursidng-a-hawk,^' — from which ''Little Crow" seems to 
have been taken. The dynasty became extinct in Ta- 
oyati-doota — the Little Crow of the outbreak of 1862. 

Superintendent Brunson had with him David King, as 
teacher, with his family, and a farmer and his family, with 
Jim, the interpreter, and a hired man. Immediately they 
commenced to erect mission buildings of logs. Elder 
Brunson returned to Prairie du Chien for supplies, and in 
his second trip up he took with him George Copway, John 
Johnson and Peter Marksman, three young Ojibwas, who had 
been converted in Upper Canada, under the labors of Peter 
Jones and William Case. More recently they had been 
employed by Rev. John Clark in the Indian missions of 
Ottawa and Lac Court Grilles, in Wisconsin. They were 
t) go down to the Methodist mission school at Jacksonville, 
Illinois, but in the meantime they could put in some months 
work on the upper Mississippi. The Sioux could hardly 



128 



MINNESOTA HISTORICAL COLLECTIONS. 



believe that they were Ojibwas, for they worked, they said, 
like Frenciimen. In September of that year a treaty was 
made with the Ojibwas by Governor Dodge, at Fort Snell- 
ing. Mr. Briinson and his three 3'oiing Ojibwa converts 
were present, and made a good impression. 

At the conference which met at Jacksonville, in October, 
1837, sui^plies were voted to carry on the new missions, 
and Rev. T. W. Pope and Rev. James G. Whitfoi-d, with 
Hiram Dolap, were added to his force of workers. These 
new men went immediately up to the station at Kaposia. 
w^hile Elder Brunson jDurchased supplies. The row boat 
which took up these was frozen up in the middle of No- 
vember, and they had to be transported on the ice. from 
the lower end of Lake Pepin. 

Early in May, 1838, Superintendent Brunson took a 
steamboat and went to visit the Sioux mission. He found 
that the mission had wintered comfortably — the school 
under Mr. King, had been somewhat successful — and the 
spring work, for the Indians, was prosecuted with such 
vigor that more than 100 acres of land was ploughed for 
them, to the great delight of the Indians. In their school, 
contrary to the practice of the other missions among the 
Sioux, they determined to teach only English. 

At this time the war spirit ran high at Little Ci'ow's 
village, in consequence of the three families killed in April, 
near Lac qui Parle, by Hole-in -the- Day. But nevertheless 
Mr. Brunson, with three white men and his interpreter, 
started in the last days of June, up the Mississippi, to visit 
the Ojibwas and arrange for the establishment of a mission 
among the Ojibwas. They reached Crow Wing, the village, 
of Hole-in-the-Day, while the question ol returning the 



PROTESTANT MISSIONS. 



139- 



Sioux captive woman was being discussed. Mr. Brunsoii 
represents Hole-in-the-Day, the dirtiest and most savage - 
looking of them all, as not being willing for her delivery 
for some time ; and finally yielding under pressure. In the 
then excited state of alfairs the missionary company did no 
more at this time than examine some localities where a 
mission could be established. 

In the month of August, Elder Brunson took "Whitford 
and Randoli^h" with "Bungo," as Ojibwa interpreter, and 
started up the St. Croix to visit Lac Court Grilles. But 
when they had almost reached the place, some dogs, one 
night, ate up the bacon, and the^^ were obliged to return. 
This seemed to be providential ; for in the meantime, 
Hole-in-the-Day had come down to Fort Snelling with a 
few men. One of these had been shot by the Sioux, and 
they in turn killed two of their enemies. Whereupon, to 
keep the j)arty of Hole-in-the-Day from being entirely cut 
off, the commandant of the garrison took them within its 
walls. This greatly enraged the Sioux, who were now 
planning to attack the Fort also. In this storm of excite- 
ment the occupants of the mission got some of their effects 
into a large bark canoe, and w^ould have lied down the 
Mississippi; but Little Crow commanded them back to their 
house — placed his son, the third Little Crow, as guard 
over them, and assured them of safe protection. The next 
day, unexpectedly to them all, Elder Brunson returned. 
They talked and prayed over the situation, and concluded 
that it was safe for them to lie down and sleep under the 
protection of the Great Father above. But the Elder 
himself went out by night to see the Scalp Dance, 

When Superintendent Brunson returned to Prairie du 



'v 



140 MINNESOTA HISTORICAL COLLECTIONS. 

Chicn that fall, Hiram Delap and family. Wilt Randolph 
returned with him. He went down to Alton, Illinois, 
and attended conference, and then purchased supplies 
for the mission and went up on the steamer "Gypsy," 
where as passengers he met Dr. Emerson and wife, 
with the afterwards famous "Dred Scott," as their 
slave. From this trip Elder Brunson returned home 
sick and did not wholly recover for several years. 

In the mean time the good Methodist people, not 
-considering that a mission to savage Indians is not a 
harvest field in which they could reap immediately, nor 
even "a prairie farm," from which a crop might be ex- 
pected in two or three years, but real scrub-and-grab 
land, which required an immense amount of hard work 
before the harvest came, became dissatisfied, and com- 
plained that there were no results and a great expen- 
diture. This was unreasonable, but Methodism then had 
not learned to work and wait for fruit in such unprom- 
ising fields. 

In the summer of 1839, Rev. Mr. Pope's health hav- 
ing failed, he left the mission as Elder Brunson re- 
signed his superintendency, and Rev. B. T. Kavenaugh 
was appointed in his place. 

Among the "same fruit" in the spiritual harvest of 
the first years of this mission work, Mr. Bennron men- 
tions the conversion of one Jacob Fallstrum and his 
family. As a Swedish boy Fallstrum had come over 
to Lord Selkirk's settlement, married a half Ojibwa 
iivoman and worked his way down to the neighborliood 
of Fort Snelling. As he talked the Ojibwa language 
they made him a preacher to his wife's people. 



PROTESTANT MISSIONS. 141 

Immediatel}^ after his appointment, Elder Kavenaugh 
proceeded to his missionary field, taking with him Rev. 
Samuel Spates, Rev. Mr. Huddleston, Rev. Jolm Johnson 
and Rev. Peter Marksman — the two latter native Ojib- 
was. With them he proceeded up the Mississippi and 
established a Mission at Elk River on the east bank of 
the Mississippi. There on the 30th of December, 1839, 
Mr. Huddleston died of dysentery and was buried on 
the top of a hill overlooking the river. It is recorded, 
that Hole-in-the-Day cast a heap of stones on his grave, 
"to mark the place where the good man lies, who came 
to bless us." 

In the fall of 1840 a new Mission was established at 
Sandy Lake under the charge of Mr. Spates. Owing to 
the incursions of Sioux war parties, Hole-in-the-Day's 
village w^as deserted, and the Mission removed in Feb- 
ruary of 1840 to Rabbit river. But this appears to 
have been very soon abandoned and stations formed 
farther in the interior — at White Fish Lake and Fond 
du Lac of Lake Superior. In Judge Gale's "Upper 
Mississippi" this statement is made in regard to this 
mission: "In July, 1841, the Missions were consolidated 
into that at Sandy Lake, in charge of Rev. H. J. Bruce 
and Rev. Samuel Spates, with a school of thirty schol- 
ars; that at ^Miite Fish Lake, in charge of Rev. John 
Johnson; and that at Fond du Lac, in charge of Rev. 
George Copway, with his wife and her sister and James 
Simpson, as teachers.* 

~~ / 

* T am sorry that I liave not been able to obtain reliable materials for 
tracing this Ojibwa branch of the Methodist mission to its close. 

-8 



142 MINNESOTA HISTORICAL COLLECTIONS. 

The mission among the Sioux at Kaposia was much 
annoyed by the war parties in the S2:)ring of lb41 and 
the school was closed by order of Little Crow. Mr. 
Holton and his family had, before this time, retired from 
the Mission and made a home on the other side of the 
Mississippi in the edge of Red Rock prairie. Others 
perhaps settled on the same prairie. The Indians be- 
came insolent and exacting. Perhaps they had been 
spoiled from the beginning by having too much done 
for them by the missionaries. It was reported to us 
that Indian men would come in the night to the mis- 
sion and demand food, which the missionaries felt 
obliged to give. Accordingly ' Elder Kavenaugh put up 
buildings on Red Rock prairie w^here a school was main- 
tained for several years for Indian half-breed and white 
children. This was of course a preaching station, and 
became the starting point for Methodism in ^linnesota. 
As such, I leave its further history to be traced under 
another head. 

More than any other member of our Dakota Mission. 
Rev. S. AY. Pond had an opportunity to form the ac- 
quaintance of these Methodist missionaries. He met sev- 
eral of them frequently and sometimes had the pleasure 
of entertaining them at his house. He speaks of Rev. 
David King as a good man whom he knew best, as 
he came up with the first in 1837 and remained after the 
others had gone. 

It is pleasant to believe that the Lord Jesus, who 
has said, "Go, preach the gospel," knows even the be- 
ginnings of good, and will suffer no well-meant effort to 
fail, but will gather all up at the revelation of that 



'v 



PROTESTANT MISSIONS. 143 

day. To us it seems as if the}^ did not hold on until the 
harvest came, and the reaping has fallen mainly into 
other hands. 

SECTION V. 

MISSION OF THE AMERICAN BOARD WITH THE OJIIUVAS CON- 
TINUED: 1840—1854. 

As we commence this second decade of the Mission among 
the Ojibwas. we find but two stations occupied. At La 
Pointe, are still ^Mr. Hall and Mr. Sproat, with their wives; 
and at Pokeguma, are Mr. Boutwell, Mr. Ayer and 
Ely, with their wives and Miss Sabrina Stevens. Mr. and 
Mrs. Seymour have retired from the service of the Board, 
and the station at Fond du Lac has been abandoned in con- 
sequence of the removal of the Indians. The Report of 
the Board gives this record: "The number of Indians to 
whom the Mission have had access, both at LaPointe and 
Pokeguma has been larger than heretofore, and at the 
latter place there is manifested an increasing desire to lead 
a settled life; and were it not for their hostilities with the 
Sioux, the prospect for improvement in their character and 
habits, under the influence of Christian instruction, would 
be highly encouraging." 

At Pokeguma they had erected a pleasant log building, 
which gave them joy as a convenient place for school and 
church, in both of which their progress during the next 
winter was very satisfactory. But the shadow of war hung 
over them. In the summer of J 841, Mr. Ayer wrote to the 
committee in Boston: "War has desolated Pokeguma. 
On the 24th of May more than one hundred Sioux fell upon 
our quiet settlement, and in two short hours made it the 



144 MINNESOTA HISTORICAL COLLPXTIONS. 

scene of war and death." It appears that three large war- 
parties were made up, all to attack the village of Poke- 
guma. The llrst was headed by Little Crow, father of the 
Little Crow of 1862 notoriety. At the Falls of the St. Croix 
two Ojibwa young men stumbled upon them and killed two 
sons of Little Crow. One of them was killed in return, 
and the other carried the news to their home at Poke 
guma. This party deeply chagrined at their loss returned 
to Kaposia. The second party turned back from the mouth 
of Snake river, and the attack was made on the village by 
the third party. Two girls belonging to the Mission school, 
who had gone to the farther shore of the lake in a canoe, 
were killed; but the battle was mainly near the Mission 
with the praying Indians, the wilder part of the band hav- 
ing their homes on the island. So far as taking scalps 
was concerned this battle was not a success for the Sioux, 
as they left more than they took. But nevertheless, the 
result was, that the Indians abandoned the lake, and the 
Mission there was brought to a close. As Mr. Ayer wrote, 
the Sioux were resolved to blot out the name of Polce- 
guma. 

In the meantime reinforcements for the Ojibwa Mission 
were sent forward. In the summer of 1841, Rev. Leonard 
H. Wheeler and Mr. Woodbridge L. James, with their wives, 
and Miss Abigail Spooner, joined the station at LaPointe. 
Some of the Indians fleeing from the Sioux attacks on 
Pokeguma appear to have gone back to Magdalen Island. 
So that, in the winter following, the schools, both for boys 
and girls, were filled up and very prosperous. Mr. and 
Mrs. Wheeler and Mr. Sproat taught night schools, and 
thus a larger enthusiasm was created in the work of edu- 



PROTESTANT MISSIONS. 145 

cation. On the Sabbath, they held two public religious 
services in Ojibwa and one in English, besides a Sabbath 
school. Mr. Hall wrote at this time: "Notwithstanding 
the troubles between the Sioux and Ojibwas, I think there 
never has been more encouragement to labor for the con- 
version of the Ojibwas, than there is at present." 

Mr. James' health failed soon after their arrival at La 
Pointe, and they were obliged to return home. In the 
spring of 1842, Mr. Ely removed to Fond du Lac, whither 
some of the Christian Indians had fled from the Sioux war 
on Pokeguma. A.t this latter place Mr. Boutwell and 
Mr. Ayer still remained, and visited^ the Indians from time 
to time in their hiding places. In their winter encamp- 
ments both Mr. Boutwell and Mr. Wheeler visited them 
and at different times administered the Lord's supper. *0n 
one of these occasions, two new members were added to 
the litle band of believers. When the spring of 1843 came, 
the fear of their enemies had so far passed away that 
many of the old settlers at Pokeguma returned, pagans 
as well as Christians, and again cultivated their fields and 
occupied their houses. Of that summer Mr. Boutwell 
wrote: "Our place of worship has often been well filled 
with attentive listeners on the Sabbath; pagans have fre- 
quently attended whom I have never seen in the house of 
God." By the Indians living on Mille Lac, Mr. Boutwell 
was. invited to occupy that place, but the Pokeguma band 
would not consent to his leaving. 

In the meantime Mr. Ayer had made a winter journey 
through the north country, to Leech Lake west of the 

*Mr. Wheeler's visit wus in the sprint: of when the Indians were encamped 
on the lake shore near where DuUitli now stands. 



'v 

146 MINNESOTA HISTORICAL COLLECTIONS. 

Mississippi, and on to Red Lake, which communicates with 
the Red River of the North. At Leech Lake the principal 
chief endeavored to persuade him to remain there, and not 
go beyond, saying that although there were some bad men 
there, the most of them were not so, and would treat mis- 
sionaries well. In this he counted beyond his power, for 
three years after the missionaries of the A. M. A. were 
obliged to leave, and at a still later day the Episcopal 
Mission was broken up by them. Mr. Ayer pushed on to 
Red Lake, which he regarded as a very favorable field, 
and in the spring and summer of 1843, he and Mr. EI3' 
proceeded to occupy it. In this spring of 1843, the Ojibwa 
missionaries, Mr. Hall, Mr. Boutwell, Mr. Ayer and Mr. 
Ely, all joined in a letter to the Prudential committee, 
asking for reinforcements, and saying that the Ojibwa 
country appeared to them open, as it had not done before, 
to the teachers of religion and letters. Partly, we may 
suppose, as a result of this letter, the American Mission- 
ary Association entered the Ojibwa field in this year 1843, 
and established several stations, as detailed in another sec- 
tion of this paper. 

In June 1844, Mr. Wheeler communicated the particulars 
of a very interesting revival work, which took place at 
LaPointe the winter preceding. It commenced in the native 
church, where there was mutual confession of sin, accom- 
panied with tears of repentance. "During the winter some 
twelve or fourteen professed submission to Christ " for the 
first time. This was cheering to the hearts of the mission- 
aries, so that they could say: "In view of all which the 
Lord has done for us during the past winter, we feel 
greatly encouraged to go forward in our work." 



PROTESTANT MISSIONS. 147 

In the Report of the Board for 1S44, it appears that Mr. 
Ely is back at Pokeguma, and Mr. and Mrs. Ayer 
remahied at Red Lake, which station was held, for a num- 
ber of years, conjointly by the American Board and the 
A. M. A.'s Mission. The whole of the New Testament was 
now printed in the Ojibwa language and also a hymn book. 
These were grand helps in the work of evangelization; and 
we should not be surprised to lind the preaching of the 
gospel taking eiTect, during the next two years, at the 
far-off station of Red Lake. This seems to have been 
chiefly, though not entirel3% in a family of half-bloods; an 
old woman of eighty, with her daughter and husband, and 
several of their children were among the dozen persons 
who were received into the church in March 1846. For 
the two years previous, some of these Indians had been 
making rapid strides in civilization, making small plant- 
ings and building houses. They were away from the influ- 
ences of fire-water, and at this time had no resident trader 
among them. 

The soil about La Pointe on Magdalen Island, was found 
to be poorly adapted to tillage. Hence in the spring of 
1845, many of the Indians removed to Bad River, on the 
main land, about 20 miles to the southeast, where they 
had previously cultivated small fields, and where an ag- 
ricultural settlement could be established. Mr. and Mrs. 
Wheeler went with them to this new settlement and com- 
menced a mission station, which has since been called 
"Odonah," that is being interpreted ^'village." During 
the next two years comfortable and substantial dwelling 
houses and school house and other convenient buildings 
were erected at this new station. The Indians also made 



148 



MINNESOTA HISTORICAL COLLECTIONS. 



"some progress in outward improvement" and were "much 
more industrious than formerly." The gospel, although 
it has not yet proved the power of God unto salvation 
to many of them, has evidently done much to soften the 
savage ferocity of their character." Thus wrote Mr. 
Wheeler in the last days of 1847. 

In the meantime other important changes in the mission 
had taken place. The reoccupation of Pokeguma by the 
Indians in the summer of 1843, noticed by Mr. Boutwell, 
and the attendant encouraging prospects for missionary 
labor among them there, w^ere not destined to be of long 
continuance. The country around there was now ceded, 
and white people began to come in and occupy it. The 
Indians retired before them, so that in 1845, Pokeguma 
as a missionary station w^as abandoned, Mr. Ely going to 
La Pointe to take Mr. Sproat's place in the school, and 
Mr. Boutwell being released from his connection with the 
Board, remained to preach the gospel to the incoming 
settlement of white people. After a service of fifty 
years, for the elevation and salvation of Indians and 
white people, Mr. Boutwell is still living near Stillwater. 

The influx of white settlers brought evil more than good 
to the Ojibw^as. The men who came to work the mines 
were neither religious nor very moral, as a class, and 
their influence upon the Indians was, in the first instance, 
debasing. At every point plenty of fire-water came into 
the country, and thus the red men were tempted too 
strongly on their weakest side. In the beginning of the 
year 1847, Mr. Hall wrote a letter to the Prudential com- 
mittee, deploring this changed state of things, in which 
he expressed the belief that "nothing will prevent their 



V 



PROTESTANT MISSIONS. 149 

utter destruction but a thorough conversion to God." 
And theirs were not the environments in which the mis- 
sionaries could strongly hoj^e for the infhience of the 
Holy Spirit. But dark as the prospects were, they did 
not give up hope. Not in themselves, not in their schools^ 
not in their books, not in the gathered settlements for 
civilization, Mr. Hall says, but in God, was their hope. 
At Red Lake too there were dark clouds. The war spirit 
was rampant, and the missionaries lamented the desertion 
of several of their native church members. Even at this- 
remote station, from Pembina and the Red River settle- 
ment as well as from the east, the means of intoxication 
flowed in upon them, and they were but too ready to 
welcome the " minnewakan. " Still there were hopeful 
signs. The old Indians said, "Our children will all 
pray." But ""ive cannot pray now; we must go to war 
next summer; and we cannot fight and pray too." So 
reasoned the Ojibwas. 

In the year 1849, Rev. Frederick Ayer of Red Lake, was 
released from his connection with the Board, and the station 
turned over to the American Missionary Association, whose 
missionaries had been there for several j^ears. The same 
year Mr. Ely also was released from his connection with 
the American Board, and his place as teacher at La Pointe 
was supplied by Mr. Charles Pulsifer, who with his wife- 
had recently joined that Mission.* For two or three years 
from this time onward, the Ojibwas on the south side of 
Lake Superior were kept in a state of great excitement 
by orders of the government for their removal to the 

*In the suriuner of 1840 Mr. Hall luid Mr. Wheeler made a t»)ur throuirh the m)rih. 
country as far as lied Luke. 



V 



150 MINNP:sOTA HISTOIilCAL COLLECTIONS. 

Mississippi river country. In the autumn of 1850 they 
were required to go to Sandy Lake to receive their annui- 
ties. Some ^vent and some did not; and those who went 
fared the worst, as the provisions were scanty and poor, 
many sickened and died, and only some goods were dis. 
tributed. At this time Mr. Hall made a visit to that part 
of the country, that he might be prepared for action in 
the future. The winter following, Mr. Wheeler, being on 
a visit to New England, went with one of the secretaries 
of the Board, Rev. S. B. Treat, to Washington, to repre- 
sent to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs the desirable- 
ness and propriety of permitting those Indians to remain 
on the shores of Lake Superior. On his return to Bad 
River in the spring, he could not give the Indians any 
assurance that the government would comply with their 
request to remain; but he could tell them that the only 
2)0ssible conditions on which they could stay were, that 
they should adopt the dress and the habits of white people.* 

This information and advice had a good eft'ect. The In- 
dians were put on their character. They planted more. 
They did not make dances. They sent their children to 
school, and they themselves came to church. And they 
^greatly abstained from intoxicating drinks. The church at 
La Pointe now numbered 22, some of whom were white 
j)ersons. On the whole the missionaries had a good many 
things to encourage them. 

The government persisted in tlie plan of removing the 
La Pointe Indians to the Mississippi. In 1852, Mr. Hall was 
requested to take charge of a boarding school, to be com- 
menced on the left bank of the Crow Wing River, about 

♦See Mr. Wheelt-r s letter in the Herald of Oct.. 1S.)1. 



PUOTfLSTANT MISSIONS. 



ten miles from its junction with the Mississippi, under the 
uuspices of the U. S. government. In September he vis- 
ited the place, and being pleased with the x^rospects, he 
removed his family thither in the following spring; and 
was accompanied by Mr. Pulsifer and Henry Blatchford, a 
native catecliist. The station at La Pointe having been 
occupied now more than twenty* years, was abandoned. 
Mr. Wheeler was left in charge of the whole mission work 
on the lake shore. The effort to remove these Indians was 
so distasteful to them that the government finally aban- 
doned the plan. This left Mr. Hall and his companions 
on the Crow Wing, with so few Ojibwas about them, and 
with so much firewater and eo many Sioux war parties, 
that the attempt of the government to establish there a 
boarding school was abandoned. 

In the year 1854, Rev. Sherman Hall, having been almost 
a quarter of a century in the service of the American Board 
among the Ojibwas, retired from that service, and thence- 
forth gave himself to home mission w^ork. Mr. Hall died 
Aug. 31, 1879, at Sauk Rapids, Minn. 

The elfort of the government to remove the Indians from 
Lake Superior having been given up, the annual payment 
was made there in the autumn of 1853. The Indians were 
well pleased with the change of plan, and became from 
that time more desirous to come under the conditions of 
civilization and Christianity. The next year Mr. Wheeler 
represents as ''one of progress;" "a number of Indians," 
he says, "including three chiefs, have identified them- 
selves with the Christian party, and call themselves -Pray- 
ng Indians.'" 



152 MINNESOTA HISTORICAL COLLECTIONS. 

SECTION VI. 

MISSIONS OF THE AMERICAN BOARD WITH THE SIOUX — 
CONTINUED— 1843. 

In the month of June, 1843, the new station at Traverse 
des Sioux was commenced. There accompanied us, from 
Ohio, Mr. Robert Hopkins and his young wife, Agnes, Miss 
Jane S. Williamson, sister of Dr. Williamson, and Miss 
Julia Kephart. Also, there came from Massachusetts, 
Thomas L. Longley, a brother of Mrs. Riggs, in the 
strength of his young manhood. Aunt Jane Williamson, 
as we all learned to call her, stopped with her brother at 
Fort Snelling. The Doctor had spent the year previous 
at that point in the place of Mr. S. W. Pond, who was at 
Lac qui Parle. And he had arranged with the surgeon 
of the post to spend a few months in the garrison during 
the summer. Consequently Mr. and Mrs. Hopkins pro 
ceeded, for the year, to Lac qui Parle, as Mr. Pond had 
already come down. Mrs. Riggs went up with the party 
to bring down our little girl. They had the bad fortune 
to fall in with an Ojibwa war party at Chippewa river, 
who had just kill and scalped two Sioux on their way 
out to meet friends. 

The young man, Thomas Longley, remained with me 
at the Traverse, to erect a log cabin. A part of the In- 
dians at that place were favorable to our commencing a 
station there, and a part were opposed to it. But we 
trusted they would come around all right. Before our 
cabin was ready to be occupied, and only a few days 
after Mrs. Riggs had returned from Lac qui Parle, Thomas 
Longley, wiiile bathing in the Minnesota river, was 
drowned. The Indians of the o^Dposition said that "Oonk- 



PROTESTANT MISSIONS. 



153 



taylie", their Neptune, was angry with us missionaries, 
and this was made a justification for their killing the 
yoke of oxen we had. A third ox, which I purcliased to 
haul wood with the next winter, went the same way, the 
following summer. Besides, this was the commencement 
of the flooding of the Minnesota country with fire-water, 
by white men. The Indians at the Traverse were drunk 
most of the time, and our house was often visited by 
them in a state of intoxication. Doubtless we should 
have been justified by most persons if we had abandoned 
the station. But we held on — made a little progress in 
the education of children — built a chapel, and had some 
listeners to the preaching of the gospel. 

At Lac qui Parle the opposition took the same form as 
at the Traverse — that of killing Mission cattle. For a 
while it seemed as if the Lac qui Parle station would 
have to be given up for lack of means of transportation. 
In the month of March, 1846, Mr. Joseph Renville died. 
He had been such a good friend of the Mission for about 
eleven years, could it be carried on now without him, 
and against so much opposition? Dr. Williamson may 
have felt doubtful. At any rate, when he received an in- 
vitation, that summer from Little Crow's band, to come 
down and establish a school and Mission at Kaposia, 
where the Methodist Mission had been a few years 
before, he regarded it as a call from God, and went. 
This made it necessary for me to return to Lac qui Parle, 
although, having suffered so much at the Traverse, it was 
hard to feel quite satisfied to leave a place so conse- 
crated. But the hand of God was in it. Thencefoward 
*here was less of opposition, and great success attended 



V 



154 MINNESOTA HISTORICAL COLLECTIONS. 

our Mission work. Dr. Williamson built at Kai)osia. The 
brothers Pond had become located at Oak Grove— Samuel 
W. soon after this time branched off to the village of 
Shakopee. 'Mr. Hopkins and Mr. A. G. Huggins occu- 
pied at the Traverse; and Mr. Jonas Petti john, who had 
married Miss Fanny Huggins, was with us at Lac qui 
Parle. 

In these years St. Paul was in its infancy and noted 
only for its grog shops. Dr. Williamson, living near by, 
preached the first sermon (Protestant) in the place, and 
was instrumental in having Miss Harriet E. Bishop, one of 
Gov. Slade's girls, come out there as the first school 
teacher. 

At all our stations the work of education and evangel- 
ization appeared more hopeful. Mr. Robert Hopkins and 
Mr. G. H. Pond were licensed and ordained by the Da 
kota Presbytery, organized in the fall of 1844. In the- 
summer of 1848 the board sent out several additional 
workers — Rev. M. N. Adams, Rev. John F. Alton, Rev. 
Joseph W. Hancock and Rev. Joshua Potter. The latter 
came up from the Cherokee country and did not remain 
long, as the Sioux field did not look inviting. Mr. Han- 
cock and Mr. Alton occupied Red Wing, which had been 
vacated by the Swiss missionaries. Mr. and Mrs. Adams 
spent several years at Lac qui Parle, starting a small 
family boarding school. Thus the work made some prog- 
ress, but hardly in proportion to our enlarged force of 
workers. 

Then came the summer of 1851, with its treaties of 
Traverse des Sioux and Minnesota, by which the white 
people got possession of the State of Minnesota, and the 



PROTESTANT MISSIONS. 



155 



Indians were removed to the Resei've on the upper part 
of the Minnesota river. This arrangement was followed 
by many changes in our Dakota Mission. Even before the 
treaties were ratified, white people began to come into 
the newly ceded territory. The Indians were shortly re- 
moved from the Mississippi and lower Minnesota. In the 
summer of 1852, Dr. Williamson selected a location and 
erected a mission house above the Yellow Medicine, which 
he called "Pazhehootaze.*' Late in the autumn he removed 
his family to the new station, where they had to live 
much by faith during the severe winter that followed. 

It should have been noticed that while the Treaty of 
Traverse des Sioux was in its preparatory state, by a 
mysterious providence. Rev. Robert Hopkins was suddenly 
called away to the other w^orld. On the morning of the 
4th of July, 1851, he went out to bathe in the overflow of 
the river, and was drowned. Mr. Hopkins was a consci- 
entious Christian man and a faithful worker in the mis- 
sionary field. 

When the Indians were removed from Red Wing, Oak 
Grove, Shakopee and Traverse des Sioux, the missionaries 
elected to remain and cast in their lot with the new and 
fast growing w^hite communities. Thus J. W. Hancock 
organized, and for many years ministered to, the First 
Presbyterian church of Red AVing. G. H. Pond organized 
the Oak. Grove church and was its successful pastor for 
twenty years. In like manner, S. W. Pond was the or- 
ganizer and for many years the pastor of the Presbyte- 
rian church of Shakopee. In 1852, M. N. Adams re- 
ceived an invitation to come and build up the Presbyte- 
rian church at Traverse des Sioux. Thus our Indian 



V 



156 MINNESOTA HISTORICAL COLLECTIONS. 

Missions gave of their jewels to the white people and 
the work of Foreign Missions dovetailed' in with the Home 
Mission ni:)building. These gifts reduced the Mission of 
the American Board to its lowest terms. Could it be 
conducted to a successful issue with such diminished 
forces? Henceforth the lesson to be learned was, "Not 
by might nor by power, but by my Spirit, saith the Lord." 

SECTION VII. 

MISSION OF THE A. M. A. WITH THE OJIBWAS, 1843 TO 1859. 

The American Missionary Association, which had been 
formed in the interest of the colored people, by some 
-of the best Christian men and women of the country, 
very soon after its organization, turned its attention to 
the Indians. Their Mission among the Ojibwas of Min 
nesota was commenced in the fall of 1843, by sending 
out from Oberlin, Ohio, Rev. Alonzo Barnard and wife; 
Dr. William Lewis and wife; P. O. Johnson and wife; 
and D. B. Spencer and S. G. Wright, who were unmar- 
ried. At the same time Rev. J. P. Bardwell went, as 
blacksmith, to Sandy Lake, in the service of the gov- 
'Crnment. 

Mr. Barnard and wife with Mr. Spencer and S. G. 
Wright were located at Red Lake, to labor in connec- 
tion with Rev. Frederick Ayer of the American Board. 
And Dr. Lewis and Mr. Johnson commenced a station 
at Leech Lake, where Mr. Boutwell and wife had been 
some years before. But these Indians at Leecli Lake 
were bad Indians, the Pillagers, and treated these mis- 
sionaries no better, (if indeed so well) than they had Mr. 
Boutwell. They killed the Mission cattle, and were per- 



PROTESTANT MISSIONS. 



Vol 



sistent beggars, ugly and threatening in their demands. 
In the fall of 1845, this station was abandoned, when 
P. O. Johnson and wife retired from the work, and Dr. 
and Mrs. Lewis were transferred to the station at Red 
Lake. In the previous year (1844) this Mission force at 
Red Lake had been further increased by Mr. O. A. Coe 
and wife from the States; Mr. Coe went out as farmer. 

But in the summer of 1847, Rev. Mr. Barnard and Mr. 
Spencer formed a new Station at Red Cedar or Cass Lake, 
which was joined the same year by Mr. A. B. Adams 
and wife, new missionaries. This appears to have been 
commenced under very favorable circumstances, as we 
have it on the record, that a church was formed soon 
after, and six Indian houses were built in the year (1848) 
following, when J. S. Fisher and wife and Francis Spees 
and wife were added to the missionary force at Cass Lake. 

In the neighborhood of the Red Cedar or Cass Lake, 
was Lake Winnebagooshish or Winnipeg, which appears 
by the records to be counted as a station of the A. M. 
A. as early as 1849. This was dropped three years after- 
wards, and again taken up in the spring of 1856, the 
missionary laborers going from Cass Lake. In the mean- 
time two new men joined the force at Red Lake, viz : 
Mr. R. M. Lalf erty and Mr. E. Carver. So that, although 
in this year of 1851, Dr. Lewis and wife retired from the 
service of the Association, the next year, the Missionary 
workers in the employ of the Society had I'eached the 
highest number — 21. When 1853 came around, Winneba- 
gooshish was dropped, and new stations were commenced 
at St. Joseph and Belle Prairie and the workers were 

counted at nineteen. 
-9 



158 



MINNESOTA HISTORICAL COLLECTIONS. 



The number of men and women in this work had now 
begun to decrease. No additional ones came. And A. 
B. Adams and wife retired in the summer of 1852, and 
settled at Belle Prairie. And in 1854, Rev. M. Barnard 
and family left the work, after being in the service 
eleven years. Mr. Coe also left the same year, and set- 
tled at Belle Prairie. But notwithstanding the diminished 
force of laborers, a Boarding School was commenced at 
Red Lake. 

In 1856 the Association reports four stations and sev- 
enteen missionary w^orkers. This year mission work was 
renewed at Winnipeg or Winnebagooshish, and a large 
force sent from Red Lake and Cass Lake — Mr. Bai-dwell. 
Mr. Lafferty, Mr. Fisher, Mr. Spencer, Mr. Carver, Mr. 
Specs and Mr. Wright — and all had their families with 
them except Mr. Spees. Mr. Bardwell and Mr. Specs 
remained but a short time, but still there was a large 
force left. And this, for missionary work, under the 
circumstances, was a disadvantage. The Commissioner 
of Indian Affairs, Mr. Manypenny, with the best inten- 
tions in the wwld, placed in the hands of the A. M. A. 
and its missionaries the expenditure of not only the ed- 
ucational but the civilization funds of that section, thus 
bitterly antagonizing the missionaries with the Indian 
agent and the traders. The agent cursed the mission- 
aries and told the Indians if they killed them no one 
would care. For missionaries to obtain the handling of 
government money is always a grave mistake. Added 
to this antagonism of the forces which should have 
hel^Ded each other in the wwk of civilization, was the 
fact that ''fire water" w^as brought in by the barrel, 



PROTESTANT MISSIONS. 



159 



and the Indians were drunk the greater part of the time. 
It is put upon the record that about this time the 
work of the Society at Red Lake was "suspended on 
account of unreasonable demands of the Indians upon 
the missionaries for secular labors and assistance." This 
is from the Society's records. It does not appear that 
they resumed work there for some years, although "Mr. 
"Wright wrote of the steadfastness of the little church 
there." 

In 1858 this record is made: "Rev. J. P. Bardwell 
visited the Mission and reported the Indians at Cass 
Lake and Winnipeg as making improvements in agricul- 
ture." But, as Mr. Wright reports: "In the spring of 
1859 the Missions at all the different points, were dis- 
continued." And the secretary of the Association writes: 
"It was decided to relinquish the Mission. Among the 
reasons were the following: 1. The anticipations of the 
missionaries were very far from being met. 2. The par- 
ents have so little regard for the education of their chil- 
dren. 3. Intemperance and the facilities for obtaining 
the means of intoxication increased. 4. The licentious 
habits of w^hite men, and the influence of the traders." 

Thus closed the work of the A. M. A. for the Ojib 
was. They had occupied the field for sixteen years with 
a good force of workers. One counts over one hundred 
and sixty years of missionary labor performed and at an 
expenditure of probably not less than ^50,000. And with 
what results? Mr. S. G. Wright, who, after his connec- 
tion with the Society closed, was for many years a teach- 
er under the government, makes this answer: 1. "A 
great amount of prejudice has been removed from the 



160 



MINNESOTA HISTOIUCAL COLLFX'TIONS. 



minds of the Indians. When we first met the Indians 
at Red Lake we found them full of prejudice against 
the whites. The old chief told us he believed all white 
men would lie — that they w^ere all dishonest and were 
not the friends of the Indians. I am sure the chiefs 
and all the people came to regard missionaries, at least, 
in a very different light. 2. Another result was, under 
the influence of the Mission, the majority of the men 
were induced to adopt habits of industry. In 1843, only 
four men had been known to assist the women in cul- 
tivating the ground. Now there are very few Indians 
in the country who do not work with the ax and the 
hoe. 3. Another result of these years of labor is — a 
great amount of religious instruction has been given. 
All through the land of the Ojibwas the gospel has 
been preached — in the wigwam, by the wayside and in 
the church. 4. Churches were organized at different 
points, and, although we could not speak of any great 
gathering, there were conversions all along, and we have 
witnesses the growth of some remarkable Christian char- 
acters. Many of them have passed away to join the 
company of all languages and nations who are around 
the throne." 

Leech Lake appears to have been a hard place. First 
Mr. Boutwell and wife spent several years there^ after 
1834s Thns the mission of the A. M. A. was established 
there in 1843, for two years only. Next Rev. Mr. Breck 
established an Episcopal mission in 185C, but left in two 
years, on account of bad treatment from the Indians. 
Again at two different times, and for several years each 
time, between 1860 and 1871, Mr. Wright was there as 



PROTESTANT MISSIONS. 



IGl 



government teacher. But in all this time no one was 
known to become a christian. But in 1875, Mr. Wright 
was again employed there as a teacher under govern- 
ment. This time he continued for three years and a half. 
And now commenced the gathering of the harvest. 
*'Prom the beginning of our work," Mr. Wright says, 
"we had good and very attentive congregations. Some 
very remarkable conversions took place the first year. 
And from that on, there was no time when there was not 
considerable religious interest. Nearly forty were hope- 
fully converted." This is a good record. "Though the 
blessing tarry, wait for it," is the divine command. 

SECTION vni. 

MISSIONS OF THE PROTESTANT EPISCOPAL CHURCH AMONG 
THE OJIBWAS AND SIOUX — 1852 TO 1880. 

Rev. John Johnson, called by his people Enmegah- 
bowh — the one who stands before his people," was an 
Ottawa by birth, and had been adopted by the Ojibwas. 
He was converted under Methodist preaching in Canada, 
educated at the Methodist Mission school at Jacksonville, 
Illinois, and became a preacher of the gospel. In the 
autumn of 1839 he accompanied Elder T. B. Kavenaugh 
up the Mississippi river, and was thenceforward a mis- 
sionary of the Methodist Episcopal church among the 
Ojibwas, until they withdrew^ fTom the field. 

In the summer of 1852, at the solicitation of Enmegabowh, 
Rev. James Llo^'d Breck, a minister of the Episcopal 
church, left St. Paul and traveled on foot up the Mis- 
sissippi to the mouth of Crow Wing, and thence to the 
shore of Gull Lake. He had as his companion in the 



/ 



\ 



162 MINNESOTA HISTORICAL COLLECTIONS. 

journey, a young divinity student from their Seminary 
at Nashotah, Wisconsin. Arriving at Gull Lake, he held 
a council with the chief men, a majority of whom favored 
his proposition to establish a Mission and school among 
them. 

Under the tall pine trees of Gull Lake, he immediately 
commenced his school. Soon after he obtained a tent 
from Fort Ripley, 22 miles distant, in which the school 
w^as continued until the autumn, when the first log build- 
ing was completed. To this additions were made from 
year to year, until the St. Columba Mission House was 
the result, with its church and bell. 

The work of teaching soon demanded more laborers, 
and teachers came from the East. Mr. Samuel Hall, 
Miss Mills, who afterwards became Mrs. Breck; IMiss 
Frink, Miss West, Miss Allen and Miss Wells were 
among the assistants from time to time. Charles Selkrig 
and Enmegabowh acted as interpreters, and Mr. John 
Parker, now of St. Paul, was employed in the erection 
of the buildings from 1852 to 1857. 

Northward from Gull Lake, about 60 miles, is Leech 
Lake, the home of the Ojibwa band called "The Pillagers." 
Their name seems to have been quite a good index to 
their character, in those years. In 1838 they had, by 
their annoyances, driven away Rev. T. W. Boutwell and 
wife, missionaries of the American Board; and in like 
manner, in the year 1845, they made it impossible for mis- 
sionaries of the American Missionary Association to re- 
main. But now, in the year 1856, these same wild Pillagers 
by their head man, invite Rev. Mr. Breck to establish a 
school at Leech Lake, and give him control of their edu- 



V 



PROTESTANT MISSIONS. 163 

cational money. Will they do better by him than they 
did by former missionaries? We shall see. 

Buildings were erected at Leech Lake, near the head of 
the Mississippi, in the summer of 1856, and on the 12th 
of November of that year, Mr. Breck, with his family 
and assistants, removed to the new mission. On the same 
day that Mr. Breck left Gull Lake, Rev. E. S. Peake ar- 
rived to take charge of the St. Columba Mission. Mr. 
Peake was a young clergyman from the'Nashotah semi- 
nary, w^ho had spent the previous year in frontier work 
in the valley of the Minnesota and in the Sioux country, 
and was appointed to the mission among the O jib was by 
Rt. Rev. Bishop Jackson Kemper, then the Bishop in 
charge of Minnesota. Mr. Peake went with his wife in 
the stage from St. Paul to Gull lake. 

Mr. Charles W. Rees and his family, with Miss Emily 
West and Miss Kate Heron, spent the winter at Leech 
Lake, with Mr. and Mrs. Breck. 

In the spring of 1857, the turbulent spirits among the 
Pillagers became very insolent and troublesome, partly, at 
least, in consequence of the removal of the U. S. troops 
from Fort Ripley. Mr. Breck's life was repeatedly threat- 
ened by Indians, who came to the Mission House, break- 
ing the window^s with clubs, and entering the house in 
their war dress of paint and feathers. This conduct forced 
Mr. Breck to retire from Leech Lake, and abandon the 
mission there, which he did in June, 1857, after residing 
there only eight months. 

The same causes which forced the abandonment of the 
upper mission in June, soon led to violence in the vicinity 
of St. Columba. The murder of a German by some intox- 



161 MINNESOTA HISTORICAL COLLECTIONS. 

icatcd young Indians, was followed by the arrest of three, 
who were summarily executed by lynch law, on their 
way to St. Paul for trial. This greatly exasperated the 
Indians, and endangered the lives of the missionaries. Mr. 
Peake with his wife and sister, and Miss Frink and Charles 
Selkrig retired, for a time, to Fort Ripley, which was in 
charge of an ordnance Sergeant and the Chaplain. Enme- 
gahbowh remained at the mission. The troops were soon 
ordered back to Fort Ripley, but the commanding officer 
considered it unsafe for the members of the Mission to 
spend the winter among the Indians, and invited the mis- 
sionary to occupy a set of vacant officers' quarters in the 
garrison. This he thankfully accepted. Fifteen children 
were brought from the Mission, and the school was kept 
up, while Mr. Peake continued to visit St. Columba, 22 miles 
distant, at the end of each week, for divine service, per- 
forming the journey usually on foot. 

In xhe spring of 1858, the Mission family returned to St. 
Columba; and in the summer of that year, John Johnson 
— Enmegahbowh — was admitted by Bishop Kemper to the 
first order of the Episcopal ministry, at Faribault. 

Rev. James L. Breck, on retiring from the Indian coun- 
try, established Mission schools at Faribault, one of which 
was for Indian children, named after the first missionary 
to the Mohawks, Andrews Hall. It was in the care of 
Miss Susan L. Phelps, Miss Mary J. Mills and Miss Emily 
J. West. It had from twenty to thirty Indian children of 
Ojibwa and Sioux parentage. "Of these children," Bishop 
Whipple writes afterwards: "Several have become min- 
isters of Jesus Christ." 



V 



PUOTESTANT MISSIONS. 165 

In the summer of 1859, Mr. Peake removed with his fam- 
ily across the Mississippi to Crow Wing, in the edge of 
the reservation, and built a chapel there. Rev. John John- 
son continuing in charge at Gull Lake, and Mr. Peake still 
had a general supervision, and visited St. Columba every 
month to celebrate the holy communion. This continued 
for three years until the Sioux outbreak in 1862, when the 
St. Columba Mission was broken up by the war parties. 
John Johnson alone remained and continued to i:)reach the 
gospel to his people as a forlorn hope, encouraged by the 
chaplain at Fort Ripley and by Bishop Whipple, who was 
now in charge of the diocese of Minnesota. 

In the year of our Lord, 1859, the Right Rev. H. B. 
Whipple was consecrated Bishop of the Protestant Episco- 
pal church of Minnesota. It is the testimony of others, 
that from his first coming into the country, he took a deep 
interest in the salvation of the red men, visiting the coun- 
try every year, and traversing it from Crow Wing to Red 
Lake in canoe and on foot, that he might preach the com- 
ing of the Son of God in all their villages. How he has 
stood up manfully and Christianly, and plead the cause of 
the Indian, in the face of opposition and scorn, in high 
places and low places, many of us know right well. 

At the time of his coming, and for years after, hope for 
the salvation of the Ojibwa Indians had well nigh died out. 
The picture drawn by the Bishop is a very dark one, as 
well as a true one. At that time, the Rev. J. Lloyd Breck 
had been driven from the Mission at Leech Lake, by 
drunken Indians. The Rev. E. S. Peake had been com- 
pelled to remove his family from Gull Lake to Crow Wing. 
The missionaries of the American Board had retired from 



V 



1C)G minnp:sota historical collections 

this part of field some years before. The T^Iethodist Mis- 
sion at Sandy Lake and tlie Mission at Rabbit Lake ^vere 
things of the past. And in this year, 1859, the American 
Missionary Association, owing to annoyances and exactions 
of drunken Indians, had ■withdra\vn their Missions from 
Red Lake and Lake Winnebegoshish. Thus Christian work 
for the Ojibwas seemed hopeless. The deadly fire-water 
flowed freely — vice and immorality were open and unblush- 
ing. The poor Indians were dragged down to depths of 
degradation their fathers never knew. Only one clergyman. 
Rev. John Johnson, Enmegahbowh, remained among the 
Ojibwas. 

The Mission at Gull Lake was destroyed by the Indians 
during the outbreak of 1862. Rev. E. S. Peake became a 
chaplain in the army in 1863. For several years there did 
not seem to be a ray of light on their future. Each year 
Bishop "Whipple, with John Johnson and others of his 
clergy, traveled hundreds of miles in the Indian country, 
to tell the story of God's love. They saw but little fruit 
of their labors. 

But in 1869, a new era commenced. A few Indians were 
induced to remove to a new^ reservation at White Earth. 
Others follow^ed until all of the Gull Lake band, as well 
as many others, were removed. For the first time this 
people had an abiding place— a home. Rev. John Johnson 
removed with his people, and commenced services in a log 
house. Some of the chiefs and head men were converted; 
among these, one of the great warriors of the tribe, named 
Nabonaskong. His whole soul was consecrated to the new 
service. He talked constantly of the love of Jesus Christ, 
and with tears plead with his heathen countrymen to turn 



I 



PROTESTANT MISSIONS. 



167 



to God. Many were baptised, and a church and parsonage 
were built. 

In 1874, Rev. Joseph A. Gilfillan joined the Mission, and 
a school was opened for the training of Indian clergy. A 
Mission house, and also a hospital with thirty beds, were 
erected. Since then eight Indians have been ordained to 
the ministry: Samuel Madison, Frederick Smith, George 
Johnson, Charles Wright, John Coleman, George Smith, 
Mark Hart and George B, Morgan. And Rev. Edwin Bene 
diet, an Indian clergyman from Canada has joined the 
Mission. 

When, in the first term of Gen. Grant's administration, the 
arrangement was made to divide up the Indian field, and 
give to the various religious denominations the nomination 
of Indian agents, the w^hole of the Ojibwa nation was 
assigned to the American Missionary Association. Thus, 
this Association selected the agents for Lake Superior and 
Leech Lake and Red Lake and White Earth agencies. 
They also selected and sent out teachers, whose salaries 
were paid out of government funds. This was the case at 
Leech Lake. At Red Lake the A. M. A, for a number 
of years, supported a missionary. Rev. Francis Spees. 
This was their second occupation of this field; the first hav- 
ing been given up in 1859. The writer of this paper vis- 
ited Leech Lake and Red Lake in the summer of 187-1, in 
connection with other agencies, and to him the whole 
Ojibwa country appeared like an open and promising field. 

But for reasons satisfactory to themselves, mainly it is 
believed financial, the Congregational church relinquished 
their Mission at Red Lake in 1877, and in 1879, their 
school at Leech Lake, and both places have been occupied 



168 



MINNESOTA HISTORICAL COLLECTIONS. 



Bishop Whipple. Church buildings have been erected 
at the agency at Red Lake, at Mah-dwa-go-niud's village 
on Red Lake; at Wild Rice River, at Leech Lake and at 
Pembina settlement. The plan of the Bishop is to send 
out his Indian clergy two and two. All of tlie above 
churches are in the charge of Indian clergymen, whose 
devotion and piety will compare favorably with that of 
their white brothers. 

Last fall the Indians at White Earth held their first 
-agricultural fair. There were fifteen hundred and twenty 
entries, representing twenty-five thousand bushels of wheat, 
besides large quantities of other cereals, and every variety 
of vegetables and household industry. The exhibitors were 
Indians, the judges were Indians and the police were 
Indians. U. S. Senator McMillan said that the fair would 
<?ompare favorably with any county fair he had ever at- 
tended. The Indians at White Earth are a civilized peo- 
ple, as quiet and orderly as any in the state. And there 
is a marked movement going on throughout the whole 
Ojibwa nation, leading them to Christian civilization. 

Bishop Whipple has confirmed 350 Ojibwas. And the 
Episcopal church has at this time one hundred christian 
families of five hundred souls, and about 250 communicants. 
This has been accomplished without government to punish 
-crime, without law to protect the innocent, without indi- 
vidual titles to property, but is the result of the gospel 
of Jesus Christ. 

Almost half a century has passed since the first mis- 
sionaries of the American Board entered this part of the 
•Ojibwa field. Then came the Methodist missionaries in 
1839. Four years after this, in 1843, the American Mis- 



V 



PROTESTANT MISSIONS. 169 

sionary Association sent in a large force, and occupied 
several stations. Then in 1852, the Protestant Episcopal 
church commenced Mission work. True and earnest 
hearted workers, men and women, lived and labored many 
years among the Ojibwas for this uplifting, and some died 
on the field. Among thorns, on stony places, and on the 
hard beaten roads of sin. they scattered the seeds of life. 
At length these seeds, though buried long, have sprung 
up and grown and fruited. To Bishop Whipple, in the 
main, it has been granted to gather the harvest. And we 
all thank God for it. Thus it is still true, that one sow- 
eth and another reapeth. But blessed shall be both the 
sowers and the reapers, for they shall rejoice together, in 
the spiritual harvest. 

The Episcopal Mission among the Sioux was com- 
menced by Bishop Whipx^le in 1860. This was at what 
was called Red AVood or Lower Sioux Agency. The 
missionaries of the American Board had a small number 
of church members at this place. These were mainly 
those who had been members of Dr. Williamson's church 
at Raponia. before their removal. Rev. John P. Wil- 
liamson had just finished his Seminary course at Lane 
Seminary, and was to come out and occupy the Lower 
Agency in this autumn of 1860. Bishop Whipple was 
doubtless not fully acquainted with these facts, when he 
acted on the request of the chiefs of the Lower Sioux 
Agency, to establish a Mission among them. At the 
time, the Presbyterian missionaries felt that he hardly 
acted towards them in accordance with the principles of 
Missionary comity: but they have since been abundantly 
satisfied that the movement was of the Lord, that there- 



170 MINNESOTA HISTORICAL COLLECTIONS. 

by the good Bishop might be identified with the spir- 
itual work for the Sioux against the time of need. 

In the autumn of 1860, he sent Rev. Samuel D. Hin- 
man and wife and Miss Emily J. "West to this Agenc}^ 
when a Mission and school were commenced with every 
promise of success. A small Christian company had been 
gathered, when the Mission was destroyed by the out- 
break of August, 1862. Every Christian Indian was faith- 
ful during this terrible war. The lives of the white cap- 
tives were saved by the members of the Presbyterian 
and Episcopal churches. They rescued more than a hun- 
dred women and children from captivity. The story of 
their heroism reads like the tales of the early church. 
Taopi, Good Thunder, Owancha-maza, like John Other 
Day, Simon Anawangmane, Paul Mazakootamane and 
Xiorenzo Lawrence performed deeds of bravery which 
deserved the gratitude of the whole American people. 

The Episcopal Mission was continued in the camp of 
Indian prisoners at Port Snelling, and removed with the 
Indians to Crow Creek on the Missouri river. Bishop 
Whipple confirmed one hundred and thirty-seven Sioux 
while the Mission was under his care. In 1875 he licensed 
Oeorge W. St. Clair, a Sioux Indian as catechist and 
lay reader, to care for the scattered families of Sioux 
residing at Faribault, Shakopee, Mendota and Red Wing. 
He wa^s ordained in 1879, and is now an itinerant mis- 
sionary to his people. About thirty persons, in these 
.settlements, have been confirmed. 



PROTESTANT MISSIONS. 171 

SECTION IX. 

MISSION OF THE AMERICAN BOARD AMONG THE SIOUX OR 
DAKOTAS, CONTINUED — 1853. 

It will be remembered that, as a result of the Treaties 
of 1851, the Sioux were removed from the Mississippi 
and Lower Minnesota, to reservations on the Red Wood 
and Yellow Medicine, and that consequently the Stations 
at Red Wing, Little Crow's Village, Oak Grove, Prairie- 
ville and Traverse des Sioux were abandoned, all the 
missionaries connected with these Stations, except Dr. 
Williamson, electing to remain and labor among the white 
people. It was also noted that Dr. Williamson had, in 
the autumn of 1852, occupied a new Station a few miles 
above the Yellow Medicine. Also that in the next year Mr. 
Adams had received a call to take charge of the Church 
at Traverse des Sioux, which he had accepted. Mr. and 
Mrs. Pettijohn had also left Lac qui Parle and taken a 
homestead in the neighborhood of Traverse des Sioux, so 
that there were but the two families left. Dr. Williamson's 
and my own. Jane P. Williamson resided with her brother 
at Pay-zhe-hoo-ta-zee, and taught the school; while in my 
own family, we were fortunate to have Miss Lucy Spoon - 
er, afterwards Mrs. Drake, for two years after our return 
in the summer of 1852. Thus the work was carried on 
at the Yellow Medicine and Lac qui Parle. At the latter 
place, on the 3d of March, 1854, our Mission buildings 
took fire and were burned to ashes, including almost 
their entire contents. This event brought out largely 
the sympathy of our Dakota friends and others, near 
and far off. 



172 MINNESOTA HISTOUICAL COLLECTIONS. 

After tliis event, and while we were preparing to re- 
build at Lac qui Parle, Rev. S. B. Treat, of Boston, vis- 
ited our Mission, and, after due consideration, it was 
decided that our strength was now in a greater consol- 
idation. We were only two families, and it was wisely 
judged that we could be more helpful to each other, 
as w^ell as carry on the Mission work to greater advan- 
tage, if we were nearer together. The annuities would 
now be paid at the Yellow Medicine, and our Christian 
• Indians were quite willing to begin anew nearer to the 
Agency, and so in the summer of 1854, we built within 
two miles of Dr. Williamson, calling our station, at first, 
New^ Hope, but afterwards changing it to Hazelwood. 

The plan w^as now, to commence a boarding school at 
the new station, as soon as possible, and to gather around 
the two stations as many as were willing to come under 
the arrangements of a civilized and Christianized commu- 
nity. This plan was eminently successful. To meet the * 
requirements for building, a circular saw mill was put in 
operation by the Mission. This furnished the lumber to 
put up a building, the next year (1855), for the boarding 
school, and also a neat chapel. Of the ^700 required for 
this last object, ^500 was raised by the Indians and their 
white friends. Also, in the course of a few years, the 
Dakota and half blood families were helped to good frame 
buildings. The government soon commenced to erect for 
them dwellings of brick. The community here was soon 
organized into a civilized band called the Hazelwood Re- 
public, and was the pattern for the government at the 
Lower Sioux Agency. The boarding school went into 
operation early in 185G, conducted for the first two years 



V 



PROTESTANT MISSIONS. 173 

or more, by Miss Ruth Pettijohn and Mrs. Anna B. Ack- 
ley. In 1859, Mr. Hugh D. Cunningham became steward 
of the boarding school, and continued in this position until 
the outbreak of 1862.' It accommodated from sixteen to 
twenty scholars. Besides Mrs. Ackley, Misses Eliza W. 
Huggins and Isabella B. Riggs, were at different times 
employed as teachers. 

In the early spring of 1857, occurred the Spirit Lake 
massacre, which proved a disturbing element in our Mission 
work during the w^hole summer. Of the four female cap- 
tives taken by Inkpa^doota's party, two perished and tw^o 
were brought in by Indians who had learned humanity 
from the Bible. Agent Flandrau found efficient help in 
executing summary justice upon one of Inkpa-doota's sons 

» 

who had the temerity to come into the Yellow Medicine 
settlement during that summer. Of the disturbances and 
dangers of the season, Dr. Williamson, in the November 
following, w^rote a very full and graphic account, which 
w^as published in the Missionary Herald for February, 1853. 
It may said that all these things turned out for the fur- 
therance of the gospel. Year by year some additions were 
made to each of the churches, so that our aggregate mem- 
bership was now more than sixty. Since this new depart- 
ure w^e had a new Dakota hymn book prepared with the 
tunes. Also, the first part of Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress, 
which I had translated into Dakota, was printed and be- 
came an inspiration to our people. 

At St. Paul, on September 8, 1858, the Synod of Min- 
nesota w^as organized, consisting of the Presbyterians of 
Dakota, Minnesota and Blue Earth. Dr. Williamson, as 
the oldest minister, preached the sermon, in which he gave 

-10 



174 MINNESOTA HISTORICAL COLLECTIONS. 

a minute account of the trials, toils and sacrifices, as well 
as encouragements, attendant on planting the gospel 
among the Dakotas. But I refer to this organization of 
the synod (which will have its proper place in a paper 
by another hand), simply to say, that of the twenty -one 
ministers which constituted it, exactly one-third had been, 
or were, missionaries among the Sioux. 

The Indians, who removed from the Mississippi, located 
at the Red Wood or Lower Sioux Agency. Of them, eight 
or ten persons had been members of the Kaposia and Oak 
Grove churches. These were counted as a part of Dr. 
Williamson's church, and in 1861, were organized separ- 
ately. In the spring of 1860, John P. Williamson, the 
Doctor's eldest son, finished his theological studies at Lane 
Seminary, and, after preaching a few months in Indiana, 
came and took charge of this little church at the Lower 
Sioux Agency. The next summer he erected a nice little 
frame chapel, which was dedicated in the last days of the 
year 1861. Before he had completed his dwelling house, 
the outbreak of August, 1862, came on, when Mr. William 
son was providentially absent on a visit to Ohio. 

The causes of this outbreak were not dilQicult to see. 
The Republican administration, as it came in, managed 
matters unwisely in several particulars — notably in an at- 
tempt to change the money annuities into goods, and in 
the consequent failure to meet their engagements at the 
proper time in the summer of 1862. By this course of 
the government, as well as by a knowledge of the defeats 
of our armies in the Southern war, the Sioux of the ^lin- 
nesota were kept in a state of dissatisfaction and unrest, 
ever since the autumn of 1861. At the Lower Sioux 



PROTESTANT MISSIONS. 



175 



Agency a Tee-go-tec-pee, or Soldier's Lodge, was organized, 
which always had been done, either for the protection of 
the Buffalo hunt or for war. This was the evidence of 
their disaffection and excitement. Lying still deeper than 
the causes before mentioned was an extensive opposition 
to the adoption of the forms of civilization which had been 
pressed upon them. The administration had held out 
strong inducements to Indian men to have their hair cut 
off and adopt a civilized dress; and this had been attended 
by a large measure of success. This, to the so-called 
medicine men, represented a change of religion, and, 
naturally enough, provoked a strong opposition. 

The outbreak itself, with its horrors and devastation, 
with its deaths and deliverances, may be mainly passed 
over, as not germane to the object of this paper. But the 
world has a right to know what part our Christian Indians 
took in this emeute. Bishop Whipple testifies: "Every 
Christian Indian was faithful during this terrible war. The 
lives of the white captives were saved by the members of 
the Presbyterian and Episcopal churches. They rescued 
more than one hundred women and children from captiv- 
ity. The story of their heroism reads like the tales of 
the early church." Let us see how far this statement is 
true. Taopi, Good Thunder, Owanca-maza and others 
breasted the storm of the outbreak at the Lower Sioux 
Agency. The next morning, John Otherday, started with 
the company of white people, sixty-two in numbers, from 
the Yellow Medicine and brought them safely to St. Paul. 
Our missionary company of forty odd persons, were mate- 
rially assisted in making our escape by more than a dozen 
of our Christian men. Peter-Big-Fire went with a war 



176 



MINNESOTA HISTORICAL COLLECTIONS. 



party, wliicli was likely to follow our trail, until they had 
passed over it, and then returned, having accomplished 
his object. While Gen. Sibley's force still lay at Fort 
Ridgely, Lorenzo Lawrence brought down two canoe loads 
in one of which was Mrs. DeCamp and her children. About 
the same time, Simon Anawangmane brought to our camp, 
in his one-horse wagon, Mrs. Newman and her children. 
In the meantime, Paul Mazakootamane, backed by John 
B. Renville and his noble wife and others, worked in the 
hostile camp, to bring about a counter revolution, got into 
their possession the white captives, and were ready to 
deliver them up, after the battle of Wood Lake. This 
was done at Camp Release. These were all prominent 
men in our ^Mission churches. Surely Christianity is suffi- 
ciently vindicated. True, Peter-Big-Fire and Robert 
Hopkins, and one or two other members of our churches, 
were condemned and imprisoned, because they had carried 
their guns and had hecn present at some of the battles. But 
this imprisonment, like the Apostle Paul's at Ca3sarea, 
and at Rome, was for the furtherance of the gospel. 

SECTION X. 

MISSION OF THE AMERICAN BOARD WITH THE O.IIBWAS. 

1854 TO 1880. 

The attempt to establish the government school at Crow 
Wing having proved a failure, and Rev. Thomas Hall 
having retired to* Sauk Rapids where he made himself a 
home, Mr. Pulsifer and his wife with Henry Blatchford. 
native catechist, returned to Lake Superior and were thence- 



PROTESTANT MISSIONS. 177 

forward a part of the Mission at Red River with Mr. and 
Mrs. Wheeler. This was now the only station of the Ameri- 
can Board with the Ojibwas. The government at Washing- 
ton had now become satisfied of the bad policy of attempting 
to remove the Lake Super-ior Indians to the interior of 
Minnesota, and had abandoned it. In the fall of 1853 a pay- 
ment had been made on the lake, and now in the autumn of 
1854. a commission, consisting of Agents Gilbert and Harri- 
man, was authorized to treat with those Ojibwas on and near 
the lake in Minnesota and Wisconsin for a cession of their 
land. This treaty was made and ratified, and was regarded 
as fair and honorable to both parties — six reservations 
being allotted to the Indians, one of which was on Bad River. 
By this treaty it was arranged that the Indians could secure 
in severalty eighty acres of land for a homestead. This 
proved quite an incentive to industry, and in the course of a 
few years many of these Indians had built cabins and made 
homes for themselves on their eighty acre lots. The rnetaiua, 
their sacred dance, was allowed to go into disuse; their chil- 
dren attended the Mission school, and many of the principal 
families ranged themselves on the side of the ''praying 
Indians,'- and pretty much the whole band exerted them- 
selves to keep whisky away from the reserve. A half-breed 
who was known to be a liquor seller, applied for permission 
to come and be their teacher. The chief men said, "No; it 
is true we like a drop once in a while ourselves, but we are 
afraid to have whisky come here among our people." That 
was a brave stand to take. 

In addition to the workers mentioned above. Miss Spooner 
was there as the school teacher. The sciiool prospered, 
having an average attendance of thirty scholars. A school 



V 



178 MINNESOTA HISTORICAL COLLECTIONS. 

at La Pointc was also maintained for a part of the time, as 
Indians still resided there for the purpose of fishing. The 
hearers of the Word were more numerous than heretofore; 
and a few showed an honest desire to obey the gospel. This 
appears to have been the condition of Mission work at this 
station for several years — that of slow but manifest pro- 
gress in the line of civilization and evangelization. In the 
summer of 1856, Secretary S. B. Treat from Boston visited 
this mission, when the plan was adopted for the establish- 
ment of a mission boarding school. For the erection of 
buildings needful to carry out this plan the government 
of the United States afterwards granted the sum of 
83,000. In the report of the board it was noted that D. 
Irenaeus Miner and wife had joined this Mission, ''to take 
charge of the boarding school.'' In the meantime, Mr. 
Wheeler places this upon the record: "Many things look 
like substantial progress among our people. They are 
much more industrious, temperate and enterprising than 
formerly. There is evidently a growing desire to own indi- 
vidual property and make homes for themselves and their 
children. Personal religion, too, is becoming more a matter 
of independent individual inquiry. And they seem to have, 
also, more discernment of what spiritual religion is." This 
was written in the first days of the year 1860. 

The boarding school, spoken of above, went into effect in 
the October preceding with fifteen scholars, which number 
had been increased to twenty-four a year afterwards, and a 
large day school was also carried on in connection with 
the boarding scholars. The steward of the boarding school 
was David B. Spencer, and Mr. Miner and Miss Rhoda W. 
Spicer w^ere the teachers, and Henry Blatchford was the 



V 



PROTESTANT MISSIONS. 179 

native preacher. After the first year or so Mr. Miner and 
his wife appear to have retired from the Mission. 

On March 6, 1862, Mr. Wheeler wrote very encouragingly 
of the winter's work and of the prospects generally. From 
80 to 100 persons had attended their Sabbath services 
pretty regularly. And they were greatly encouraged by 
"the best schools they had ever had." Thus at Odanah, 
which was now the name of the station on Bad River, the 
work of Education went on prosperously for several years, 
and the people made "decided progress in the arts and 
comforts of life." But the church remained in numbers 
about what it had been. The report of the Board for 1863 
says, "no additions; and there is great need of the reviv- 
ing influences of the Spirit." It must then have been a 
matter of joy, when Mr. Wheeler could write on the 23d 
of February, 1864, "The Holy Spirit seems to be present, 
convincing of sin, especially among the youth in the board- 
ing school and in Christian families." 

As the result of this religious awakening, it was believed 
that "a few were renewed by the Holy Spirit, and the 
moral condition of the communicants had improved." In 
1865, Dr. Ellis took charge of the boarding school, and it 
is spoken of as continuously doing a good work. But on 
other accounts the condition of things was far from satis- 
factory. The Indians became distrustful of the govern- 
ment, and did not feel secure in their homes. This led 
them to go back somewhat to their metaiva and other 
pagan customs. The Indian Department at Washington 
did not support the boarding school as it should have 
done. And the spiritual blessing so long hoped for, did 
not come. And the committee said in their report on this 



V 



180 MINNESOTA HISTORICAL COLLECTIONS. 

Mission, "It is painful to learn that the prospects of this 
tribe are becoming less rather than more hopeful." 

In the year following (1866), only Mr. and Mrs. Wheeler 
and Henry Blatchford are mentioned as occupying the 
Odanah station; and the rei^ort says: "The prospects of 
the Ojibwa Mission have not improved; and it has become 
quite obvious that there should be a large reduction in 
the annual disbursements for its support, if nothing more." 
Mr. Wheeler's health has not been good for some time, 
and the next year the family removed to Beloit, Wis., 
where only a few years of life are added to him. But 
he had made his mark upon the civilization and Christiani- 
zation of the Ojibwas of Lake Superior. Henry Blatch- 
ford was still retained at Odanah as the native preacher. 
In the year 1870, this Mission was transferred to the 
Presbyterian Board. 

In the month of September, 1874, it was my privilege 
to visit this station, as also other agencies among the Ojib- 
was. The Odanah station was then occupied by Rev. Isaac 
Baird, assisted by Mrs. Baird, Miss Phillips, Miss Ver- 
beck, Miss Dougherty and Miss Walker. The boarding 
school had been revived and was in prosperity. I was 
obliged to confess that I had not seen anywhere, twenty - 
five boys and girls better looking and more manly and 
womanly in their appearance, than those Ojibwas. And 
the whole community gave evidence of the good work 
done by the school in past years. Since that time, the 
native church has greatly increased in numbers, and Henry 
Blatchford has become the native pastor. Finally the 
government has made arrangements which are supposed 
to be satisfactory to those Indians in regard to the own- 



V 



PROTESTANT MISSIONS. 181 

ership of land. The fifty years missionary luork has been a 
success. 

SECTION XI. 

MISSION OF THE AMERICAN BOARD AMONG THE SIOUX — 
CONTINUED — 1862 TO 1880. 

The outbreak of August, 1862, came upon us like an 
avalanche. The day before it commenced, the Mission church 
at Hazehvood had a grand gathering at the remembrance of 
the death and resurrection of Christ the Lord. But now it 
seemed to us as if the very foundations were destroyed, and 
our work of more than a quarter of a century had come to 
naught. What could be the moral meaning of the events, 
and what would be its results, we could not tell. During the 
days and nights spent on the prairie in making our escape 
these questions often came up; but the whole was an 
enigma — dark, doubtful. 

Step by step the way was made plain. The first thing to 
be done was the delivery of the white captives. The next 
was to see that justice should be done in punishing the 
guilty and shielding the innocent. Then there opened up a 
work in the prison at Mankato and in the camp at Fort 
Snelling that we little dreamed of. In both places during 
winter there grew up an enthusiasm for education and a 
hunger for hearing the words of life. Rev. John P. William- 
son returned from Ohio immediately on hearing of the out- 
break, joined our camp at Red Wood, went with the Indian 
families — about 1,500 persons — in their journey to Snelling, 
and thence in the next spring to Crow Creek, and was their 
spiritual Moses during all the years of their separation and 
affliction. Dr. Williamson, locating his family at Saint 



/ 



182 



MINNESOTA HISTORICAL COLLECTIONS. 



Peter, was ready to enter the open door of the prison at 
Mankato. The opposition to education, and the gospel of 
Christ, had vanished. The prison became a school of letters 
and religion, and the camp at Port Snelling was not much 
behind. In midwinter Dr. Williamson summoned to his aid 
Rev. G. H. Pond, and they two baptised 300 prisoners in one* 
day. At the camj) John P. Williamson was indefatiguable in 
his labors, and more than 100 hopeful conversions took place. 
Many adults and children were baptised. It was my privi. 
lege to work somewhat at both places, and to witness the 
marvels which God was working in their dark minds and 
hearts. 

It is matter of history that the condemned men were taken 
in the spring of 1863 to Camp McClellan at Davenport, Iowa, 
where they were kept for three years. The families of these 
men were taken around by the mouth of the Missouri and 
landed at Fort Thompson or Crow Creek, in Dakota. 
Something more than a score of Dakota men were selected 
by Gen. Sibley as scouts, and they and their families 
were retained in Minnesota. 

By the removals of the inmates of the prison and the 
camp, the main part of our Mission work among the Sioux 
was removed beyond the range of this paper. But I can- 
not forbear saying that the educational and religious work 
went on in both communities. Of the three winters that fol- 
lowed, Dr. Williamson spent two, and I spent one with 
the prisoners at Davenport. While J. P. Williamson, sum- 
moning to his aid Edward R. Pond and H. D. Cunning- 
ham, for a part of the time cared for the intellectual and 
spiritual wants of the women and children at Crow Creek. 
These were years of great mortality. At least one-tenth 



'v 



PROTESTANT MISSIONS. 183 

died every year. But when, in the summer of 1866, the 
reunion of the families took place at Niobrara, in the north 
east corner of Nebraska, the consolidated church numbered 
over 400. So had the word of God taken root amon^,^ them. 

In the meantime it had been a part of my duty and privi- 
lege to revise and complete the translation of the entire 
New Testament into the language of the Dakotas, which, 
together wiih a revised Genesis and Proverbs, by Dr. 
Williamson, was printed for us by the American Bible 
Society, in the first days of 1865. This met a great and 
increasing want among these Christian Sioux. In the sum- 
mer that followed, more than 8100 were paid by the impris- 
oned men at Davenport, for Dakota Bibles. 

After Gen. Sibley's campaign of 1863, the Sioux men 
who had been employed as scouts on the expedition, joined 
their families, and were stationed on the frontier as a guard 
against the incursions of the hostiles. For several years 
they were retained under the direction of the militarj^ and 
formed what we called the Scouts' camp. Among them a 
church was organized. With John B. Renville, who for 
some years after the outbreak resided in St. Anthony, I 
visited this camp in the summer of 1864, at the Yellow 
Medicine, and in 1865, at the head of the Red Wood. W^hen 
Mr. Renville was licensed and ordained as an Evangelist, 
he was for some time in special charge of this scattered 
flock. , A part of them stopped at Lac qui Parle and made 
claims. But when in the summer of 1866, Dr. Williamson 
and myself, taking with us Mr. Renville, went on a tour 
of visitation, we found the majority of the scouts encamped 
on the shores of Lake Traverse and at Buffalo Lake, within 
the limits of this present reserve. 



V 



184 MINNESOTA HISTORICAL COLLECTIONS. 

We bad now reached that point in our Mission work 
where it became necessary to employ native helpers, more 
than we had hitherto done. John B. Renville had been 
licensed the year before by the Dakota Presbytery meet- 
ing at Mankato. This summer of 18G6, we approbated four 
other men to preach the gospel among their people — two 
on the Couteau and tw^o on the Missouri. This work of 
inducting Dakota men into the office of the ministry was 
continued from year to year, as our Christian communities 
demanded. Putting the w^ork mainly upon others, Dr. 
Williamson and I spent our summers in the field and our 
winters at our homes in St. Peter and Beloit, in carrying 
forward the translation of the Bible, and in doing other 
needed work. 

In 1867, those Indians made a treaty with the govern 
ment, by which the present reservation was set apart for 
their occupation, and a promise made them of help in their 
efforts to become civilized. From that time they began to 
scatter and settle down in various parts of the reserve. 
Each summer we held a camp meeting with them, when 
new^ members were added to the church rolls. In the sum- 
mer of 1868, the number added on profession of faith was 
more than three-score. Indians came on to the reserve 
from the Missouri, from the north and from the white set- 
tlements. Thus the community in a few^ years numbered 
a thousand — then 1500 and more. It was now necessary 
to organize them into separate churches. The first of these 
to have native pastors were the Ascension and Long Hol- 
low churches, which were in charge of Rev. J. B. Renville 
and Rev. Solomon Toonkanshaechcya. The other Dakota 
churches in this region were Lac qui Parle, Dry Wood Lake 



PROTESTANT MISSIONS. 185 

and Kettle Lakes. The latter was with the scouts in Fort 
Wadsworth. We had several licentiates, as Daniel Ren- 
ville, Peter, Simon and Louis. 

In the sunamer of 1870, I erected Mission buildings on 
this reserve near the agency, which station we called Good 
Will. This gave to our occupation more of permanence, 
and it became the center of our work for that x^art of the 
country. The two winters following I spent there myself, 
but the ^^lission school was placed in charge of Mr. W. K. 
Morris. In 1872, Rev. M. N. Adams became agent, and dur- 
ing nearly four years pushed forward the work of educa- 
tion, erecting several district school houses, and one large 
building for a boarding school. In all the years since that 
time, this boarding school has been in operation, and has 
done good work. Under every agent from Dr. J. W. Dan- 
iels to the present one, Charles Crissey, civilization has 
progressed on this reservation. Under the exceedingly diffi- 
cult arrangements of the treaty of 1867, a few individuals 
have obtained patents for the land they occupy. All are 
anxious to become land owners. This was very strongly 
manifested by two colonies going off from the reservations 
and taking homesteads. The first company went out from 
the Santee agency a dozen years ago, and commenced the 
homestead settlement at Flandrau on the Big Sioux, a few 
miles west of the Minnesota line. Now it numbers about 
four- score families, and is a prosperous settlement, with 
both a Presbyterian and an Episcopal church. The other 
colony went from the Sisseton reserve about six years ago. 
It consists of about thirty families, who have, largely of 
their own resources, built a good house of worship, and 
have a church of seventy members. Thus it has become 



V 



186 MINNESOTA HISTORICAL COLLECTIONS. 

• 

apparent that Indians are capable of becoming civilized and 
Christianized, and thus pass from tlie anomolous position of 
dependence into that of citizenship. We claim that the 
Indian problem is being worked out. That the Bible is the 
great civilizer of the nations — Indians as well as others. 

The present number of native churches on this Sisseton 
reservation, including the Brown Earth homestead settle- 
ment, is six, with an aggregate membership of about 400. 
Another step in the religious progress of this people is 
indexed by the existence of a Native Missionary Society, 
which raises and uses in employing missionaries to the 
wilder Sioux, between three and four hundred dollars an- 
nually. The Ascension church — Rev. John B. Renville, 
pastor, has a house of worship which cost them about si 500. 
Mayasan church, at the other end of the reserve, has a 
house which cost about ^500. Long Hollow church has a 
log-house which is comfortable if not attractive. Buffalo 
Lake and Good Will churches have buildings in process of 
erection. 

Three years ago the Missionary Society of Canada called 
one of our native pastors. Rev. Solomon Toonkansharche^^a, 
to do Mission work among the dispersed Sioux in Manitoba, 
which is proving a successful undertaking. Thus with the 
whole Bible in the language of the Sioux, and with churches 
and native pastors in working order, I may close this paper 
by [recognizing the divine hand and the divine help in all 
the forty odd years of our Mission work among the Sioux. 
Dr. T. S. Williamson, the father of our Mission, has gone 
to the upper world; and so has the younger of the brothers 



PROTESTANT MISSIONS. 



187 



Pond. But both lived to see the gospel working out the 
uplift of the Dakotas beyond their highest anticipations. 
It is indeed marvelous in our eyes. 
Beloit, ^is., May 1880. 

MEMOIR OF REV. STEPHEN R. RIGGS, D. D. 

[This issue of our collections, being the first one published since the 
death of Dr. Riggs, makes it proper to give a brief memoir of this 
devoted missionary, in connection with his valuable paper, as above.] 

Stephen Return Riggs, was the descendant of Miles Riggs, a native 
of Wales, who settled in Plymouth, Mass., soon after the arrival of 
the first pilgrims. His parents were Stephen Risgs and Annie Baird. 
He was born in Steubenville, O., March 12, 1812., one of eleven children. 
In 1829, the family removed to Ripley, O., where, in the August fol- 
lowing, his mother died. Sixteen years later his father died. Stephen 
Riggs commenced his academic education in Ripley, and in the spring 
of 1833, went to Jefferson College, Pa., where he was graduated in 1834. 
He studied theology partly at the Western Theological Seminary at 
Allegheny, Pa., and was licensed to preach by the Chillicothe Presby- 
tery, in the autumn of 1836. The following winter he spent in Ilawley, 
Mass., and preached to the West Parish people. During the winter, 
he was accepted by the Prudential Committee of the American Board 
as a missionary, and designated to join the Dakota Mission. Return- 
ing to Ohio in the spring, he was ordained as a missionary to the 
Dakotas, by the Chillicothe Presbytery, at West Union, O., in April^ 
1837. On Feb. 16, 1837, he was married to Miss Mary Ann Clark 
Longley, in Ilawley, Mass., an estimable and devoted woman, who 
bravely bore all the hardships and dangers of missionary life, for over 
quarter of a century. They started for their field of work in March, 
and reached the Lake Harriet Mission, near the Falls of St. Anthony, 
in June, 1837, where Dr. Riggs began his life-long labors for the 
Dakota Indians, going to Lac qui Parle in September of the same 
year. Dr. Williamson and the Pond brothers had already begun the 
work in this region. He gave diligent study to the Dakota tongue, 
soon speaking it with fluency, and translating the scriptures, hymns, 
and other works into it; besides laboring faithfully for the spiritual 
and temporal welfare of the natives. In 1840, he made a journey to 
Ft. Pierre. In 1842, while on a visit east, he supervised the printing 
of a considerable portion of the Bible, in Dakota, also a hymn book 
and some school books, of which he had performed most of the author- 



188 



MINNESOTA HISTORICAL COLLECTIONS. 



ship. In the spring of 1813, he returnedl to his mission tield, and 
established a new station at Traverse de Sioux, but in 1S4G was S(.'nt 
again to Lac qui Parle, where he continued to labor until 1S.j4, in the 
meantime spending a winter (1851-52) east, supervising the printing of 
the "Grammar and Dictionary of the Dakota Language," compiled by 
himself and his associates in the mission work, Dr. Thomas S. Wil- 
liamson and Revs. Gideon IT. and Samuel W. Pond, after many years 
of patient labor and study. This great work, one of the most import- 
ant contributions to Indian philology produced in America, owt>d its 
publication largely to a fund contributed by members of the Minne- 
sota Historical Society. I 

On March 3, 1854, the Mission houses at Lac qui Parle were con- 
sumed by fire, and they were compelled to remove to Hazel "Wood or 
"Oomahoo," where he resided until the massacre, Aug. 18, 1S62, when 
he and his family were in great danger, but providentially escaped to 
a place of safety. During the winter of 1862-03, Dr. Riggs labored 
hard for the conversion of the Indian prisoners confined at Maukato 
and elsewhere. In the Sibley expedition of 1863 to the Missouri, he 
served as chaplain and interpreter. He continued his missionary 
work after the termination of the Indian war, visiting in the sum- 
mers, Missions in Nebraska and Dakota, and meantime working dur- 
ing winters on his translation of the Bible into Dakota, which was 
completed and published just before his death, in 1883. He lived dur- 
ing these latter years at Beloit, Wis., in which city Mrs. Mary Riggs, 
his devoted wife, died. 

Dr. Riggs was subsequently remarried. The end of his long and 
eventful career came to him at Beloit, Aug. 24, 1883, in his 71st year. 
Dr. Riggs was a man of small stature, but of much endurance and 
courage. Many times during his stay on the frontier, his life was in 
danger, but he always faced peril with calmness. He was an indus- 
trious scholar, and an observant author. His works are numerous, 
and all evince ability. The degree of D. D. was conferred upon him 
in 1873 by Beloit College, and of LL. D., by Jefferson College. An inter- 
esting account of his long and faithful labors is given in his work, 
'•Mary and I," published in 1880. Eight children had been born to 
them, several of whom also engaged in the missionary work among the 
Dako'tas. , ^ j-k^-^-i'- ^ - ' 




AUTO-BIOGRAPHY 



OF 



MAJ. LAWRENCE TALIAFERRO. 



WRITTEN IN 1864. 



PRELIMINARY NOTE. 

Lawrence Taliaferro, whose characteristic account of his career as Indian Agent 
at Fort Snelling, from April, ISIO, to January, 1840, accompanies this, was prouii- 
uently identiCed with Minnesota liistory during that period. The Saint Paul Daily 
Pioneer, a few days after Maj. Taliaferro's death, gave the following sketch of him : 

Maj. Taliaferro remained as Indian Agent at Fort Snelling a period of almost 
twenty-one ^-ears. being re-appointed six times by different Presidents, and resign- 
ing at last. His was a long incumbency for such an oflice as that, and shows that 
Major Taliaferro was active and faithful in the discharge of his duties. And such 
he certainly was, while in a position which many have used for their own aggran 
dlseraent. Maj. T. was scrupulously honest. No charge was ever made against 
him of malversation in office, for liis own benefit. Ue labored to impress the tril)es 
under his supervision with proper respect for the government, and by gratifylmi 
their penchant for '• big talks," and ceremonies, kept tliem in pretty good order and 
obedience. He was sometimes ridiculed for liis egotism, of which he had a good 
share, but he was careful, correct, and methodical in his business matters, and 
prided himself on his successful performance of tliem. Witli the Indian traders he 
generally managed to keep up a standing quarrel, however, and his official corres- 
pondence with the department was ponderous, but generally related to trivial 
matters. During his incumbency he maintained a wide correspondence witli many 
eminent men in official and military life in the west. Tlieir letters, hundreds in 
number, he afterwards gave to the Minnesota Historical Society, with a quantity 
of other vjiluablc manuscripts. A careful and minute diary of events which lie 
kept during his official career at Fort Snelling. has been used by Rev. E. D. Neill, 
in the preparation of liis historical writings. After his resignation in 1S40. he was 
out of service until 1?57, wlien he was appointed military storekeeper at Bedford, 
Pa. In ISfxJ he was placed on the rotired list, with the pay of his grade. He died 
at Bedford. January 22, 1871, aged T7 years. A lialf-breod daughter of his. subse- 
quently married a discharged soldier at Fort Snelling, named "^Varren Woodbiiry 
and resided in West St. Paul a number of years. 



-11 



'v 



190 MINNESOTA HISTORICAL COLLECTIONS. 

The name of Taliaferro is both ancient and h.onorable. 
Some miles distant from ^Villiamsbur<,^ Virginia, near an 
old brick church may be seen the resting place of the old 
Colonial family of the Taliaferro's, Lawrence Taliaferro, 
deceased 1748, John Taliaferro, of Snow Creek, 1744. But 
to go further back in date, we come to the year 1637, when 
four brothers, John, Lawrence, James and Francis Talia- 
ferro emigrated from Genoa, Italy, to England, and after 
five years in London, crossed the Atlantic and landed with 
other emigrants at Jamestown, about the year 1637 or 
shortly thereafter. Prom these brothers sprang a large con- 
nection. Some were officers and privates in the Revolu- 
tionary war; also in the war of 1512, the Mexican war and 
finally in the war for the Union, of 1861. Their descend 
ants filled the highest stations in the gift of a free people. 
We now approach the name of one of this connection of 
whom we desire to take a brief notice: Major Lawrence 
Taliaferro, born at Whitehall, King George county, Vir- 
ginia, February 28, 1794. He was the fourth son of James 
Garnett Taliaferro and Wilhilmena Wishart, an only 
daughter of the Rev. John Wishart, of Perth, Scotland, a 
lineal descendant of George Wishart, the last of the Martyrs 
for conscience sake. Of his early youth but little of inter- 
est can be recorded; with the best tutors, Hon. Samuel L. 
Southard, Samuel C. Lewis and others of New Jersey, he 
would i)lay truant from school. His venerable mother 
knowing his habits and propensities, decided to let the way- 
ward youth alone to his farming inclinations, knowing her 
own child best. 

At the age of eighteen, the war with England demanded 
volunteers and soon found himself with four other grown 



V 



AUTO-BIOGUAPHY OF MAJ. TALIAFEKKO. 191 

brothers duly enrolled, by the act of his patriotic mother, 
on the 5th of August, 1812, in a volunteer company of light 
infantry under Captain Meriwether Taliaferro, subsequently 
appointed to the 35th regular infantry. During his three 
months service, his animosity to England become so fixed 
and apparent, that his friends promised if he would go to a 
famous grammar school at Tusculum, in charge of Doctor 
Valentine Peyton, late of the U. S. Navy, for eight months, 
he should have a commission in the regular army. This 
proposition was cheerfully acceded to, and carried into im 
mediate effect by his parents. At the close of the period 
indicated, his j)receptor stated ofiicially his English educa- 
tion to be perfectly satisfactory, and he was duly appointed 
an ensign in the first regiment United States Infantry, on 
the 2nd of June, 1813, and ordered to Belle Fontaine, in 
Missouri. On being promoted to a second lieutenancy on the 
13th of August following, was directed to proceed to, and 
report to Colonel John Campbell, at Chillicothe, Ohio, for 
the recruiting service. This order was as promptly obeyed 
as a six hundred miles ride on horse back would allow. 
Here an order was given to repair to Cincinnati and open a 
rendezvous for recruits for his regiment. He met old offi- 
cers of rifles already in this field before him. Nevertheless, 
nothing daunted, he applied to General Harrison for funds 
to go to work on. The general eyed the rough 3'outh 
closely for a moment, saying, "you look young, sir, but I 
think you have spirit and energy." O'Fallon give the lieu- 
tenant a check on Pay Master Hunt, for five hundred dol- 
lars. In ten days another five hundred was estimated for, 
which seemed to surprise no one as much as the careful 
pay master, who said, "you use money fast, and I don't see 



V 



192 MINNESOTA HISTORICAL COLLECTIONS. 

your name on the register." Perhaps not, was the reply; 
but you know surely the commanding general's signature. 
This ended further suspicion doubtless, as nothing more was 
heard from the gentleman. 

There arose a jealous feeling and rivalry, between the 
infantry and rifles; the boy officer was going ahead too rap- 
idly for the old veterans. The citizens enjoyed this rivalry 
in securing men, and the boy met great encouragement. 

There arrived in Cincinnati in March, 1614, thirty- seven 
British officers, prisoners of war, destined for close confine- 
ment in the penitentiary, at Frankfort, Kentucky. Lieut. 
Taliaferro was detailed to guard these prisoners until they 
could be forwarded under a proper guard. This responsible 
and delicate duty was discharged to the satisfaction of Gen- 
eral Harrison. 

Early in March, the venerable John Cleves Symms died, 
the father-in-law of General Harrison, and his remains 
escorted to North Bend, in a keel boat prepared for that 
purpose, and there interred in the family cemetery. 

About this period, a court martial had sentenced a soldier 
to be shot for desertion. On the day indicated for his exe- 
cution, the troops were paraded at Newport, the French- 
man escorted by the guard to the place indicated and placed 
on his coffin. Things looked serious and solemn, but at the 
moment of "ready," the reprieve came and all breathed free 
again; none more so than the pardoned deserter from his 
colors. 

On the 4th of April, 1814, he received an order to turn 
over, his recruits to Captain Bryson, and repair to Carlisle. 
Penn., and report to Major Clemson. On arriving at this 
point, found an order to proceeed at once to Brunswick, 



AUTO BIOGRAPHY OF MAJ. TALIAFP:RR0. 193 

New Jersey, the headquarters of the first infantry. The 
journey from Cincinnati to this latter point of destination 
was performed by him and Lieut. Christy on horse back. 
Reporting to Capt. H. Johnson, superintending the recruit- 
ing service, was speedily ordered to proceed to Monmouth 
Court House (the old battle field of the Revolution) for the 
recruiting service. Here he unexpectedly met with violent 
opposition from the anti-war federalists, but he persevered 
manfully obtaining a few men. Immediately after the 4th 
of July was ordered back to head-quarters, and assigned to 
a company under Capt. Helm, with Lieutenants Stansbury 
and Harberger, and marched to Fort Erie, upper Canada, 
and joined Brown's second division of the army. After the 
siege was raised, caused by the sortie of the 17th of Septem- 
ber, 1814, upon the enemy, and the battle of Cook Mills, on 
Lion Creek, fought and won under General Bissell. Gen- 
eral Izard of the first division with fresh troops, relieved 
the second division, which crossed the Niagara and was 
marched to winter quarters at Sackett's Harbor, New York. 

In November he was again detailed for the recruiting 
service and ordered to Brunswick, New Jersey, a few days 
after reporting again to Captain Johnson. The U. S. 
Commissioners at Ghent had been heard from, and in due 
season the news of peace reached the government, when 
our young soldier returned on furlough to his family home 
in Virginia. Stopping at Trenton to see his old friend and 
tutor, the Hon. Samuel L. Southard; he was urged by him 
to remain to witness the trial of the great steamboat 
question between Ogden and Fulton, before the legisla- 
ture of the state. Here he saw and heard men of pro- 
found intellect — Thomas Addis Emmet, Sampson, Hopkin- 



194 



MINNESOTA HIRTOKICAL COLLECTIONS. 



son, Ogden, Fulton and Southard. He saw Emmet take 
Southard by the hand with a most cordial shake, saying: 
"Sir, I congratulate you on having made the best speech 
in a bad cause that it ever was my pleasure to hear; you 
are a rising man." After this short delay he reached his 
home in safety but in impaired health from long and se- 
vere exposure in the line of his duty, yet with the high 
commendation of his superiors. The war having ceased, 
and the reduction of the army from 65 to 10 regiments 
effected, he found himself nevertheless retained with his 
full rank of First Lieut, in the 3d Regiment of Infantry, 
with orders to rejDair to Detroit, Michigan, where he 
joined his regiment under Colonel John Miller. While in 
camp at Spring Wells below Detroit, w^as selected for a 
separate command on Gross Isle, opposite Maiden. "While 
exercising this command, the frequent desertion of the 
Royal Scots to his Post during the winter of 1815-16, in- 
duced the British town mayors to impugn the conduct of 
his command, asserting that his Majesty's soldiers were 
.enticed to desert by the American soldiers ; which state- 
ment on his own responsibility induced this officer (Lieut. 
Taliaferro) to cross over to Maiden and call on the town 
mayor in command of the British forces. He found sev- 
eral officers present, and at once made his visit known, 
and that w^as to say to his Britannic Majesty's officers in 
command that he found a number of the soldiers desert- 
ers from the American army in Maiden, and some of these 
employed as mechanics in the shops of the town. He 
hoped that British officers did not connive at conduct so 
unworthy the enjoined observance of the two nations. 
Here was a poser. The Yankee officer had struck the 



AUTO-BIOGKAPHY OF MA.T. TALIAFERRO. 



195 



lirst blow, and "John Bull" had not a word in reply as 
to the desertion of a large number of the Royal Scots, 
His reix)rt of this ruse to Gen. McCorab, in command of 
the department at Detroit, was much commended at the 
time. The approach of spring caused a disposition of the 
troops comprising the 3d and 5th Regiments of Infantry, 
in order to garrison the several posts on the upper lakes. 
Companies A and B, 3d Infantry, were ordered to Chicago 
to rebuild Ft. Dearborn, attached to B, Light Infantry, 
Capt. Bradley. He reached Chicago and landed with the 
command July 4th, 1816, and went into tents, throwing 
up precautionary breastw^orks. planting cannon, <S:c. Here 
as Asst. Quartermaster and Ordnance officer he superin- 
tended the reconstruction of the post which had been 
destroyed by the Potaw^atamies and other Indians in Au- 
gust, 1812, and nearly all the garrison massacred. So 
hostile w^ere the Winnebagos and others that the Quar- 
termaster had to move daily with an armed party for 
the security of the men engaged in felling and hewing 
timber for the post. By the spring of 1817 the troops 
were on half rations, but there was no complaint. In 
August of this year the Asst. Quartermaster (Taliaferro) 
was ordered to Chillicothe, Ohio, to recruit under Major 
Larrabee; but not long after complying with the .orders 
was directed to march 130 men, in company with Lieuts. 
C. L. Cass and Evans, to fill up the 3d Regiment at 
Port Hpw^ard, Green Bay. On the march to Sandusky, 
Lieut. Cass in command, the President of the United 
States being then on his tour through the West was met 
in the "Long Woods" beyond Mansfield. A consultation 
as to how the President should be received by the troops. 



196 MINNESOTA HISTORICAL COLLECTIONS. 

was called by Mr. Cass iu command. Lieuts. Taliaferro 
and Evans said it was not a knotty point ; all that was 
requisite was to form the men in line at shouldered arms, 
and as the President approached cause the music to play 
"Hail to the Chief" or "Hail Columbia," and x:)resent 
arms. This opinion seemed not to suit the pompous and 
self- conceited commander, who said he had no notice of 
the approach of the President and should not act in the 
matter. The rear guard being a separate command tor 
the day under Lieut. Taliaferro, Cass consented to let 
him use his pleasure with the same, and the President, 
as he should have been, was duly honored with a prompt 
and hearty salute which caused his steed to shy, but the 
old Cocked Hat of the days of Trenton and Princeton 
was doffed with a low bow. Just following in the rear 
came General McComb and Governor Cass, when Lieut. 
Cass was made to feel his own inferiority in point of 
military etiquette. The detachment continued its march 
to Detroit. Here to the surprise of Lieut. Taliaferro 
Lieut. Cass turned over the command to him with orders 
to hire transportation and report to regimental headquar- 
ters at Green Bay. As the season was far advanced and 
no time to be lost in useless delay, the detachment was 
taken to Mackinac in the schooner Monroe, and later in 
the Jackson to Green Bay and Chicago, reaching the 
latter post on the 17th of November after a storm of 
three days in which the vessel was near being lost on 
the coast of Lake Michigan. 

Lieut. Taliaferro was noted for his proficiency in military 
tactics in the battalion and evolutions of the line, and so 
reported on the confidential inspection reports by Inspector 



AUTO-BIOGRAPHY OF MAJ. TALIAFERRO. 



197 



General Wood, in July, 1818, when he left his post on a 
four months sick leave for the Bedford Springs, in Penn- 
sylvania. On his recovery, he passed on to Washington 
city, where he paid his respects to the President, his 
patron friend and connection. Here the President was 
pleased to say: "He wished Lieut. Taliaferro to resign his 
IDOsition in the army; he had heard a good rei^ort of him: 
he was above his rank; promotion w^as too slow; that he 
wanted his services in a responsible civil capacity, where 
he would have more command of his time ; go home to 
your mother, and remain until you hear from me." He 
was gratefully and politely tVianked. On the 27th of March, 
following, the Secretary of War, John C. Calhoun, forwarded 
to his address at Fredericksburg the appointment of Agent 
of Indian Affairs at St. Peter's near the Falls of St. Anthony. 
The office was duly accepted, and he, after filing his bonds, 
left to join the expedition under Colonel Leavenwoi'th, 
already ordered with his regiment, the Fifth Infantry, to 
lake post at the junction of the St. Peter and Mississippi. 
The Agent, how^ever, repaired to St. Louis, and reported 
to Governor William Clark, Superintendent of Indian Af 
fairs, and late companion of Lewis to the Columbia River. 
From St. Louis he keel-boated with the Winnebago Agent. 
N. Boilvin, as far as Prairie du Chien. Here falling in 
with a government boat, proceeded on this slow mode of 
conveyance, in company with an escort of Indians, headed 
by Tah-ma-ha— or. The Pike— sometimes called the "Burn," 
a one-eyed Indian, a great friend of the Americans in the 
war of 1812, who described many interesting scenes on the 
Mississippi, and on board the American gun boats. He 
possessed both cunning and much intelligence. His re- 



19S 



MINNESOTA HISTORICAL COLLECTIONS. 



marks upon the conduct of the Indians, and British traders 
who instigated tliem to acts of hostility against the United 
States, which confirmed the truth of much that had been 
previously stated in the public prints. 

It may be remarked in this connection, that the new 
agent was not only apparently well received by the agents 
and traders, and citizens of Prairie du Chien, but rather 
obsequiously so by the former — in fact these felt their 
guilt being in the main yet British subjects. Among 
these was Joseph Rolette, agent of the American Pur Com 
pany, who seemed most desirous of feeling the pulse of 
the agent by many proffered acts of kindness and civilities, 
all of which was understood and properly appreciated. 

The agent proceeded onward to his post- visiting the 
villages of Wabasha, Bed Wing, at the head of Lake Pepin 
and Petite Corbeau or Little Crow, addressing the chiefs 
of each town as to the nature of his appointment and the 
reasons why the President had sent troops to erect a fort 
at St. Peters, and location of an agent to conduct the 
affairs of the Dakota nation, in connection with the chiefs 
of the "Seven fires;" that apparently their new father 
might seem to them young, but that he had an old sol- 
dier's head, and an honest heart, determined to cause the 
Indian trade to be well conducted for their benefit on 
principles of equal justice to all. 

Jean Baptiste Faribault and family, had gone through 
by land, in charge of Colonel Leavenworth's horses and 
cows— an old trader licensed as far back as 1810, by Gen- 
eral Wilkinson, in command at Mackinac. It was to this 
Canadian of Colonel Leavenworth, in August, 18i20, in the 
name of his wife, Pelagie Faribault, Ritter's Island was 



AUTO-BIOGRAPHY OF MAJ. TALIAFERRO, 199 

conveyed in an unauthorized convention, as was 400 acres, - 
including Mendota. to Duncan Campbell, and 400 acres to 
Margaret Campbell. opposite Fountain Cave. This con- 
vention, a truly unfortunate one, was clandestinely convened 
and held at camp • ' Cokhvater, " while the proper agent 
was in the quarters of the old cantonment west of the 
Minnesota. So injurious to the future tranquility of the 
post was this treaty viewed by the company officers of 
the army present and the agent, that he addressed the 
Secretary of War on the subject, and the result was, the 
President declined to lay the paper before the Senate, and 
the agent directed (in consequence of the President's de- 
cision), to notify those persons claiming reservation under 
the Leavenworth convention, that these would not be con- 
sidered. Official notice was at once served by Scott Camp- 
bell on Pelagie Faribault, Duncan Campbell and Margaret 
Campbell. General Cass, in his tour through the Upper 
Mississippi, in August, 1820, seemed, after one council 
with the Indians, convened by the agent at his request, 
to understand the weakness of Colonel Leavenworth in 
desiring to be considered both commanding officer and 
Indian Agent, w^ho stated to the agent that liis, Leaven- 
worth's, course would spoil the Indians. The reply of the 
Agent was: The Colonel will be soon relieved, when his 
self- conceited vanity will be at an end, which was effected 
by the^ arrival of that excellent officer, Colonel Josiah 
Snelling, who, on being presented to the chiefs and head 
men of the Sioux, said: "I am pleased to take you by 
the hand. I shall have much to do. You have an excel- 
lent agent sent you by the President, your Great Father. 
He is paramount in all things touching your nation. I 



200 MINNESOTA HISTORICAL COLLECTIONS. 

shall support him when he needs it. You may feel secure 
in his friendship and my friendship as long as your con 
duct shall merit it. My troops are all friendly to your 
people, tell them so." From this time forward there was 
great harmony of action and concert between the civil 
and military. 

The agent went to work to neutralize British influence and 
to give efficient organization to the fur trade, and secure 
the confidence of the surrounding tribes of Sioux and Chip- 
pewas. A truce to their continued wars had also to be met 
in a manner least calculated to wound their martial pride. 
In conforming to the laws and regulations to which the 
attention of all persons then engaged or might be engaged 
in commerce with the Indians, it was apparent that the 
instructions of the President of 1818 to General Cass, e.r 
qfflcio Superintendent of Indian affairs at Detroit, were 
found to admit of a latitude of construction as well as mis- 
conception which caused the executive officers to feel the 
need of more stringent laws and more clearly defined pow- 
ers. Yet, through all this mist of uncertainty, the agent 
moved on steadily in the performance of his arduous, 
responsible and delicate duties. The conduct of the Indians 
of Wabasha's band, in forcing a trader from Green Bay, 
(Augustin Grignon), from his trading post near Black 
River, was so gross an outrage that the agent, then at 
Prairie du Chien on a visit. Agent Boilvin being absent, 
engaged Thomas McNair with his horse and sled, and at 
once proceeded to the scene of difficulty to watch the 
movements of the agent. Alexis Bailly, a clerk, and a 
half-breed Ottawa, of Canada, was dispatched by Rolette, 
agent of the Sun Fur Company, to apprise J. B. Maynard 



AUTO-BIOGRAPHY OF MA J. TALIAFEUKO. 201 

of his approach, and to cache any article contraband, and 
finally to be in all readines for the visit of the agents. 
Bailly had obtained a passport from Major Fowle, in com- 
mand at Fort Crawford, but the agent paid no respect to 
this authority, but revoked it and ordered the clerk back 
to Prairie du Chien. It was evident that Joseph Rolette 
first instigated the chief "Wabasha to acts of hostility 
against M. Grignon, an independent trader. It was at 
this date, February, 1822, that the agent was enabled to 
sound the depths of the true policy of the agents of the 
so-called American Fur Company. 

The promptness of the agent on the expedition referred 
to, brought down the yelping of Tray, Sweetheart and 
Blanche upon his devoted head. He was called nothing 
but a foolish boy, hot-headed, and not fit to govern old 
Indians; it was a shame to send such a man to the country. 
This was British bile and British spleen, all for want of 
the monopoly of the fur trade, which the agents of the 
company were determined to have if it could be accomplished 
by the acts of intimidation; but within a few^ months it 
was found that their threats and falsifications had no effect 
on the agent, but he went on honestly and perseveringly 
in the discharge of every public duty. Again it was seen 
and felt that he was gaining the ears of all Indians most 
rapidly. It was objected that the detention of the traders 
at the entry of Minnesota, in the disturbed state of the 
upper country, was wa'ong, and suits would be brought for 
this unjust detention of their outfits. The main object of 
the agents and traders of the Fur Company meant more 
than this. The agent must be bribed to their views, or 
forced to it. The former Avas tried and failed; the latter 



202 



MINNESOTA HISTOIIICAL COLLECTIONS. 



fell with it. The organization of the Columbia Fur Com- 
pany by Tilton & Co., produced a flood of vituperation of 
the Agent, and of the views and acts of this Company in 
their commercial views and citizenship. Old British 
traders declared that the agent w^as licensing foreigners 
to trade for this new^ concern, that trading posts were se- 
cretly or clandestinely established for them, that forts 
were called by various names and traders forced to build 
in square stockades. All this, and more, w^as said than 
it is prudent to record. Junior officers of the arm}^ were 
appealed to at Prairie du Chien, feasted on fat things, 
with wine on the lees, until it w^as asserted by I. K., of 
John Jacob Astor s company, that any American officer 
could be bought up for less than a quarter cask of wine. 
Charges were preferred against the agent, the Government 
supposing where there was so much smoke there surely 
must be some fire. These charges, numerous as they were, 
w^ere promptly met, and the designing knaves most sig- 
nally defeated. Previous to these interested assaults, Gen. 
Cass was appealed to, to use his influence to have the 
agent removed or sent to some other station. The reply 
was: " Major Taliaferro has powerful friends at the head 
of the Government who have great confidence in his incor- 
ruptible integrity, and full faith in all his acts." 

It is true the agent, while he did nothing as a man of 
honor to militate against the interest of any individual or 
company in the trade, he determined to put a stop to the 
introduction of ardent spirits into the Indian country, and 
he?ice the many seizures made and destruction of this con- 
traband article. He had witnessed the barrels rolled out 
on various occasions at Prairie du Chien, and the conse- 



V 



AUTO-BIOGRAPHY OF MAJ. TALIAFEURO. 203 

quent murders of many of its citizens as well as of the 
poor Indian. After a lapse of years the intercourse laws 
became more stringent, and the officers of the Indian 
Department found themselves in possession of more power 
for coercion than was needful to suppress the introduc- 
tion of whiskey. Traders were furnished printed copies 
of these new powers, yet Alexis Bailly determined, contrary 
to advice, to try the nerve of the agent to see if he dare 
seize his outfit of 820,000 worth of goods and six barrels 
of whiskeyc for his outfits from New Hope then, (now 
Mendota). The seizure was made, and Mr. Bailly, though 
a good trader, refused a renewal of his license, the agent 
being made satisfied of the non-approval of Bailly's per- 
verseness. The goods were subsequently released and the 
whiskey returned to the company's agent at Prairie du 
Chien. This action brought Ramsey Crooks up to the 
Agency, w^ho could not but approve the agent's decisions, 
and he proposed to supply Bailly's Post by the appoint- 
ment of Henry H. Sibley Esq. to the vacancy. This the 
agent acceded to at once, and cheerfully, as he knew the 
family formerly at Detroit. Mr. Sibley soon arrived and 
entered upon his duties at Mendota. After this there was 
no -more questioning of the acts of the agent, at least by 
Mr. Sibley. It should have been before noted that as the 
war had not entirely ceased between the Chippewas and 
Sioux, and the Sacs and Foxes and Sioux, the agent 
obtained the sanction of the President in 1824 to take a 
delegation of Sioux, Chippewas and Menomonees to the 
seat of Government, led by the Chief Little Crow, a man 
of good mind and intelligence; the object being to cause a 
convocation of all the tribes at Prairie du Chien in order 



204 MINNESOTA HISTORICAL COLLECTIONS. 

to define more fully their respective boundary lines. Two 
of the delegation, Wabasha, Chief first of all the Sioux, 
and Wanata, of the Yanctons of Big Stone Lake, were 
prevailed on by the traders at Prairie du Chien to go 
no farther, that they would get sick and die. Then Little 
Crow, in a short pointed speech, said: "My friends, you 
can do as you please; I am no co^vard, nor can my ears 
be pulled about by evil counsels. We are here, and should 
go on and do some good for our nation. I have taken 
our father here by the coat-tail and will follow him into 
his great nation to see and take by the hand our Great 
American Father. My mind is made up, live or die." 
This Chief then turned to the agent, taking his hand in 
his, said: "Rise, let us be off to join the 'Red Head 
Parshasha' (General William Clark). The Mississippi 
being out of its banks and swift, St. Louis was soon 
reached, where the Superintendent had already convened 
the Sacs and Foxes, lowas and Piankeshaws, and the 
whole departed for Washington. Below Louisville and 
near Salt River, Marcpee, or The Cloud, one of the Sioux 
delegation (who had a bad dream, as reported) let himself 
dow^n from the stern of the boat and dropped into the 
river, was supposed to be drowned, but, to the surprise 
of all, made his way back to St. Louis, but only to be mur- 
dered at Bay Charles. Missouri, by some of the Sac Indians 
there encamped. This very unfortunate occurrence did 
for a moment impede the progress of the delegation. 
Washington was soon reached and a speedy interview 
with the President and Secretary of War had, and busi- 
ness put in train. It was here that a treaty with the Sacs 
and Foxes confirmed the grant of land in the fork of the 



AUTO-BIOGRAPIIY OF MAJ. TALIAFERRO. 



205 



Mississippi and Des Moines Rivers to the half bi*eeds of 
their nation. This grant was only to begin at the head 
of Des Moines Rapids, but cupidity with a latitude of con- 
struction, sets this line on point of beginning as high up 
as old Fort Madison. The delegation having speedily 
accomplished their business satisfactorily, the Sioux left 
for home by way of New York. Here the Chiefs wished 
to pay a visit with their interpreter, William Dickson, a 
son of the celebrated Colonel Robert Dickson, who headed 
the Indians against the United States in 1812. This was 
not objected to, but on the route homeward by way of 
the lakes, the Crow, on being asked how he had procured 
a fine double barrel gun and other nice things, said to the 
agent unreservedly that the Medicine Man (Peters), he 
went to see in New York, got him to sign a paper, gave 
him the articles he saw and further promised him a keel 
boat load of goods to be sent the next summer, 1825. 
That boat did arrive just as the preparations were being 
made for the great assembly of the tribes at Prairie du 
Chien, but only a box was left for Colonel Robert Dick- 
son. The old Chief called on the agent expressing great 
disappointment, even mortification. The agent assumed 
the responsibility and opened the Colonel's box. There 
were a few pieces of goods, calicos, etc., sent as a present 
to the Colonel's highly esteemed lady (an old squaw), by 
a Mr. Peters. Looking further, his lengthy letter was 
discovered, also a parchment copy of the grant to Capt. Carver 
by the Snake and Turtle; no witnesses. The goods were 
forwarded to Mrs. Dickson, but the letter and grant held 
for future use. This letter of the Rev. Mr. Peters is still 
-12 



206 



MINNESOTA HISTORICAL COLLECTIONS. 



amon^^ the official papers of the a<^ent, but the parchment 
grant ^s'as sent to the Hon. James Barbour, then Secretary 
of War, for file in liis department. 

The year 1825 was one to be long- remembered, as it 
was one of trial and of incidents. The Chippewas, assem- 
bled too early by the traders of the North under the au- 
thority of Agent Schoolcraft, would not proceed under 
Chapman, and Cole or Dingley, for twenty days, until the 
agent at St. Peter's had to furnish a safeguard down the 
river, which was done by sending confidential Sioux with 
each detachment. Noel, a half-breed Chippewa, was dis- 
patched for the Flat-mouth on the Otter Tail lake. Oth- 
ers had men from Sandy Lake: Noel returned with other 
Indians, but the Flat-mouth, though weighing some 220 
lbs., reported sick, and unable to perform the journey. 
The Sioux from lakes Qui Parle and Big Stone on the St. 
Peter's having arrived at the entry, the agent organized 
his delegation of three hundred and eighty-five Sioux and 
Chippewas, including the interpreters and attendants. 
This large body reached Prairie du Chien without the 
slightest accident or difficulty with the Chippewas, their 
old enemies, each remembering the pointed counsels of 
their agent. There was a halt before entering the town, 
at the "Painted Rock," where, after attending to their 
toilet and appointment of soldiers to dress the columns of 
boats, the grand entry was made with drums beating, many 
flags flying, with incessant discharges of small arms. All 
Prairie du Chien was drawn out, w^ith other delegations 
already arrived, to witness the display and landing of this 
ferocious looking body of true savages. 



V 



AUTO-BIOGRAPHY OF MAJ. TALIAFERRO. 207 

Gov. Cass and Mr. Schoolcraft had arrived. The agent 
reported to the only Commissioner present, Mr. Cass, and 
was informed where he should encamp, that position had 
already been selected, and the Indians directed to pitch 
their tents near that of the agent and his interpreters. 

Agent Schoolcraft, trusting to the traders, and not on 
his own personal exertions as above his dignity, found 
himself with only one hundred and fifty Chippewas, some 
hundred having returned home. General Clark and his 
staff soon joined, and after a consultation betw^een the 
Commissioners, the place of meeting of the tribes in coun- 
cil designated, the work in hand began in earnest. 

It was during this treaty the agent for the Sioux felt 
the inveterate hostility of the American Fur Company's 
traders from the North and elsew^here. The Chippewas 
especially — those w^ho had known their friend from 1820, 
yearly visiting the post at Fort Snelling, kept the agent 
constantly informed of the secret councils called to detach 
them from his camp and join their friends, but all in vain — 
they would not be detached. Hence the unseemly and 
foolish attempt to control men w^ho would not be controlled. 
Holiday, a drunken Scotch trader, was selected to bully 
and annoy the agent. He soon found the Sioux agent 
would neither be bullied nor annoyed by him nor any 
one of his associates. 

General Cass was induced to summons the Sioux Agent 
before the Commissioners on the plea that a young Sioux 
had brandished his war club over the head of a young 
Chippewa near the Fort Crawford gate, and that one rash 
act might produce at once a scene of blood shed and you 
had better send the Chippewas of your camp to that of 



208 



MINNESOTA HISTORICAL COLLECTIONS. 



Agent Schoolcraft. The agent .summoned thus suavely, 
said in reply, "who is the man that brought this report, 
and where is the Indian threatened?" Response, "Mr. 
Holiday, and here or there is the Indian." In a moment 
the agent saw the ruse, and said, "Gentlemen of the 
Commission, you are here to treat with the several tribes 
present — that is the duty assigned you. My duty is to see 
the Sioux present on the treaty ground, morning and eve- 
ning at the sound of the cannon. You shall not be dis- 
appointed, but as for changing the location of the twent}^- 
eight Chippewa chiefs and braves from one encampment to 
another at the behest of ^Mr. Holiday — through his pliant 
tool — a sheer false pretense, set on foot, doubtless, by 
Agent Schoolcraft, for whom the Chippewas have no re- 
spect, for they seldom see him from his remoteness at 
Sault Ste Marie, and the Sioux Agent respecfully declines 
the change i^roposed and holds himself responsible for all 
consequences resulting from his decision." 

The Commissioners on reflection found the Sioux Agent 
too well booked up on Indian alfairs; that he knew what 
he was doing as a point of duty and self respect. So 
Mr. Holiday was foiled, both he and his falsifying tool. 

Before the close of the treaty there were several nat- 
ural deaths. The Sioux Agents expenses for his large 
delegation of 385 souls was 8812.00. That of Agent 
Schoolcraft with only 150 or 70 Indians was $4,700 — 
even canoes and paddles were charged for in which the 
Chippewas transported themselves to the treaty. Holi- 
day, Cole, Chapman and Dingley, fur traders, well under- 
stood account — making against the United States, and Mr. 
Schoolcraft knew how to certify, etc. 



AUTO-BIOGRAPHY OF MA J. TALIAFKUUO. 



209 



Representations after this treaty to the department at 
Washington, very plausible, doubtless induced the Secretary 
of War, a new hand, to direct Thos. L. McKennoy, Chief 
Clerk in the Indian office to instruct the agent at St. Peters, 
to have nothing to do with the Chippewas of the u])per Mis- 
sissippi and its tributaries, and to direct them to cease all 
visits to Fort Snelling, and adhere to the agency of Mr. 
Schoolcraft. The agent as in duty bound, informed the 
Chippewas in June, 1826, but these Indians said "yes,'' 
seemingly quiescent but still continued to dip their canoes 
in the Mississippi and drift down to the agency on the St. 
Peters; other mere positive instructions, and on the 27th of 
May, 1827, after a full explanation of department orders 
from W^ashington in council, many Sioux present, the Devil 
entered the latter and nine of the Chippewas were killed 
and wounded. So much for the thoughtless and unwise 
decision on a matter which had tetter have been left to the 
foresight and discretion of the Indians' best friend. It was 
known and frequently reported to Washington by disinter- 
ested military commanders of Fort Snelling, that the agent, 
however hostile the two tribes, held their entire confidence; 
a word from him to kill or let live w^as law with them. In- 
dians like wiiite men, will consult their own ease and con- 
venience. The post of Ft. Snelling was located at a very 
important as well as convenient point in the Indian country 
for aU the tribes. The Chippewas refused to visit the Sault 
St. Mary, because of its great distance from their homes; 
furthermore starvation stared them in the face going and 
returning with their families, whereas, 30, 40, 60, 80, 100 
and 200 miles, mostly by water, landed them, passing good 



V 



210 MINNESOTA HISTOKICAL COLLECTIONS. 

fishing and hunting, speedily at the American Fort, for 
many were British frontier Indians. 

Obequelle, the friend of Pike, on Red Lake, and Bruslia, 
of Sandy Lake,J'often spoke of his having told them that 
the 'Americans would some day build a fort high up the 
Mississippi, and he told the truth, for they had lived to see 
it, in order to secure some degree of safety to the South 
Yancton and Wappacoota Sioux and others on the plains. 
The agent was directed to form a proper delegation of these 
people in 1830, to meet their tormentors, the Sacs and Foxes' 
again at Prairie du Chien, in order to a more formal and 
definite line between their respective claims to ownership of 
soil, as a young Chippewa had been recently shot near 
Lamont's Trading Post, on the St. Peters. The Sioux were 
made by their traders, quite reluctant to accept the invita- 
tion of Colonel Taylor, deputed one of the commissioners; 
but as the agent, w^ho was never known to make a promise, 
tell a lie or deceive his children in all his past eleven years 
with them, Col. Taylor w^as informed that he might expect 
the Indians and. their agent w^ithin a few days. On reaching 
Prairie du Chien, the Colonel had left, substituting Colonel 
Willoughby Morgan, leaving with that officer a letter for 
the agent on his arrival, in which he said that which the 
agent was sorry he had known for years back, viz; "take 
the American Fur Company, in the aggregate, and they 

were tjie greatest scoundrels the world ever knew.'? 

They were not only at w^ar with all independent traders, but 
set their faces sternly against all missionary etfort to civil- 
ize, instruct and evangelize the benighted Indian, or the for- 
mation of agricultural farms for the x^oor, as game rapidly 
decreased. No, the Indians must hunt for their gain, and 



V 



AUTO-BIOGRAPHY OF MAJ. TALIAFERRO. 211 

Ihcir gain alone. The president of the American Fur Com- 
pany, John Jacob Astor, had his medals struck similar to 
those of the respective President of the United States, for 
circulation among the Indian tribes with which the agents 
of his company were supplied to make, and recognize chiefs 
of their own, the object which the agent was at no loss to 
conjecture. He obtained one of these after seeing one sus- 
pended from the neck of Wah-ma-de-sapa, a sub chief of 
the Wah-pa-coo-ta Sioux. A remark from the agent caused 
him to take it from the side of the American medal, saying 
Alexander Faribault had obtained it for him. It might have 
been stated before that the Treaty of 1830, ceded the neutral 
ground on the Iowa from the Mississippi, twenty miles wide 
to the second upper fork on the river Desmoines; also a 
tract of land for the permanent home of the half-breed rela- 
tions of the Medawa Kanton Sioux, extending from the 
"Basin" at Red AVing, below head of Lake Pepin, down the 
course of the Mississippi to Root river, thirty- two miles, 
and back in the country a distance of fifteen miles. 

The agents of the company American at Prairie du Chien, 
with their usual pertinacity, pressed the Commissions to 
incorporate an article in this treaty for their benefit. Wa- 
basha was the tool put forth to serve their cupidity, but they 
signally failed. The commissioners, honest men. could not 
recognize a palpable wrong. 

A ^British officer. Captain Patterson, accompanied the 
agent from this Treaty to Fort Snelling; he had come from 
South America on his way to England, and desired to see 
what he could of our wild Indians of the northwest, that 
might enlarge his report to Lord Hill, Chief Commander of 
of the British army. This officer did not tarry long but left 



212 



MINNESOTA HISTORICAL COLLECTIONS. 



after a few weeks, seemin<^ly gratified with his reception by 
Captain Gale, commanding, and attentions of officers and 
citizens of the Post. In 1831, the agent visited the upper 
Minnesota, holding a convention at Traverse des Sioux, at 
a very small cost, explanatory of the Treaty of 1830, which 
was without a word of dissent formally approved and rati- 
fied. 

It w^as here that the services of Joseph Renville, of 
Lac qui Parle, and Colin Campbell, proved of inestima- 
ble value to the success of the expedition. A similar 
one and for a similar pur2:)0se had gone under Colonel 
Thomas L. McKenny, and Governor Cass to the Sault Ste 
Marie, which expended $20,000 uselessly, as the result 
never proved beneficial beyond laborious verbose reports. 
The Indian country was more or less agitated east of 
the Mississippi, but w^est all w^as tranquil. In the midst 
of man}^ perplexities, single-handed and alone, the Agent 
w^as consoled by many testimonials of well-done, good and 
faithful servant. He was secure in the confidence of all 
honest men. Jackson was at the head of the govern- 
ment and the agent had been one of his old soldiers. 
His Eagle eye saw all things, small, and great. His writ- 
ten message to the Little Crow, chief second of all the 
Sioux, showed he perfectly understood Indian wants and 
Indian character. "My Son, I have received your talk 
at the hands of your agent, Mr. Taliaferro. When he 
speaks, open your ears and listen, for you hear my words. 
You say truly 'we have both been warriors.' The war 
club is again buried deep in the ground. I am again your 
friend and the friend of your Nation — let us smoke the 
same pipe and eat out of the same dish. "VVar is hurtful 



AUTO-BIOGRAPHY OF MAJ. TALIAFERRO. 



213 



to any Nation. Keep the 'Seven fires' of your Nation 
in peace and good order, and I will try and do the same 
with the twenty-seven fires of my Nation. Make your 
wants known to your faithful agent and you will hear 
from your true friend speedily.'' 

Doctor John Gale, of the army, writing from Coun- 
cil Bluffs, on the Missouri, says: "The whole army on 
this frontier unite in the belief that the government has 
for once an honest, efficient agent for Indian affairs. You 
know, my dear fellow, that I am too proud to flatter any 
man — yet it is refreshing to see the Indian department 
rapidly brought out of chaos and made a highly respect- 
able branch of the government. You need not be sur- 
prised ere long to see ex-Ministers, ex- Governors, ex- 
Judges and Members of Congress, seeking for admission 
into it. I tell you, my old messmate and friend, you are 
a most fortunate civil appointment for the government, 
though I was one among many that regretted the resig- 
nation of one whose turn of mind seemed so well adapted 
to the army. Colonel Kearney and other officers now en 
route for your Post, can give you an account of Indian 
affairs in this quarter — much gas but nothing real as to 
results. " 

Previous to 1835 the agent importuned the President to 
assign a sub-agent for the Chippewas of the Upper Mis- 
sissippi, and its tributaries, urging as a reason the remote- 
ness of the Sault Ste Marie and the difficulties of the 
route. After some time a Mr. George Peterson, a Chip- 
pewa half-blood and : brother-in-law of Henry R. School- 
craft and agent for the Chij^pewas, was appointed and 
unfortunately located at Lapointe, Lake Superior. He 



v 



214 MINNESOTA HISTORICAL COLLECTIONS. 

proved of unsteady habits, consequently his people had 
no respect for him. After him a ]Mr. Symon or Simon, a 
discharged soldier, secured the situation and he, like his 
predecessor, drank more whiskey than the Indians. Maj. 
Dallam was offered the appointment, but after an investi- 
gation of the general condition of the Indians and the 
character of their traders, declined to serve. Finally IMiles 
Vineyard, of Illinois, accepted and entered on his duties. 
Notwithstanding these efforts to be relieved from the vis- 
its of these people they still kept up (at all risks) their 
habits of seeing their friend the agent and the ^Military 
Post at Port Snelling. 

In 1837 the agent was instructed on the basis of a spe- 
cial report by him made in 1836 to the War office touch- 
ing the purchase of all the lands owned by the Sioux 
east of the Mississippi, w^as directed to organize a full and 
well authorized delegation to be led by him to the seat of 
government, at any moment, to be indicated by General 
Henry Dodge, the Superintendent of Indian Affairs. Subse- 
quent Miles Vineyard was despatched up the Mississippi 
to invite the Chippewas to a council near Fort Snelling, 
and the agent requested to see that a full delegation 
from all points should be present, and further, that he 
propose a site for the treaty, and be in readiness to receive 
the Commissioners, General William R. Smith, of Pennsyl- 
vania, and General Dodge, of Illinois. There was a busy 
time, for soon we had 1,200 Chippewas. and in the vicinity 
of the Post some 395 Sioux, the greater part being still out 
on the spring hunt. This unexpected convocation of Red 
Men brought also a host of expectants in anticipation of 
some benefit from the Indians, interested fur traders and 



AUTO-BIOGRAPHY OF MAJ. TALIAFERRO. 



215 



agents not a few. The Commissionor arriving with his 
staff, were quartered at the Agency, and a general table 
provided by the family of the agent. The treaty opened, 
and was closed, but not without some stirring incidents, 
and considerable excitement. The agent had business at 
his office, some seventy yards from the treaty grounds, 
when Hercules L. Dousman and a Sioux trader, entered 
the Agency office in seemingly great haste, asked for a 
sheet or two of letter paper on which to make an account. 
Dousman was pensman. The agent left, having taken his 
pistols, \vhen in a few minutes Dousman came and laid 
the account before the Secretary, Mr. Van Antwerp. (It 
should be duly noted that the treaty had been written out 
in extenso, and ready for the signatures of the parties). 
Commissioner Dodge looked at this after- thought account 
of five thousand dollars, and told interpreter Peter Quinn 
to ask the Indians if that claim was just for the mills 
on Chippewa. The response was. No, w^e had no good of 
this mill — that the Sioux had had all the benefits of it, 
but the chief from the Chippewa River said, for peace, 
and to satisfy the men making the claim, he, the Commis- 
sioner, might give five hundred dollars. Hole -in- the -Day 
and others objected even to this sum, and asked if they 
were to pay the whites for the erection of a mill for their 
benefit. Nevertheless the ^5,000 was interlined in their 
treaty, ^nd a plain fraud traded on the helpless Indians, for 
the same parties in the name of Bruner, who brought the 
mill iron from Cincinnati, held the mill and other improve- 
ments on a preemption riglit and pocketed ^5,000 in addi- 
tion. Honest people seemed astonished at such palpable 
affrontery; but this w^as not all. After J?58,000 had been 



21G MINNESOTA HISTORICAL COLLECTIONS. 

embodiQcl in the treaty to pay the indebtedness of the 
Chippcwas to their traders, we heard loud shouts and yells 
in the direction of the Chippewa camp, near Baker's trad- 
ing post at --Cold Spring." Word soon reached us that 
Warren, a trader, had marshaled a large body of the Pilla- 
gers, and were coming down like so many black devils to 
force the Commissioner to give to said Warren 820,000. The 
weather was warm, the Sioux agent standing near the table 
on the Commissioner's right hand, Warren rushed in the 
arbor and seated himself by one of the supporters, fanning 
himself with his hat. when the Indians soon followed, 
rushing around and through the arbor. The agent drew 
one of his pistols, pointing it at Warren. Hole-in- the - 
Day said, "Shoot, m}' father I" '-Hold," saj^s General 
Dodge "wait a moment." "Very well, sir, I only hold 
for the first overt act of hostility, then I sell my life, if 
need be, after the fall of the dastard who has attempted 
to intimidate this Commission.'' But worse and more of it. 
Warren got this special sum of 8-0.000 for himself, entered 
into the Dodge Treaty* much to the chagrin of the sensible 
thinking Indians and surprise of intelligent lookers-on. a 
sufficient sum having already been set apart for the pay- 
ment of all just debts of the tribe to their traders. 

This treat}' over, the agent was directed by Gov. Dodge 
to select a proper delegation of Sioux, and conduct them 
to Washington City as soon as practicable. The agent 
had first to get clear of some 1,200 Chippewas without 
bloodshed, and though there were but 80 men for duty 
under Capt. Martin Scott, and many Sioux present, the 
Chippewas were sent oft' without much difficulty to their 
homes. After this happy result the agent was left to talk 



'v 

AUTO-BIOGRAPHY OF MAJ. TALIAFERRO. 217 

freely 'vith his own people on the invitation given by the 
President. Opposition was spoken of as coming from the 
agents of the Fur Company, and others in their employ, 
but the agent organized his party, a powerful one, to coun- 
teract the designs of these othciously interested men who 
eat of their dainties, wipe their mouths and say, ''I have 
committed no sin." But the hour of trial was approach- 
ing. No Indians were to leave the Nation until a guarantee 
was given for the payment of their indebtedness to the 
traders. 

The agent was firm, made no promises, but said the dele- 
gation will be formed and taken to Washington. The path 
was open for all interested claimants; he had nothing to do 
with the traders or their claims. 

The agent had written and engaged a steamboat to be at 
the public landing on a certain day, when he would be in 
readiness with one-half of the delegation to take passage. 
Captain Lafferty was prompt, the traders and others as- 
tonished at the coup de etat. My interpreters and em- 
ployes conducted their friends on board, and with steam 
up off glided the steamer down stream. Stop^Ded for Big 
Thunder and his pipe bearers at Crow's Village, jDassed 
to the old village of Red Wing for Wah-koo-ta and his 
war chief, thence to the village of Wabasha for this chief 
and his friend Etuz-e-pah. Thus was the delegation of 
twenty- six trustworthy men and firm of purpose, secured, 
and the influence of the agent shown to be more solid 
than that of the fur traders, who had said the Govern- 
ment could not enter into any treaty with the Indian tribes 
without they used their influence. Gov. Dodge was met 
at Galena, with funds as before indicated while at St. Peter. 



218 



MINNESOTA HISTOKICAL COLLKCTIONS. 



Here the Governor was told of the premature movement 
of the agent altogether too soon — true, much too soon for 
the wily expectants of great things. The Sui:)erintcnclont 
was asked to give the delegation a physician in the person 
of Doctor A. T. Crow. The agent flatly refused, saying 
the delegation from a combination was larger than was 
desirable, being composed of some thirty -five Indians, 
interpreters and attendants; that the action of the agent 
w^ould in the sequel be fully sustained by the authorities 
at Washington; on this Governor Dodge might safely rely, 
who admitted the agent to be firm, brave, determined in 
the face of danger; he had observed it and his influence 
no man could doubt. So the delegation proceeded pros- 
perously on their voyage, arriving in the city of Washington 
without accident. Mr. Secretary Poinsett was duly waited 
upon by the agent with his children, who were speedily 
introduced to the President, and on presenting to the 
Secretary a synopsis of such a treaty as might be acceptable 
to all parties, business was commenced. At Pittsburgh Dr. 
R. A. Wilson was added, as some of the Indians had 
become indisposed from change of diet and water. The 
Indians taking a particular fancy to Dr. Wilson, a gentleman 
of intelligence and high Christian principles, the agent 
put him forward together with their red friends, to settle 
all matters with Commissioner Poinsett, relative to the 
provisions of the treaty then going on. The interests of 
the Fur Company were represented by Henry H. Sibley. 
Alexis Baill}', Laframboise Rocque, Francois Labathe, 
Alexander Faribault and Oliver Faribault. 

The treaty was signed on the 29th of September, 1837, 
the most liberal — yes, the most safe and beneficial act 



AUTO-BIOGRAPHY MAJ. TALIAFERRO. 



219 



they were ever permitted to subscribe to since — a most 
liberal provision being made for their indebtedness and 
for their half-breed relations, for agricultural schools, 
etc. Yet, at the moment of signing, Alexander Faribault 
and others left, hoping to stop the Chiefs from making 
their marks; but a word from the agent set them to think- 
ing, and their treaty was promptly authenticated in presence 
of some four hundred spectators in Doctor Laurie's church. 
It was here and at this era that Samuel C. Stambaugh and 
Alexis Bailly pressed Secretary Poinsett to confirm to 
Pelagie Faribault, Pike's Island— or pay her 810,000 for 
that which was not worth 8500, and to which she had no 
earthly claim. The Secretary was so informed by the 
agent, as was his duty, and this done he said nothing 
more, but the truth gave great offense to the fictitious 
claim agents. It has been said that Jean B. Faribault had 
been treated with severity. Not so. After Leavenworth's 
folly he went on to Pike's Island and erected his cabins, but 
the next spring found him washed off the island by the 
freshets. He crossed east of the Mississippi and again 
built his habitation on flat boats, and was again inundated 
for his want of a proper foresight — two hundred yards 
back from the river would have left him a permanent 
home with none to molest or make him afraid. 

Mr. Faribault was the first to give the true significa- 
tion of the name of the agent — Jlah-sa-busca — Iron Cutter, 
to the Indians, by which he was ever after recognized 
throughout the tribes. Having said this much of the old 
Canadian traders, it is well to follow our delegation home- 
w^ard. On reaching St. Louis the agent expended §6,000 
with Chouteau & Co., the goods for each assorted, packed 



220 MINNESOTA HISTORICAL COLLECTIONS. 

and plainly marked. After attending to this duty, a 
steamer, Kolla, was chartered, and we commenced our 
voyage north; all well, and in fine siDirits. There \vas but 
one accident of note, and that at Pine River. In stopping 
and starting, a flue in one of the boilers collapsed, with a 
terrible report, killing one man and a horse, with other 
slight damage. It was most Providential that the boilers' 
head passed out in front; had it been the rear the whole 
delegation might have been scalded to death. After a little 
delay we ran up to Fort Sneiling, with one wheel, the 
flanges of the other having been broken at the time of the 
explosion, and landed safely on the 10th day of November, 
1837. Not a day too soon, for the ice made a few days 
thereafter. Major Plympton being in command, gave us 
a hearty welcome, saying: "I feared for you, and you 
were wise in all your plans." 

In 1838, the agent left for St. Louis, in order to facilitate 
the fulfillment of the treaty. Stipulations — contracts for 
horses, oxen, cows, and farming utensils w^ere made. Re- 
turning, blacksmiths w^ei*e engaged and locations designated, 
as well as the farmers, seven in number, for the respective 
villages — promptness in action in all thai: concerned his 
responsible charge — gave assurance to the Indians that they 
had a friend. Commissioners \Y. L. D. Ewing and Colonel 
T. L. Pease, with Colonel Sperin, arrived, and found s240,000 
ready for their disbursement. The agent advised the 
payment of the several bands of Sioux at once, the traders 
and half-bloods thereafter, for the reason that the Indians 
seeing such a large amount of their money going into the 
hands of others w^ould create an unpleasant feeling in the 
minds of those who did not understand its meaning; but 



AUTO-BIOGKAPHY OF MAJ. TALIAFERRO. 



221 



other interested counsels prevailed, and there was, as had 
been predicted, uneasiness, which caused the agent daily 
and almost hourly explanations, until the Commissioners 
completed their duties after a fashion, having made a 
palpably partial disposition of the 8110,000, one hundred 
and ten thousand to the half-bloods, under the treaty of 
September 29th, 1837. The agent, as soon as the annuities 
arrived, speedily paid off all the Indians in goods and cash, 
some 820,000. Colonels Pease and Sperring were disgusted 
with the drunken, dictatorial conduct of their associate. 
General William L. D. Ewing, of Illinois. The Fur Com- 
pany had tampered with this pliant gentleman successfully. 
When the agent declined his and Sam. C. Stambaugh's 
appeal to locate at the mills, at the Falls of St. Anthony, 
on the United States Reserve, west of the Mississippi (now 
Minneapolis), they became the agent's bitter enemies. So 
much so, that the said Ewing addressed a letter of charges 
against him to the President direct, saying: '-Major 
Taliaferro had often talked of resigning his station as 
agent at St. Peters, and now, no matter what he had been, 
was wholly unqualified for the performance of duties 
satisfactorily to the Indians or the Government — asking 
at the same time the appointment of Samuel C. Stambaugh 
to the vacancy.'' 

The agent having been called to Virginia on important 
private business, was at "Washington, and on visiting the 
office of Indian Affairs on official business, was warned by 
a '* worthy brother" of the fact of Ewing's communication 
to Mr. Van Buren, and that it had been by him referred 
to that office. The President was called on forthwith and 
-13 



222 



MINNESOTA HISTORICAL COLLECTIONS. 



upon inquiry as to his reception and reference of sucli a 
missile, was very frankly told yes, but as there was a 
design in it, the paper had been referred to the Secretary 
of War, where it could be seen, but that the agent's 
character as an officer, in the department, was too well 
known, and avouched for integrity of purpose, a successful 
government of his charge for more than twenty years, 
hence, it would afford him, the President, pleasure to again 
send my name to the Senate for confirmation. This was 
done, and the agent received his sixth commission to the 
utter defeat of the machinations of his enemies and the 
astonishment of knowing traders, but to the joy and evident 
satisfaction of the Indians generally. 

The system of Indian trade had been for years and still 
was more oppressive apparently than seemed needful. 
The price of goods of all kinds suited to the wants of the 
Indians were enormous, and when a hunter could not pay 
up his credit in full during the fall and winter montlis, 
in the spring his guns, traps, kettles, rat spears, and even 
his hatchets, were demanded of him. Of this hardship the 
Indians complained to the agent of these traders, and no 
wonder, for their unfeeling, heartless course of oppression 
deprived them of the means of supporting their families 
on their sj^ring hunt. ■ We do not think this course of 
action was general among the traders, for there were a 
few honorable exceptions. Francois Labathe and Jean B. 
Faribault both suffered from their harsh treatment of the 
Indians, both having had severe stabs in their broils with 
their hunters. 

An incident occurred between the soldiers of the garrison 
and Mr. Faribault, while on the island, which affected the 



AUTO- BIOGRAPHY OF MAJ. TALIAFERRO. 223 

standing of the latter for a time. There was not a drop 
of whisky at the post, the 22d of February was approaching; 
it was hinted by some one that Mr. F. had a little. Ser- 
geant Mann was sent over to feel the way as negotiator. 
He succeeded in getting all there was — one gallon, and for 
which" eighty dollars was paid on promise of inviolable 
secrecy. The 22d arrived, the whisky produced, and, lol 
it had been diluted with water. This the soldiers could 
not tolerate, and Mr. F., at all risks, was reported to the 
officer in command. Jb was in the power of the agent, 
however, to put matters at ease in Mr. F.'s dilemma— he 
had his smiter temporarily employed for the Indian depart- 
ment at Mendota, where Mr. F. finally built a permanent 
residence. 

After man}' efforts of moral suasion, the agent was 
enabled to find himself at the head of the best organized 
agency under the Government, and this effected with much 
toil and but little support from any quarter, except such 
as was accorded by the military, when sought, whicli 
was seldom deemed expedient. Substantial and sufficient 
quarters for all purposes had been secured by the agent 
at his own cost, and thousands of his own private means 
expended in many an emergency, for want of sufficient 
public funds. At no time from 1819 to 18-10, was the 
allotment for his agency over the average of ^800. Not a 
square inch of stroud cloth to each Indian in the nation. 
No wonder the agent was accused of great mystery in his 
management of Indian affairs, but in this apparent mystery, 
in the providence of an all-wise Creator, reposed his queer 
powers of control of the heart of the children of his care; 
he was protected amid dangers seen and unseen. In two 



'v 



224 MINNESOTA HISTORICAL COLLECTIONS. 

instances his life was i-)resorvcd by an Indian woman, and 
at another period by Duncan Campbell, a brother of Scott 
Campbell, the United States interpreter, a man of great 
worth and efliciency, a true friend to the Americans, but 
badly served in the strange decision made in the treaty 
of September 29th, 1837 — his family is justly entitled to 
88,000, granted by his nation in that treaty.' It was 
necessary to visit the Presbyterian Mission at Lake Har- 
riet in company with Philander Prescott. ✓ 

Towards evening we left in our wagon for the agency; 
on the w^ay met the Rev. Samuel William Pond on the 
prairie, who seemed agitated, saying to us: ''You had 
better hurry on as the Sioux intend mischief to the 
Chippewas at Baker's Trading Post." Whip was put on 
the horse at once and speed made: met some females run- 
ning who said: "Hurry on, Father, or you will be too 
late." We wanted no urging, for the horse was dull at 
his best speed. We reached the scene of trouble just 
as the sun went down. On jumping down from the wagon 
the firing on the Chippewas commenced, and so vice 
versa. The flashes from the guns were so rapid that for 
a moment the agent closed his eyes; but soon seized 
the Red Bird by the hair, saying: "You dog, be off." 
My voice was soon heard and the Sioux made off in all 
haste, leaving one Chippewa killed and two young Sioux 
mortally wounded; these fell, from exhaustion in Capt. 
Boon's dragoon camp, just beyond Minnehaha, the sol- 
diers conveying them to their temporary- encampment a 
little further on. Dr. I. I. B. Wright, surgeon of the 
army being pi-esent, was requested to ask for a detail of 
soldiers to convey the body of the unfortunate Chij^pewa 



AUTO-BIOGRAPHY OF MAJ. TALIAFEUFiO. 



to the Fort, which request Major Plympton in command, 
promptlj^ complied with. The next day the instigators of 
tliis outrage on the Chippewas. (old Hole-in-the-Day, whom 
the agent had instructed in the office of chief at the re- 
quest of his people, being present), were delivered, upon 
demand of the agent, and confined in the Fort to await 
future action. The murdered Indian was decently interred 
in the i:)ublic burying ground near the remains of "Little 
Crow" and '-^Vhite Buzzard," Sioux chiefs. The agent 
had satisfactorily shown not onl}' on this occasion, but in 
1827, clearh' to all men that he required not the use of 
military aid in enforcing his authority, the military inter- 
ference doing more harm than good. Could the military 
authority bring in offenders five hundred miles off on the 
plains? No, but the agent could, and did effect this, 
when it was asserted that the Indians would laugh at the 
demands of their Father. 

We now come to the year 1839. The murder of Ne-ka 
or Badger, near the ^fission of Lake Harriet, by three 
of the pillagers of Leech Lake — such was the popularity 
of this Sioux — that this deed of wanton cruelty set on fire 
of revenge all the neighboring villages. It proved a most 
unfortunate murder, as the Indians were off in pursuit 
of revenge before the agent was apprised of the move- 
ment. They pressed rapidly up to Rum river and before 
the agent's messenger reached the village of Little Crow, 
the young men crossed overland to the St. Croix, and 
there were conflicts on the same day. It was a severe 
retaliation, for the Sioux returned with ninety-five scalps. 
Human foresight could not have changed this truly unfor- 
tunate result. Towards the close of the year the agent 



V 



220 MINNESOTA HISTORICAL COLLECTIONS. 

had fulfilled all treaty stipulations and the Indians coin- 
cided ^vith and dismissed them. He was asked for another 
meeting in council. This was conceded, not aware, how- 
ever, of the object, as the agent had finally arranged 
in presence of the chief of towns with their approval full 
estimates for the ensuing year. Several chiefs, at the 
hour designated, entered the agency office. Shortly there- 
after John C. Fremont, Henry H. Sibley, also Alexander 
Faribault, and others of the American Fur Compan}'. At 
this moment also a note from Mr. P. Prescott, as to the 
true object of that council, which was to accuse the agent 
with authorizing the "Bad-Hail" to cross the Mississippi 
and drive Henry C. Menck, a British convict, from his 
whiskey shop and put fire to his cabin. This Indian, a very 
bad one, whom the agent once confined in the guard house 
at the Fort for mutinous conduct, was the tool selected by 
the traders and whiskey sellers to fasten a foul and 
malicious charge against these long tried, and unwavering 
friends. The "Bad-Hail," it is true, had consulted the 
agent as to these pests of the post; asking permission to 
drive them oft before the day of the annuity payments. 
He w^as emphatically told to go home to his village; that 
neither the Indians nor the agent had any business with 
these bad men. That the chief of the soldiers. Major 
Plympton, would at the proper time drive those men oft' 
and burn their cabins. But he chose, it seems, to take 
this responsibility upon himself, as one of the soldier's, 
and run Mr. Menck out of his house; but not by the 
agent's order, for this was contrary to all his counsels for 
more than twenty-one years. Nevertheless, a writ was 
obtained of the sheriff by James R. Clewett, a foreigner, 



V 



AUTO-BIOGKAPHY OF MAJ. TALIAFERRO. 227 

he deputizing Henry ^Menek to serve it, another for- 
eigner, who found the agent in a sick room. There was 
no waiting; a canoe was in readiness and sick or well. 
— drawing a pistol at the same time — "you shall go to 
Clayton Court House." The agent coolly said: "Put up 
your pistol, Mr. Menck, or whatever your name is. I 
wish only time to send a note to the Fort previous to 
leaving." 

Mr. Menck was greatly astonished in a few minutes to 
find himself a prisoner in the hands of a military guard 
and shipped across the Mississippi, and told to keep out 
of the country or he would be sent to Missouri for enter- 
ing the Indian country without a passport. 

Thus terminated this farce. The officers of the post 
were greatly incensed at such an infamous violation' of 
law. The agent had asked to withdraw his resignation 
for a few months in consequence of this attack, and other 
suits at law brought by Alexis Bailly and others for en- 
forcing the intercourse laws, but his apx^eal was not 
granted and Amos J. Bruce was appointed. This was 
well, for he well knew that the time would come when 
all his efforts to do good would pass into oblivion and the 
nationality of the noble Sioux be completely destroyed, 
and the nation become extinct. The Indian Department 
had failed to sustain their agent, and were lending a list- 
ening ear to the agents of the American Fur Company. 
Honest men had to return from the Indian service in dis- 
gust, as the most faithful, honest and persevering officers 
of the Department could not convince the general com- 
missioners at the seat of government how necessary it 
was to give prompt attention to all estimates under treaty 



228 



MINNESOTA HISTORICAL COLLECTIONS. 



stipulations, and to conform strictly, article by article, to 
these estimates, the agents alone being held resi^onsibl(j 
by the Indians for the correct and faithful application of 
their funds, which should leave no room for comments by 
interested traders as to the quantity and quality of tlie 
goods procured by their money. 

The factory system of trade with the Indians was abol- 
ished in opposition to the wishes of all the agents, officially 
expressed. Had the system been continued under a more 
thorough organization, and losses made up whenever a 
treaty for cessions of land was made with the Indians, 
an end would have been put to the wiles of the American 
Fur Company, no wrongs perpetrated on the ignorant and 
helpless, no perjury, no bribed commissioners at the mak- 
ing or fulfillment of treaties with the Indians, and the 
general peace among the tribes more easily enforced and 
maintained. 

All the disgrace for years back, attending our Indian 
intercourse may and -can bo traced, not to the agents 
proper, but to the acts of the commissioners and other 
persons deputized by the Government to frame treaties 
with the tribes and returned upon the poor Indians to 
make a mock fulfillment, calling in the aid of more than 
willing tools to rob the helpless by forcing their unwill 
'ing signatures tp base frauds upon them. O, white man, 
what degradation has your thirst for gold brought upon 
the poor savage 1 The curse of God and the finger of 
scorn pointed at you by all Christian men, and unless ye 
rei^ent ye shall all likewise perish, for the wicked now 
walk on every side while the vilest of men arc exalted.- 
Nevertheless, man being in honor abide th not; he is like 



V 



AUTO-BIOGRAPHY OF MAJ. TALIAFERRO, 229 

the beasts that perish. Such were the reflections and ex- 
perience in Indian affairs of the agent at St. Peter's, who 
had always tried, faithfully and honestly, to do his duty 
fearless of consequences. 

In the early occupancy, by the civil and military, of the 
Indian country on the Upper Mississippi, it was found 
indispensible to peace and good order, to keep a tiglit 
rein over a wild and mixed population, composing those 
not subject to law and order, but self-willed and arrogant. 
A controlling influence became necessary, and was mildly 
but firmly enforced. 

Murder, theft, purchase of soldier's clothing, introduc- 
tion of whiske}^ fraud and drunkenness, met with prompt 
punishment, but few examples were found expedient. 
Emigration from Pembina to the interior of the United 
States did not commence for some years after the estab- 
lishment of Fort Snelling, but the failure of crops by the 
inundations of rivers and myriads of locusts, compelled 
the settlers to petition for passports to a large amouiit, 
which vs'ere at once granted by the agent. Many arrived 
at various times at the entry, were fed by the govern- 
ment and sent onward to Iowa and Wisconsin, the Scotch 
founding a settlement near Dubuque called New Scotland. 
Among them the agent recognized the name of Wishart, 
and purchased his carts, cattle, etc. , and gave him a boat to 
descencl the river with his family. A Frenchman, by name 
Perry, with his family remained, and became a great cat- 
tle raiser; so much so that the commandant requested 
him to change his location to Carver's old cave, six miles 
below the Fort, east of the Mississippi, which he cheer- 
fully did. Here, it may be said, small things- often 



230 MINNESOTA HISTORICAL COLLECTIONS. 

decide our locality for us. Mrs. Perry was a celebrated 
accoucheur, and this fact coming to the knowledge of the 
ladies of the post, there was no witlistanding their appeal 
by the commanding officer, Col. Snelling, hence the Perry 
family became a permanent fixture. When any of his 
large herd of cattle were killed by the Indians, the agent 
had him promptly paid. 

The military sometimes brought charges against the 
Indians. One of those complaints, being ofticially made 
by Lieut. Eastman, will only be noted. It was for the 
killing of his pointer dog by a young Indian while out on 
the prairie. The case was soon investigated. The Indian 
at once acknowledged the fact of killing the dog, but 
disclaimed any hostility to the complainant. The dog 
came up to him as he lay on the prairie. He seemed a 
good mark; he raised his pistol and fired, and the dog 
fell. Had he seen the officer, knowing him well, he would 
not have fired. He was ready to settle the difficulty by 
giving Mr. Eastman his horse, and hoped he would not 
be hard with him as they were relation. Mr. Eastman 
was officially informed of the result, and that the horse 
was in readiness should he accept the indemnity prof- 
fered. There was no response, but the hostilitj^ of this 
gentleman to the agent, of which he took no notice, as he 
had performed his duty as far as any honorable man 
could reasonably expect, was plainly visible. 

Officers had familiarized themselves with the Indians 
after the fashion of the traders, and there were many liv- 
ing evidences of the fact. Orders had to be issued by the 
respective commanding officers of the post excluding Indian 
ladies from daily and nightly visits to their friends in the 



AUTO-BIOGRAPHY OF MAJ. TALIAFERRO. 



231 



Fort. The traders would make a detective of the agent 
if practicable. All thefts on each other were reported to 
the agent for justice. Deserting boatmen (fed on corn 
and tallow) must be forced to proceed up the St. Peter's 
with their outfits for the trade, right or wrong. Every 
ox, cow, calf or hog lost by persons on the Indian lands, 
the agents were expected to find the culprits or pay for 
these often fictitious losses. Droves of cattle passing the 
plains, including sheep to Red River Colony, were de- 
serted on the head waters of the Minnesota. Gibson, the 
contractor, appealed to the agent, and, after much trouble, 
being fully authorized, some 8900 of the loss was trans- 
mitted to Gen. Clark. Superintendent of Indian Atfairs, 
and paid over to the claimants. 

The winters were generally severe. That of 1824-5 was 
more mild, the steamer "Rufus Putnam,*' Captain Bates, 
passing Lake Pepin and reaching the fort April 5, 1825, 
and returned again on the 5th of ^lay with goods for the 
Columbia Fur Company, passed up the Minnesota to their 
post at "Land End." This was the first boat passing 
through its waters, as the steamer "Virginia'' was the 
first to land with government stores at Fort Snelling. 

To show how very unfortunate the government was in 
the selection of commissioners to close the Winnebago 
treaty of 1837, the funds for the payment of the half- 
breeds, some 885,000, was so long delayed that Mr. Broad- 
head, of Pennsylvania, and others bought up the claims 
of these poor ignorant creatures for one fourth and one- 
half. After this the commission, finding the money still 
not arriving, left by steam for St. Louis (the agent at 
St. Peter's being in company), met some forty miles be- 



232 



MINNESOTA HISTORICAL COLLECTIONS. 



low Prairie du Chicn a steamboat with the long-expected 
funds, which Quartermaster McKissac immediately, in per- 
son, returned with to St. Louis. Here application was 
made by Commissioners Murry and Cameron for the cash. 
Military District Agent Hitchcock, on consultation witli 
the St. Peters agent, refused to pay it over, ver}' x^rop- 
erly. An appeal was taken from the military disbursing 
agent's decision to the War Department, and afterwards 
to Senator Buchanan, of Pennsylvania. 

An able pamphlet was written by Major Hitchcock, 
and published: the St. Peter's agent's certificate embodied 
in it. So j)lainly was gross fraud shown, that the "War 
Department sent another agent with funds to see the half- 
breeds and settle with them, allowing said Broadhead 
and others, the sum of fifteen per cent, only for the out- 
lay of money. This transaction only went to confirm the 
official reports to the office of Indians of the disgrace 
which these temporary appointments entailed upon the 
agents proper in the Indian country. It seemed as if 
the department had no confidence in commanders, officers 
of posts, and their agents near the same, to settle and ad- 
just all treaty stipulations. Had this policy been adopted, 
full satisfaction would have been secured at a trifiing 
expense to the government. Being a man of simple hab- 
its, looking at things as he found them, the idea of poli- 
tics or political aims controlling men and traders had not 
been for a moment his study. He was a child in such 
matters, he believed himself honest in all things; deeming 
every other man whatever his station equally so. But 
a lapse of time after a close intimacy with all descrip- 
tions of i^eople, the human heart seemed deceitful above 



V 



AUTO-BIOGKAPHY OF MA.T. TALIAFERRO. 233 

all things and desperately wicked. Eagerness for gold 
and places of honor in the councils of the nation be- 
ing fully inaugurated, and unblushingly pursued as trade, 
it became plain to his mind, painful as the bare idea was, 
that the final rulers of this great and growing nation 
would destroy it, as all ancient history in the early ages 
of the world had shown. 

Spurning the common wish of help, 
I loved my country for itself. 

The winters of Minnesota have been merely touched 
upon. The severity of these was often fatal to both 
whites and Indians on the plains. Martin Macleod * lost 
two companions beyond Lac qui Parle, in passing from 
the Red River settlement to Fort Snelling; this is not the 
only occurrence of the kind. On one particular occasion, 
in the winter of 1826-7, a band of thirty lodges of the 
Sisseton, and other Sioux, in passing from one hunting 
district to another more favorable for game, were over- 
taken by a snow storm, and encamped on a large prairie 
some ten miles from wood land, supposing the storm 
would not prove of long contintiance. Yet the storm con- 
tinued to rage for three days and nights, until the snow 
fell over three feet deep, with intense cold. Here were 
seventy-five men, women and children, soon without wood 
or food of any kind. This part}^ had but seven pair of 
snow-shoes, and the strongest men left for the nearest 
trading post, one hundred miles off. Days were lost 
in going to and returning with assistance to their doomed 
friends. The traders sent four Canadians with what pro- 
visions they, and the Indians could carry. xVfter great 

*Macleod spelled bis name thus in his own signatures. On our state map, and 
statistics, it is spelled McLeod. W. 



234 



MINNESOTA HISTORICAL COLLECTIONS. 



toil these reached the scene of distress and woe, for 
the greater portion of the Indians were dead. The most 
revolting of all this calamity was, the living were sub- 
sisting on the dead. A mother had eaten her deceased 
offspring and a portion of her father's arms. A very 
few were rescued, among them the poor unfortunate 
woman that had been forced to subsist on her own child. 
She made her way to the agency in early Spring, but 
was a lunatic. At lucid intervals the agent tried deli- 
cately to get what information he could of the disaster, 
but the heart of stone could not have witnessed her 
ravings without the shedding of tears. Poor Tash-u-no-ta, 
so young and lovely in person. She asked Capt. Footc. 
on visiting the Fort, in the presence of several persons, 
if he knew which was the best portion of a man to 
eat, taking him by the collar of his coat at the time. 
His astonishment was so great at the bare idea, that for 
a time he could not speak, after a while he said, no. 
She said, the arms. All was done for her that sym- 
pathy could suggest, but a few days thereafter she was 
found above the entry of St. Peters, dead from the act 
of drowning, and she was decently buried. Poor Tash- 
u-no-ta, she has gone to the "spirit-land." The first 
murder of one Indian by another, was caused by the giv- 
ing of a bottle of whiskey to the old "White Buzzard." 
by Colonel Leavenworth at Cold Water Camp, which 
was productive of some very sharp correspondence be- 
tween the commanding officer and the Indian agent. 

In order to enforce morality as far as practicable, being 
the highest officer at the post, he induced many traders 
with growing Indian families to legitimize their children 



AUTO-BIOGRAPHY OF MAJ. TALIAFERRO. 



235 



by marriage. There being no minister in the country, he 
officiated as a justice of the peace, and united many, among 
them was Oliver Cratte to Miss Graham, James Wells to 
Miss Graham, daughters of Duncan Graham: Alpheus R. 
French to Mary Henry, of Ohio, closing with the union 
of Dred Scott with Harriet Robinson — my servant girl, 
which I gave him. The only colored woman purchased 
was by Alexis Bailly of Major Garland. The agent in 
after years gave freedom to all his slaves. If estimated 
by others it would be a gift of twenty-five or thirty 
thousand dollars ; but there was no outside influences 
touching the decision of the liberators ; it was a solemn 
act not influenced by any earthly powers. 

Indians thought much of negroes — called them black men, 
or black Frenchmen, Wah-she-che-sappo — would place their 
hands on the agent's boy's head, and laugh heartily. The 
agent at Traverse des Sioux found it expedient to punish his 
servant for giving too much whisky to several young men. 
which placed the agent for a time in an uncomfortable posi- 
tion. When brought up for castigation, and a blow or two 
had been inflicted, the Indians prayed the agent to forbear. 
"Well," said the agent, "if you will all hit him with your 
pipe-stems for his bad conduct he may go." This was 
acceded to at once, but it was not known if they had 
inflicted any blows on William. 

The war with England had been the means of dividing 
the largely po^Dulated villages into small communities — 
these having medals, flags and silver gorgets, presented 
by Colonel Robert Dickson, to each war chief sending a 
squad of Indian allies for the British service, induced 
these young men at the close of the war to assume the 



236 MINNESOTA HISTORICAL COLLECTIONS. 

station and prerogatives of chiefs — t?ie authority of the 
old chiefs put at defiance. This was the status of things 
when their new agent assumed the direction of their affairs; 
hence it required time and ]^rudence to consolidate these 
off-shoots and give confidence and more authority to the 
hereditary chiefs. It was necessary in aid of this effort 
to secure as fast as possible a delivery up of all these 
foreign marks — so much esteemed by their possessors 
Success attended the efforts of the policy silently adopted, 
and the agent, in two years, received thirty-six medals of 
George III; twenty- eight flags and eighteen gorgets. Of 
American medals and flags, he replaced only such as might 
enhance his own influence with his people. 

It was some length of time before he could induce the 
Indians to respect the Sabbath-day — all days being alike 
to them. It so happened that hundreds of important peace 
conventions were made and confirmed by the hostile tribes 
on the Lord's day. But time and patience brought them 
to reason, and for years they respected tlie white man's 
great "medicine day." The sign given for the day of rest 
was the agency flag floating from the flag- staff, at the 
agency council house. 

For a time it was deemed pardonable to apparently give 
in to their various superstitious ceremonies — appear to be 
interested in all their dogmas of religious ceremonies — 
initiations into the medicine family, dances, songs, etc. 
The agent in the winter. February, 1816. witnessed the 
initiation ceremony on Pike's Island, when Little Crow's 
grandson — Little Crow, and two young women became 
members of the medicine family. The Grand Master, Lit- 
tle Crow, a venerable chief, officiated. He advanced to 



V 



AUTO-BIOGRAPHY OF MAJ. TALIAFERRO. 237 

tlie inclosure, asking the agent how he liked the ceremony. 
*'I would invite you within, but it is against our rales.' 
Of course he was told that it was grand and sublime, for 
I w^as a mason and could comprehend much that the 
uninitiated could not. He said: "at this time we could not 
make you a brother member of our order, but at another 
time if you wish it, though no white was ever permitted 
to unite with us; but if you were to apply it would be 
hard to refuse you; you are as good as an Indian in our 
minds." 

The agent was at the height of his usefulness at this 
period, with not only the Sioux — his special charge — but 
the Chippewas, from Chippewa river to the Pillagers of 
Otter Tail lake. When chiefs died, and others were to be 
installed, the parties were uniformly compelled to designate 
their choice by a simple process. The committee were 
given a full suit of American uniform, and told that the 
chief selected in council by the band, on reporting to the 
agent with that uniform on would at once be recognized, 
and respected by him. This course of action uniformly 
gave entire satisfaction — if not, it was no fault of their 
friend. As to displacing or making chiefs of towns, the 
agent w^ell knew would prove an unpopular assumption of 
power and affect his standing with all the tribes. Not one 
man in five thousand understands the savage heart; to soften 
this and control it for good, his power must be given him 
from on high. That power enables an humble instrument 
to face all dangers, to stop war parties, often from three 
hundred to eight hundred strong, to bring offenders to 
justice hundreds of miles oft — all by the aid of a moral 
-14 



238 



MINNESOTA HISTORICAL COLLECTIONS 



influence, which they did not resist. All evil influences 
brought to bear on the minds of the Indians by the 
traders and others, were promptly met, and foiled in a 
manner that they could not comprehend. As the agent 
had his spies upon their conduct as well as theirs upon 
his. 

Messrs. Samuel and Gideon Pond, two young christian 
men from Connecticut, and to whom the agent gave his 
quarters and encouragement, were of inestimable service. 
So was the Rev Dr. Williamson, Dr. Riggs, Mr. Ste- 
vens, Gavin, and others of their respective missions ; 
also the Rev. Alvan Coe, who suffered much in the 
Chippewa country. We would gladly pass over the name 
of the Rev. A. Brunson of the Methodist Mission, without 
comment, but it must in truth be said, he gave both the 
Indians and the agent trouble with his complaints and de 
mands the most unreasonable. The Government could not 
be induced to permit the agent to use funds applicable 
under the treaty of 1837, to schools and missions — in this 
his hands were tied, after an expenditure for these im- 
portant objects, of only SI, 500. But few unbiased living 
men know of the fiery ordeals through which he had to 
pass, from 1819 to 1840. Volumes of official and other 
correspondence shows more than the world will, perhaps, 
ever know; and, finally becoming satisfied that serving to 
the close of his sixth term would not only endanger his 
reputation, but his life, from the influx of bad men into 
the country, and this for his incorruptible devotion to his 
charge and the true interest of the government, he left 
with sorrow his doomed people, with the hearty concur- 
rence of his friend, I. N. Nicollet, who said: ''You have 



AUTO BIOGRAPHY OF MAJ. TALIAFERRO. 



239 



doDe your best fearlessly, devotedly, nobly; you are among 
thieves and murderers; the Indians are a doomed race; 
save your reputation." 

Thus closed the life of the agent among the several 
tribes of Minnesota. In 1856 he was in Minnesota, and 
present at the laying of the corner stone of the St. Paul 
Historical Society. He found none to know him — not an 
invitation did he get to "break bread" with any of the 
poor, made quickly rich, nor could he get the agents of 
the American Fur Company on their bond indemnifying 
and forthcoming, drawn by Joseph Rolette and witnessed 
by Henry H. Sibley, to free him from the cost of a suit 
brought by Alexis Bailly, their agent, for six barrels of 
-whiskey, seized in 1834 — was referred to Hercules Dous 
man as a put off— no redress, hence the remark of Gen- 
eral Z. Taylor becomes applicable: "Take the American 
Fur Company in the aggregate, and they are the greatest 
set of scoundrels the world ever knew." After a lapse of 
years the late agent re-entered the army of the United 
States in March, 1857, was ordered to San Antonio, Texas, 
then to Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, thence to Pittsburgh, 
Penn., where he lived some four years. At the opening 
of the rebellion, with the approbation and api^roval of 
his superiors, the President was pleased, on the 27th of 
August, 1863, to have his name placed on the retired list 
of the^ army, with his pay proper. Republics have been 
pronounced ungrateful, but now, at the full age of seventy, 
he is an exception. 

The upper Mississippi became a place of considerable 
resort during the spring and summer months, after steam 
navigation became fairly to be safe and expeditious. No 



240 



MINNESOTA HISTORICAL COLLECTIONS. 



only our citizens from the States, but from foreign coun- 
tries, England, France, Italy, Russia, Switzerland, visited 
the Falls of St. Anthony, Minnehaha and beautiful sur- 
rounding country. Among the latter was Capt. Marryatt, 
of the Royal Navy, a famous author, a rough, self-con- 
ceited John Bull. He visited the nearest trading post to 
see the Indians, announced himself an Englishman to 
them, through quite willing interpreters; spoke of their 
great nation; that he was going through their country as 
their friend; that their great British father had never for- 
gotten them. This interview of the sailor was of course 
at once made known to the agent, and it was delicately 
intimated to the captain that his exploration of the country 
closed at Fort Snelling. And " Snarleyyow or the Dog 
Fiend," or rather, its author, left soon for the lower Mis- 
sissippi. 

C. G. Beltrami, was an Italian passenger with the agent 
from Pittsburgh to Fort Snelling, in the steamer Virginia, 
Captain Pemberton, with stores for the army contractor, 
and this was the first boat thai had had the temerity to 
make the effort. On the route up the Father of waters, 
the agent and a fireman were on the hurricane deck, one 
fair day, firing with a rifle at a mark, 25 cents per shot, 
western frontier fashion, when friend Beltrami arrived at 
the scene, and soon a scene followed. The Italian, while 
my opponent the fireman was adjusting the target for my 
shot in turn* picked up the rifle, struck the breech sud- 
denly on the deck and otf it went, the ball cutting through 
his right whisker. No further damage, but his rage was 
terrible. He was about to hit my friend the fireman, but 
my arm interposed. "Man-ny," said Jones, "If you had 



AUTO-BIOGRAPHY OF MAJ. TALIAFERRO. 241 

hit me with that gun I would hiive given you the worst 
beating you ever had in all your born days." This brought 
the exclamation "Too much king in Americal too much 
king!" The response was, "Yes, sir, we are all kings 
here, no distinction." The Count's better nature soon pre- 
vailed, when he apologized to the fireman for his rash- 
ness, who said, ''Stranger, it's all well, but if you had of 
hit me with that gun you would have wished you never 
had." After this episode we passed to our destination 
through a brilliant light many miles of the way, for the 
bordering hills were all on fire. 

Shortly after Beltrami domiciled at the fort. Col. Long 
with his scientific expedition arrived, comjDOsed of Mr. 
Calhoun, Prof. Save and Mr. Seymour. Mr. B. asked and 
obtained leave to accompany the expedition to Pembina. 
I gave him my noble steed "Cadmus" with full equip- 
ments and provisions for the journey overland. He left 
in good spirits but finally quarreled with Colonel Long, 
separated from his party, and alone started in quest of 
the sources of the ^Mississippi. He has in his letters to 
his "dear Countess" given some facts of his tour, inter- 
spersed with ideal egotistical fiction: Yet he was a man 
of talent and deserves credit for the information imparted 
to the country as far as it goes. He knew but little of 
Indian habits or character. His temper could not brook 
the tardy movements of this people. He could not let 
patience have its perfect work, and so he and Glo^ichj 
Weather, a Pillager sub-chief well known to the agent, 
and under whose safe guard he then was, hundreds of 
miles off, had a falling out, so that the Cloud had to 
strike the Count with his pijye stem to keep him quiet, and 



242 MINNESOTA HISTORICAL COLLECTIONS. 

our Italian had sense enough to take the hint. After tliis 
Cloudy Weather with a few young men escorted their 
charge in safety to Fort Snelling. 

Beltrami speaks truly of his ardent reception on his re- 
turn, but he kept dark as to his troubles with the Cloud. 
But the old man gave the agent all the particulars. 
*'When I met him," said the Cloud, "and he mentioned 
your name — pointing down the Mississippi — I determined 
to see him safe to your house." The chief was thanked 
and rewarded for his fidelity. 

The most interesting explorer to the upper Missis. sippi 
was I. N. Nicollet, a distinguished French astronomer, a 
gentleman of general scientific information. He had 
landed at New Orleans from France and while there fell 
through the observatory breaking two of his ribs. He 
was known to Chief Justice Catron, and kindly taken 
into his family and cared for until able to move without 
pain, when he, with letters from the Judge, wended his 
way to St. Louis. Here he was given letters of intro- 
duction to the agent at St. Peter and his lady, who in- 
vited him to their residence, furnished him with pleasant 
quarters and a place at their table, . Virginia fashion, a 
call six months, a visit one year. 

Soon many questions were put as to the probable ac- 
complishment of the object of his visit to St. Peter's. 
Could he go to the settlement of Selkirk? Yes. Could 
he go to the source of the Mississippi? Yes, sir. "WeH," 
said he, with a pleasant smile, "you American beat do 
dev. Suppose I say can I go to h — ell, you say yes." 
Here his friend Mrs. T. remarked, "None of us will 
send you that route if we can prevent it." "Well, then, 



V 



AUTO-inOGRAPHY OF MAJ. TALIAFEUUO. 243 

madam, change my route to the upper Mississippi." And 
"svith the aid of Benj. P. Baker, a teacher at the post, 
and the agent, he soon had his bark boat, crew and 
proper stores and left us in good spirits, with his load 
of scientific instruments for his tedious exploration. He 
succeeded well and returned with a map of the country, 
and though drawn with a pen, presented a beautiful 
picture of lakes, land and rivers. This original map was 
presented to Mrs. Taliaferro after he had finished it at 
the agency in the fall and winter of 1836-7. 

It was deemed of great importance after this, by the 
agent, that we should get Mr. Nicollet to explore the 
country generally to the north and west in Minnesota, 
and the Missouri. The Indian agents sounded Mr. N. on 
this idea. He responded quickly: *'I have received so 
much unexpected kindness and hospitality from the peo- 
ple of the United States thus far, that if requested he 
would not say no. This was enough and ^laj. Taliaferro 
at once addressed the Secretary of War, Mr, Poinsett, on 
the vast importance of a more perfect knowledge of one 
of the finest and most productive portions of our vast 
territories. The proposition was met in due season and 
Mr. N. with his associate John C. Fremont, entered upon 
the great exploration and survey, and the result of their 
labors was a large and correct map of Minnesota, Dako- 
ta, &c. 

The long and dreary winters spent by Mr. Nicollet in 
the family of ^laj. Taliaferro at the agency were relieved 
in the long nights of some 16 hours duration, by music, 
(Mr. N. was an accomplished violinist, Mrs. T. on the 
piano,) for hours each night. On closing them came his 



244 



MINNESOTA HISTORICAL COLLECTIONS. 



last supper of ^vild rice, mush and milk, then to liis rest 
in the storehouse. 

"When Mrs. T. left for her home in Bedford, Pennsylva- 
nia, Mr. Nicollet and Mr. Fremont were entertained by Mr. 
Sibley at Mendota, his trading post, near the entry of the 
Minnesota River. Mr. N., when low spirited, did not for- 
get his sister, as he called her, Mrs. Taliaferro, as he 
found her at Bedford and passed the winter with us; and 
it was well he did. for he had to be carefully nursed and 
had the best medical attendance, Mrs. T. dressing his 
blisters and acting faithfully the good Samaritan. 

On the opening of spring we all went on in company 
to Washington city, there to renew his official labors. 
The small map presented to Mrs. T. was found indis- 
pensable to the completion of his large map, and this 
was promptly given him, but after his death was never 
recovered. This map I desired, of all things, to put in 
the archives of the Historical Society, at St. Paul, as 
also a copy of the grant, on parchment, of Carver's 
claim, signedby Snake and Turtle. 

We visited Mr. N. at St. Mary's College, Baltimore, 
where all his geographical specimens and other speci- 
mens were stored; also at Dr. Ducatel's, in the same city, 
where he found in the person of the doctor's lady an- 
other sister. Never was any foreign gentleman more 
esteemed than was Mr. N. by all who ever knew him. 
He w^as a man of fine heart, congenial, winning compan- 
ion. When last in Washington we visited, at his request, 
the French Minister, M. Pontiva, and on being introduced 
by Mr. N. was forced to sit in his chair of office. The 
minister was very profuse in thanks for the many kind 



AUTO BIOGRAPHY OF MAJ. TALIAFERRO. 245 

attentions to his esteemed countryman's wants. He was 
informed that I had done nothing more than was my 
duty. "And nobly did you perform tliat duty," said the 
minister. ''^Yell," said I to the minister, "I can this 
night say what no other man can say." "What is that?" 
said several voices, for the room was full by this time. 
"I have been Secretary of State of the United States 
and Minister Plenipotentiary from France to the United 
States." "How is that?" "Easily explained, gentlemen. 
When I was a green second lieutenant in the army my 
father gave me a letter to James Monroe, Secretary of 
State. On delivering this letter I was asked to take a 
seat, and, ass like, I found myself in my confusion in 
a large red morocco chair, his state chair; now I pay my 
respects to the Minister from France and he forces me 
to take his chair of office." The point was seen, and 
produced some merriment. Nicollet said, "You are a bad 
boy; you will pass, however." 

It was the earnest hope of Mr. N., often expressed 
as his health failed him, that he could live to finish his 
great work, and out of gratitude dedicate it to the peo- 
ple of the United States. Into whose hands his papers 
fell I know not, though application was made to the 
office of topographical engineers. Of mementoes of this 
distinguished man, more than one remain in the family 
of Major Taliaferro, and whose memory is affectionately 
cherished and will continue as long as they live. 

Of Mr. Featherstonhaugh — a long name — but little can 
be said as to his explorations of the Minnesota. His re- 
port does not give evidence of a master mind, as it was 
made up mostly from construction and not from actual 



V 



246 MINNESOTA HISTOIUCAL COLLECTIONS. 

observation or geological research. He was obviously not 
flattered with his reception at Fort Snelling, or in the 
Indian country. He attempted to pass current for that 
which he possessed not — superior talent and modesty in 
his profession. Lieut. Mather, of the army, his asso- 
ciate, was of a different stamp. Solid, clear-headed, sci- 
entific, with a modest, unassuming gentlemanly bearing, 
he should have led the English gentleman into one of 
the finest fields for topographical research in any por- 
tion of the world. The notes of Lieut. ]\Iather on this 
expedition were filed in the ofilce of the topographical 
engineer at the seat of government. 



APOLOGY. 

My age is now — April, 1864 — over three score years 
and ten. So afflicted and nervous, attended with severe 
pains at times and general debility, that I fear these 
seventy five pages, so full of omissions, mistakes and 
bad chirography and worse orthography — this portion, 
for it is only a portion — will prove of but little interest 
to my kind friend and brother in Christ. 

LAWRENCE TALIAFERRO, 

M. S. K., United States Army. 
Rev. Edw^ard D. Neill, 

Sec'y Historical Society, St. Paul, Minn. 

P. S. — Should a large number of autograph letters of 
distinguished persons bearing on Indian affairs be needed 
as reference for authority, you can have them. 



AUTO-BIOGRAPHY OF MAJ. TALIAFERRO. 



247 



OMISSIONS NOT BEFORE NOTED ON INDIAN AFFAIRS, MILI- 
TARY OFFICERS, INDIAN TRADE AND TRADERS, LAWS 
OF CONGRESS, FOREIGN POPULATION, HABITS, ETC. 

Fresh from the army, the school of honor, and thrown 
at once into a new sphere of action, a young man of ac 
knowledged military tact and firmness, it became his duty 
in his important, delicate and dangerous position as agent 
for Indian affairs at the Falls of St. Anthony, for the north- 
ern and western tribes of Indians, to learn their habits, 
manners and customs practically by a full and free inter- 
course with all that could be reached. He found the old 
Indian department without form or councilings, but cha- 
otic, rotten to the core. British influence had kept for 
years the minds and bodies of the poor Indian, by evil coun- 
cils, in entire subjection, hence the officials of the United 
States, especially before and during the war of 1812, found 
their elforts for good worse than useless to the government. 
It was left for the year 1819, to stay the tide of "John 
Bull's " supremacy over the various tribes, not only within 
the new territories, but also throughout our entire Indian 
country. 

Joseph Rolette, Col. Robert Dickson, Duncan Graham 
and others active in marshaling the Indians to join with 
England, had been proscribed the country. Congress had 
passed laws too tame for the times; arrogance and pre- 
sumption of old British traders had not been sufficiently 
checked. Agents had granted at Mackinac, a general license 
to the American Fur Company, under which sub-licenses 
were signed in blank by George Boyd, and these were filled 



248 



MINNESOTA HISTORICAL COLLECTIONS. 



up in the Indian country by traders, for trade at any point 
selected by them. This completely neutralized the law 
which designated i)oints at which the trade should be con- 
ducted. Hence, the agent at St. Peter's for a time had to 
respect the action of the agent at Mackinac as to the grant- 
ing indiscriminately licenses for trade on the Mississippi 
and River St. Peter's. All this had to be met and corrected 
however, censured by the fur traders. All the acts of the 
new agent were carefully considered and faithfully and 
truly reported to the government. As early as 1820, the 
ofQcers of Fort Snelling, in an official form, unanimously 
approved the action of the Indian agent, and their entire 
confidence in his ability to continue, not only the Indian 
tribes, but the fur trade and traders. Subsequently, the 
fact that British influence had received a heavy blow. 

In due course of time it was found that the persons pro- 
scribed at an early day, might be permitted to join their 
families in the Indian country. The War Department was 
consulted. The agent gave a letter to Col. Robert Dickson 
for the Secretary of War, and a note also to the British min- 
ister, ]\Ir. Canning, as to Col. D.'s honor and faithfulness, the 
minister paid him his pension of £300 sterling, the last he 
ever received, and the president after an interview with 
Dickson, directed the Secretary of War, J. C. Calhoun, to 
leave the case of the old Scotchman entirely to the direction 
of the agent at St. Peter's, as he alone was responsible for 
the conduct of his agency. Of course the old offender had 
full permission to join his family at Lac qui Parle. This 
act of the agent gave some offence to his venerable superin- 
tendent of Indian affairs. General Wm. Clark, but the agent 
not only assumed this responsibility but he recalled Duncan 



AUTO-BIOGRAPHY OF MAJ. TALIAFEKKO. 



249 



Graham, and others, admonishing Mr. Rolette, who seemed 
astonished at the decision made so speedily after the former 
decisions of the government. It was fortunate for the offi- 
cial harmony of the country, as the agent by his decided 
action made hosts of friends speedily. It was at this period 
that he received an additional name, Chunta-topah. or the 
Four hearts, French, Scotch, Sioux, American; also Muscoe 
G. Taliaferro, sub -agent, a younger brother, was named 
Mah-za-su-tah, or "Strong Iron," and quite popular with 
Indians generally, being an M. D. Medicine man. After 
Colonel Leavenworth came Colonel Snelling, Colonel Mor 
gan, Major Fowle, Colonel Case, Colonel Bliss, Captain 
Gale, Captain Vail, Captain Martin Scott, Colonel Taylor, 
Major Jouett, Major Plympton; of traders licensed from 
1819 to 1840, these were Alexis Bailly, J. B. Faribault, Phi- 
lander Prescott, Wright Prescott, Jos. Renville, Louis Pro- 
vincaille, Daniel Lamont, Benjamin F. Baker, Duncan Camp- 
bell, Alexander Faribault, Hazen Mooers, Alexander Cul- 
bertson, A. Ryzane, Laframboise Rocque, Ezekiel Lockwood, 
Jean Baptiste Mayrand, H. H. Sibley, Rix Robinson, Dun 
can Graham, Joseph R. Brown, James Wells, Joseph La- 
framboise, Joseph Snelling, Francois Labathe, Augustin 
Grignon, J. P. Tilton and others. Most of these traders, 
and many of their hands, had the use of Indian women as 
long as it suited their convenience, and children were born 
to them. , In purchasing women from their parents, a price 
more or less had to be paid by the clerks of the respective 
companies. Their women must be dressed, and most of this 
extravagance charged on a per cent, of their hunters, as 
lost credits on making their returns to their agents. 
The traders licensed at Mackinac by George Boyd and 



250 



MIXXESOTA HISTORICAT. COLLECTIONS. 



Henry R. Schoolcraft for the Chippewas on the up- 
per Mississippi lakes and rivers, were Wm. A. Aitkin, 
the father of twenty five Indian children, ^lorrison. 
Holiday, Chapman, Cotee, Dingley and Warren. It was 
in this section that traders from below met the most 
strenuous opposition, decreed all goods as dirty, thin 
American goods, blankets, only fit to dart straws through: 
theirs were British goods from England, heavy, strong 
and cheap, their guns would not burst. This was 
only one of a hundred devices to prevent Indians 
from obtaining credit from their competitors. Stealing 
each other's credit was a common occurrence, deemed no 
discredit in the nature of their business, only sharp prac- 
tice overreaching cunning. The British naturalized trad- 
ers let loose their venom on the presumption of the au- 
thorities at Fort Snelling; the vilest abuse being of the 
innocent agent at St. Peter's. He was called all sorts of 
names by Aitkin and others, in their councils with the 
Chippewas, all of which was yearly made known to him 
by the chiefs, and had men visiting annually at his agency. 
All this folly made no difference in the line of his duty, 
but he iDursued a fearless and independent course of action 
both public and private which put to shame his malign- 
ers. One great difficulty in the way of an honest adjust- 
ment of Indian claims under special treaties from begin- 
ning to end, was the treaty making power in the super- 
intendency of General Cass. A precedent was established, 
the most fatal and dishonest, that of granting Indians 
and w^hites, reservations of land under ti-eaty stipulations 
and recognizing the claims of traders for lost credits. In 
their dealings with the Indian tribes, no commercial in- 



AUTO BIOGRAPHY OF MAJ. TALIAFERRO. 251 

terest on earth ^vas so recognized or guarded. It seems 
wonderful to honest men that the President, and Congress 
could not, or would not at once reject such palpable 
bare faced frauds, but so it was, and so it continued to 
be the rule under several successive administrations of 
the government. The elforts of several agents to correct 
these palpable acts of injustice to both the United States, 
and the Indians proved powerless. Political advancement 
of certain ordinary men in the west, proved finally suf- 
ficient to become identified with the cupidity of the fur 
traders and land speculators. This was made their pec- 
uniary interest. Hence the interest of the government, 
and the Indian tribes had, as it were to go to the wall. 
Indian agents that could be influenced proved recreant to 
their several charges. The Indians finally lost confidence 
in all w^hite men, and well they might, in reference to 
Indian treaties, and their fulfilment. Under solemn stip- 
ulations the heart of the honest man is made sick. How- 
ever, there lies in all wrong a germ of retribution, that 
will punish the wrong deed sooner or later. 

But for the treaty of 1857, the Sioux bands of the 
Dakota nation would have been a peaceable, and thriv- 
ing people, but the wrongs perpetuated by white men 
under that treaty, mainly caused the murder of many in- 
nocent people in 1862. The Crow, and his Indians real- 
ized their fate in 1858, at Washington, at the last treaty 
with the government; they were as children led to the 
slaughter, no man seemed to care for them, and they be- 
came desperate. The young men could no longer be con. 
trolled, their lands were sold and the traders got the 
proceeds through the connivance of men called respect 



252 MINNESOTA HISTORICAL COLLECTIONS. 

able citizens by evil doers. Contracts for the removal of 
Indians was among the number of stupendous frauds 
practiced on the government. Some commissioners of 
Indian affairs, either knaves or fools, entered into the 
wildest contracts, one as a sample of the rest. Commis- 
sioner Brown, contracted with some one. for the re- 
moval of the Winnebagoes from Iowa reservation to the 
Crow River, beyond the Falls of St. Anthony, for one 
hundred and five thousand (105,000) dollars. H. H. Sib- 
ley, said he would perform that duty for twenty-five 
thousand (25,000) dollars. Commissioner Brown resigned 
his office because of being overreached, or with a well 
lined pocket. A proposal was also made after the treaty 
of Sept. 29th, 1837, to remove the Sioux from the east 
of the Mississippi to the west, for the sum of ^50,000. 
Fortunately the agent was in Washington, he called at 
the Indian office, and prevailed on the secretary of war 
to postpone action in this case until he could return to 
his agency and make to the department his report. The 
agent lost no time, and on the 15th of June, 1838, re- 
ported that he had called the few Sioux east of the Miss- 
issippi, to a council west of "Olive Grove," and for less 
than $500, secured their full consent to remain w^est, and 
they faithfully adhered to our agreement. The depart- 
ment could not but commend this prompt action of their 
resident agent, but he gained no friends by thus summarily 
thwarting designing knaves. 

At a later period had the government used the exper- 
ience and influence of their first old agent, either as a 
commissioner or council, Minnesota would have had long 
peace and prosperity; the Dakotas said as much more 



AUTO-BIOGRAPHY OF MAJ. TALIAFERRO. 



253 



than once. Not until after the year 1840, did the govern- 
ment become unfortunate in the selection of their agents 
for Indian affairs. Previous to this date, men of distinc- 
tion had sought perseveringly a position in it; ex-min- 
isters, governors, members of congress, and other citizens 
of high standing. The olfice of Indian affairs had grown 
from two rooms to thirty, so rapid was the increase of 
official intercourse with the various Indian tribes. 

It may be as well here at the close of this sketch of 
the experience of 2^Iajor Taliaferro during some twenty- 
two years as agent for Indian affairs in Minnesota, and 
after he had returned to the army in 1857, March 14th. 
to record the remarks of Little Crow, and confirmed by 
Wabasha and Shakopee, The Six, in June, 1858, at Wash- 
ington City. These chiefs and the boys w^ith them, called 
at the quarters of their old friend and Father, at the 
corner of 112 E street, with their interpreter. Joseph 
Campbell, eldest son of Scott Campbell, the faithful inter- 
preter of the United States, at the agency at St. Peters, 
from 1822 to 1840. The Little Crow said: "My old Father, 
we have called upon you; we love you; we respect you; 
we are here none but children; our old chiefs are all 
gone; we don't know what to do; they want us to divide 
our lands and live like white people. Since you left us 
a dark cloud has hung over our nation. We have lost 
confidence in the promises of our Great Father, and his 
people; bad men have nearly destroyed us. You took my 
grandfather with you to this great city in 1824; you took 
my father also to this city in 1837; he did good .or our 
people; he made a good treaty, because you stood by him; 
he told me so, and that I must always mind your talk 



254 



MINNESOTA HIETOHICAL COLLECTIONS. 



for it was good and true. 'No sugar in your mouth;' 
the nation had no better friend. My grandfather repeated 
the same words to us— in my ears. I loved you from my 
youth, and my nation will never forget you. If ever we 
act foolish and do wrong, it is because you are not with 
us. How is it. You counciled our nation for more than 
twenty-one years, and since you left we have had five 
agents as our Fathers; a man took your place. A. I. Bruce, 
he was a fool, and had to leave soon; then came another, 
and so on. We failed to get a friend in any one like you; 
they all joined the traders. We know your heart, it feels 
for your old children." Wabasha followed, confirmatory 
of the Crow's remarks, and asked, saying: "My Father, 
I am, as you know, a man of few words. My friend has 
spoken my mind, the mind of all present here this day. 
How is it that J. R. Brown, an old trader, is in your 
place? We are Indians, but we have no confidence in Mr_ 
Brown. I hold your hand for the last time." My poor, 
helpless friends were advised to make the best treaty 
possible, and try to live in peace with the whites near 
them, for their own sakes, and more especially for the 
peace and security of their wives and helpless children. 
To go to war with the whites was of no use in redressing 
supposed or real wrongs; that war would surely destro}' 
their nation forever; on this they now had the solemn 
word of their old friend— one that had never deceived 
them, and never would; bear all things, hope all things, 
and the Great Spirit will never leave you in the hands 
of bad men long. 

The Crow, in a speech at Redwood, in sparing the lives 
of one or two families, Mrs. Woodbury and children being 



AUTO-CIOGRAPHY OF MAJ. TALIAFERRO. 255 

of the number, said: "I did not wish to go to war; but 
my young men forced me to it; we have begun and must 
do the best we can. I spare the lives of some of you 
for the sake of our good old Father, ^fah-sa-busca: his 
words are this day in my ears; had he been here this war 
would not have been." Mrs. Woodbury is our authority 
for the Crow's remarks, when all supposed that they 
would be murdered. 

We bring this imperfect sketch of one that uniformly 
tried to do his duty to God and his fellow man, to a 
close, only adding that neither in war nor peace had he 
a serious personal difficulty with his mess mates ; is a 
member of the order of F. and A. Masons; a Deacon in 
the "Old School Presbyterian Church," of Bedford, Pa.; 
in good standing; and now in his seventy -first year, placed 
by the President, in August, 1863, on the retired list of 
the army, for long and faithful service to the Republic. 



HENRY HASTINGS SIBLEY. 



A MEMOIR. 



By J. Fletcher Williams, Secretary of the Minnesota Historical Society. 



Henry Hastings Sibley, the oldest living pioneer of 
our state at the time of his death, died at his residence, 
417 AVoodward avenue, St. Paul, on February 18th, at 
4:30 o'clock a. m., in the eightieth year of his age. 

Many just and eloquent eulogies to the memory of the de- 
ceased have been pronounced since his death, in the vari- 
ous bodies and societies of which he was a member. The 
object of this paper is not to add to these, but simply 
to" give a plain, unvarnished narrative of his public and 
private life.* 

ANCESTRY. 

The Sibley family came from England with the early 
settlers of New England. The name is undoubtedly Sax- 
on, signifying, according to Arthur, in his "Derivation 
of Names," Sib, peaceful or quiet; ley, lea, legh or leigh, 
signifying a pasture, field or commons. Lie, in "Welsh, 
signifies "a place." This, says Burke, in his "Landed 

*Tho greiiter part of this paper was published in tlie St. Paul Daily Pioneer 
Press Feb. 17, 1S91. 



258 MINNESOTA HISTORICAL COLLECTIONS. 

Gentry." is one of thai large class of Saxon names de- 
rived from localities or places. Lower, in his "Patro- 
nymica Britannica," traces the name back to the twelfth 
century, and quoted one Sibaldus (the Latinized name) 
as a tenant - in- chief in Northamptonshire, given in the 
"Domesday Book," which was written eight centuries ago. 
Savage, in his "Genealogical Dictionary of the First Set- 
tlers of New England," states that John Sibley (spelled 
also Sebley and Sybley in early records) came over in 
1629, and settled at Salem. From this ancestor all the 
Sibley family in America have sprung. The name, how- 
ever, is not a common one, either in this country or in 
England. A genealogy of the family in America is in 
preparation. Solomon Sibley (father of H. H.) was born 
at Sutton, Mass. Oct. 7, 1769. He studied law and re- 
moved to Ohio in 1795, establishing himself first at Mari- 
etta and subsequently at Cincinnati in the practice of 
his profession. He removed to Detroit in 1797, and in 
1799 was elected to the first Territorial Legislature of 
the Northwestern Territory at Cincinnati. Judge Burnet, 
in his work, " Notes on the Northwestern Territory," 
says : 

"Mr. Sibley was a man of high standing, and was 
considered one of the most talented men of the House. 
He possessed a sound mind, improved by liberal educa- 
tion, and a stability and firmness of character which 
commanded general respect, and secured to him the con- 
fidence and the esteem of his fellow-members." 

He was elected to Congress in 1820, and in 1824 was 
appointed Judge of the Supreme Court, which post he 
held until 1836, when he resigned on account of increas- 



MEMOIR OF HENRY HASTINGS SIBLEY. 



259 



ing deafness. He was also United States Commissioner, 
and in company with Lewis Cass, made a treaty with 
the Indians for most of the territory which was included 
in the peninsular portion of Michigan. He was also, for 
a time. United States District Attorney. He died at De- 
troit, April 4, 1640, universally respected for his talents 
and virtues. 

The mother of General Sibley was a Miss Sarah W. 
Sproat, daughter of Colonel Ebenezer Sproat, a revolu- 
tionary soldier, and of his vrife, formerly Miss Catherine 
Whipple, daughter of Commodore Abraham Whipple, of 
the revolutionary navy. She was born at Providence, 
R. I., Jan. 28, 1782. In 1788 her parents removed to 
Marietta, Ohio, so that her whole life, almost, was spent 
on the frontier. Colonel Sproat, her father, was a man 
of great bravery and commanding stature. Hildreth, 
in his " Lives of the Pioneers of Ohio," states that 
he *' was six feet four inches in height, with limbs 
formed in nature's most perfect model. His social hab- 
its, pleasant, agreeable manners and cheerful disposition 
rendered him a general favorite with the officers as well 
as with the private soldiers." After he settled at Mari- 
etta he held the office of sheriff fourteen years, and 
opened, as such, the first court ever held in Ohio. His 
experience in military matters was of great advantage 
during the border warfare with the Indians in those 
days, and he bore a full share of danger and hardship. 
He died of apoplexy in 1805, aged fifty -two years, be- 
ing still in the prime of life. Mrs. Sibley (mother of 
H. H.) is described by Miss EUet, in her " Pioneer 
Women of the West," as a lady of unusual personal 



200 



MINNESOTA HISTORICAL COLLECTIONS. 



beauty and commanding figure. She liad a vigorous 
and cultivated intellect, undaunted courage, and an in- 
tuitive and clear perception of right and wrong. Affec- 
tionate in disposition, frank in manner, and truly just as 
well as benevolent, she - was during her whole married 
life the center of an admiring circle of devoted friends. 
She died, as she had always lived, without one to cast 
a reproach upon her elevated and beautiful character." 
Her death took place at Detroit, Jan. 22, 1851. Nine 
children were born to Judge and Mrs. Sible}' — four sons 
and five daughters. 

BIRTH AND EARLY YEARS. 

Henry Hastings Sibley was born at Detroit, Mich., Feb. 
20, 1811. The history of the Northwest at that time, 
the perilous condition of the frontier, the savage warfare 
which desolated the region, the siege and surrender of 
Detroit, etc., are too well known to need recounting. When 
the subject of this memoir was only eighteen months old, 
the capture of Detroit by the British and Indians took 
place. Judge Sibley, his father, with his mother, were 
compelled to abandon their home, taking with them only a 
few necessaries, and escaped to- Ohio, where they re 
mained a year. Thus the Sibley family bore their full 
share in the trials of frontier life. Three times ]\lrs. Sib 
ley rode on horseback, by a dim trail through the forests 
from Detroit to Marietta, camping out most of the way. 
It would thus seem that the subject of this sketch was 
launched into a career destined from the start to be one 
of adventure and stirring incidents, repeating the eventful 
pioneer life of his ancestors. Thus hereditarily predis- 



MEMOIR OF HENRY HASTINGS SIBLEY. 261 

posed, as it might be said, to a life of close contact with 
the strange and romantic elements that have always given 
such a charm to frontier life in the eyes of the coura- 
geous and active, his innate disposition received a still 
further bent from the very condition of society in his 
boyhood. It w^as passed in a region favorable for field 
sports, and the hardy exploits of the hunter and pioneer, 
Tvhere every one of the old inhabitants was a fireside bard, 
reciting those wonderful epics of hair-breadth escapes and 
*' accidents by flood and field," perils and feats of the half 
mythical heroes of the frontier, legends full of poetry 
and romance, well calculated to stir the blood and excite 
the ambition of the youthful listener. This largely ac- 
counts for the life he subsequently led. During his boy- 
hood he received such academical education as could be 
obtained in Detroit at that time, and subsequently enjoyed 
tw^o years' private tuition in the classics from Rev. R. F. 
Cadle, a fine scholar. Judge Sibley had destined him for 
his own profession, and about the age of sixteen, in obe- 
dience to that wish, he commenced its study in his father's 
office. After about a year's delving into the dry details 
of the law, young Sibley became convinced that his nat- 
ural inclinations and tastes would lead him to a more ac- 
tive and stirring life, and so informed his father. Judge 
Sibley very wisely told him if such was the case, to pur- 
sue his own wishes as regarded his occupation. 

GOES TO MACKINAC. 

In 1828 he consequently went to Sault. Ste. Marie and 
engaged in mercantile operations for about a 3^ear. In 
1829 he went to Mackinac, an important point at 



262 MINNESOTA HISTORICAL COLLECTIONS. 

that date, as regarded the North^vest trade, and entered 
the service of the American Fur Company as clerk. He 
remained at that post five years, having a vai'iety of ad- 
ventures and becoming acquainted with most of the lead- 
ing traders and prominent frontiersmen and pioneers — 
names now historical — and with the principal Indian chiefs 
and head men. He listened to their stories of life in the 
great wilderness of the Northwest (so he once stated to the 
writer) like some tale of romance, filling him with a keen 
desire to see and traverse this w^onderful land of lake, 
prairie and forest. During this period he made his en- 
trance into ofiicial life, being commissioned by Gov. Geo. 
B. Porter of Michigan Territory, a justice of peace of 
Michimackinac county in 1831. His commission was, in 
fact, received before he w^as quite of age, and he was sub- 
sequently qualified before Michael Dousman, father of the 
late Hercules L. Dousman, Prairie du Chien. 

COMES TO MINNESOTA. 

It was mainly owing to the latter person that Gen. Sib- 
ley was induced to come to Minnesota. In a memoir of 
Col. Dousman, read before the Historical Society several 
years ago, Gen. Sibley said: 

"My personal acquaintance with the subject of this 
memoir dates back to the year 1829, more than forty 
years ago. I was then a mere boy, employed as a 
clerk by the American Fur Company at their central 
agency at Mackinac. Col. Dousman and others in charge 
of important districts w^ere to report in person during 
the summer of each year at that point, wdiither they went 
in charge of the Mackinac boats that contained the furs 



MEMOIR OF HENRY HASTINGS SIBLEY. 



263 



and skins collected during the previous year. I became 
quite intimate with him, although he was many years 
my senior, and at each of his annual visits he depicted 
the beauties of this wild Western land in such glowing 
colors, and the abundance and variety of game, animals 
and birds it contained, that my youthful imagination was 
captivated, and my love of adventure aroused, so that in 
1834, at his earnest solicitation I formed with him and 
the late Joseph Rolette, Sr., a copartnership with the 
American Fur Company, of New York, which passed in 
that year under the direction of Ramsey Crooks as presi- 
dent. By the terms of the agreement I was to be placed 
in control of all the country above Lake Pepin, to the 
head waters of the streams emptying into the Missouri 
and north of the British line, with my headquarters at 
St.. Peter's, now the village of Mendota. Col. Dousman 
was, therefore, under providence, chiefly instrumental in 
linking my destinies with those of Minnesota." 

Gen. Sibley stated to the writer that it was his love of 
field sports, more perhaps than any other motive, which 
induced him to come to Minnesota. 

"At that time," he states in his article above quoted, 
*'the bear, the deer, the fisher, the martin, the raccoon 
were the tenants of the woods; the beaver, the otter and 
other amphibia, such as the mink and the muskrat, were 
to be found in the streams and lakes, while the prairies 
were dotted w^ith countless herds of bison and the elk, 
accompanied by their usual attendants, wolves and foxes, 
which scarcely deigned to seek concealment from the eye 
of the traveler. The numerous lakes and marshes were 
the breeding places of myriads of wild fowl, including 



« 



264 



MINNESOTA HISTORICAL COLLECTIONS. 



swan, geese and ducks. ?slany of the younger men who 
sought employment with the fur companies were, like 
myself, more attached to this wild region by a love oj 
adventure and of the chase than by any prospect of 
pecuniary gain. There was alw^ays enough of danger 
also, to give zest to extreme frontier life, and to counter- 
act any tendency to ennni. There were the perils of 
prairie fires and of flood, from evil- disposed savages, 
and those inseparable from the hunt of ferocious wild 
beasts, such as the bear, the panther and the buffalo. 
War was the normal condition of the powerful bands of 
Dakotas and Chippewas, and white men falling in with 
a party of these belligerent tribes might deem himself 
fortunate if he could save his life by a sacrifice of what- 
ever property he possessed. The traveler and hunter, 
in their peregrinations, were compelled to trust to their 
skill in constructing rafts or swimming for crossing the 
numerous streams, and to the compass or to the sun and 
stars to direct their course. Nature, in her primitive 
luxuriance, unmarred by the labor of man, unveiled her 
beauties on every side as a reward to those of her in- 
frequent visitors who could appreciate and enjoy them.'' 

Such was ^linnesota forty- six years ago, w^hen General 
Sibley first became a resident of it. In all its vast do- 
main, now^ the home of 1,200,000 white people, there was 
then but a mere handful of whites, traders, clerks and 
voyageurs in the employ of the fur company, and a few 
soldiers at Fort Snelling. 

"When I performed the journey," further wrote Gen. 
Sibley, "in the autumn of 1S34. from Prairie du Chien 
to St. Peters, now Mendota, a distance of nearly 300 



MEMOIR OF HENRY HASTINGS SIBLEY. 265 

miles, there was but one house between those points, and 
that was a log house occupied by a trader named Kocque, 
situated below Lake Pepin, near the site of tlie present 
town of Wabasha." * * * "I arrived at the mouth of 
the Minnesota river on the 7th of November, 1834. The 
trip from Prairie du Chien was performed on horseback 
in company with Alexis Bailly, since deceased, and two 
hired Canadians." * * * * "When I first caught a 
glimpse of Fort Snelling, and descended the hills to Men- 
dota, then called St. Peter's, I little anticipated that the 
hamlet was to be my abiding place for twenty-eight 
years. [In 1862 he removed to St. Paul.] There were a 
few log houses at St. Peter's, occupied by persons em- 
ployed in the fur trade." 

On Nov. 7, 1884, some of Gen. Sibley's friends in St. 
Paul gave him an honorary banquet in celebration of the 
fiftieth anniversary of his settlement in Minnesota. What 
had not that half century witnessed, in the mighty 
changes which had taken place in the Northwest? 

Of the few traders who occupied the various posts in 
this region at that time, not a single one of this band 
of heroes now survives. The names of Kittson, Faribault, 
Bailly, Aitkin, Brown, Prescott, Morrison, Borup, Oakes, 
Renville, etc., have become historical in this state. 

GEN. SIBLEY AS A TRADER. 

The position now occupied by Gen. Sibley was, for a 
man of twenty-three, one of great importance and respon- 
sibility. He had control of the interests of the American 
Fur Company over a vast extent of territory, inspecting 
its posts, supervising the operations of the traders, clerks 



266 



MINNESOTA HISTOHlCAL COLLECTIONS. 



and voyageurs, and dictating its policy as regarded the 
traffic with the Indians. Maj. Lawrence Taliaferro, a 
splenetic, conceited, opinionated, but honest and incor- 
ruptible man, w^as Indian agent at Fort Snelling from 
1820 to 1841. He had generally managed to keep up a 
standing quarrel with every trader, accusing tliem of 
malpractices, and probably with good grounds in many 
cases. No such occurrence took place after Gen. Sibley 
assumed control of this district. Maj. Taliaferro always 
-spoke of him and wrote of him in terms indicating the 
highest respect and confidence. It will not be necessary 
in a sketch of this kind to detail at length the daily 
life of an Indian trader. To a majority of readers this 
must be somewhat familiar. It is, and always was, a 
peculiar life. It required more than average personal 
courage, great tact and diplomacy, firmness and patience, 
and carefulness in petty details, which almost no other 
occupation made necessary to such a degree. The 
Indians w^ere a simple-minded race in some respects, 
but difficult to manage in general, being whimsical and 
notional. Their "trade" was but a simple ex- 
change of peltries for arms and ammunition, blankets, 
and ornaments, provisions and other articles of 
that nature. There were sometimes great profits in the 
fur trade, but also great hazards and risks and losses. 
Oftentimes the lives of the traders were in great danger 
from revengeful and malicious Indians. Mr. Sibley used 
to travel about from post to post, exposed to all these 
hazards, and not knowing what moment some fateful 
danger might overtake him. He soon became acquainted 
with Indian character and habits, however, and spoke 



MEMOIR OF HENRY HASTINGS SIBLEY. 



267 



their language. By his tact, prudence, courage and firm- 
ness in dealing with them he acquired, in a brief time, 
great influence among them, and no one was ever more re- 
spected and feared. They trusted him and his word im- 
plicitly, and he was careful never to deceive them, or al-. 
low any one in his employ to do so. The name they 
knew him by was Wah-ze-o-man-zee, — Walker-in-the-Pines 
— a name that had a potent influence among them far and 
near, as long as the Dakota race dwelt in the state. His 
post at Mendota was generally thronged, also, with a 
crowd of Canadian and half-breed retainers in the employ 
of the fur company as voyageurs and laborers. This 
was a peculiar class of people, as our old settlers well re- 
member; a class mercurial, undisciplined and of unre- 
strained passions. To keep them in proper subjection 
and to prevent crimes among them was a difficult task. 
Mr. Sibley succeeded in it, nevertheless, with good re- 
sults, and though for years this region had practically no 
law, or courts, or officers, or justice, he exercised a whole- 
some restraint over all the white and mixed bloods. About 
1840, after this region was included in the bounds of 
Iowa Territory, being a part of Clayton county, Mr. Sib- 
ley received a commission as justice of the peace. 

"As I was the only magistrate in this region (he says 
in a paper written for the Historical Society), and the 
county , seat was some 300 miles distant, I had matters 
pretty much under my own control, there being little 
chance of an appeal from my decisions. In fact, some 
of the simple-minded people around me firmly believed 
that I had the power of life and death." 



268 MINNESOTA HISTORICAL COLLECTIONS. 

Perhaps something of his influence may have been 
caused by his own physical prowess and courage. The 
late John II. Fairbanks of White Earth once narrated an 
occurrence he witnessed at the Mackinac trading post. A 
ruffianly fellow, a great" bully, and a man of powerful 
physique, had disputed Sibley's word. Quick as a flash 
young Sibley sprang over the counter, threw himself on 
the bully, and seizing him as one would a light bundle of 
goods, threw him out of the door. The fellow picked him- 
self up and made off in haste. Some of the early settlers 
used to say that Sibley preserved order and discipline 
among his rough voyageurs by the actual use of the lash 
and bludgeon. Doubtless, if so, it w^as unavoidable. Gen. 
Sibley once related a case, showing the trouble he had 
in managing his men. One of them, a powerful and 
desperate fellow, while intoxicated, insisted on picking a 
quarrel with Sibley, and defied him. Mr. Sibley said he 
saw no half-w^ay measure w^ould answer, or his authority 
would have been gone forever. He knocked the rascal 
down by a blow of his fist, and then pummeled him until 
he begged for mercy. Some of the man's pals took him 
away, unable to move, and it was reported that he was 
seriously hurt. Some days afterward Sibley sent him 
word to come back and behave himself, which he did, and 
he never had any more trouble with the man; nor indeed, 
with any of the others. Once at Mendota, Mr. Fairbanks 
further related, a half-breed named George Cornoyer was 
raising a row with some others. Sibley took him under 
his arm and dragged him out of the ring. Corn- 
oyer twisted his head around and looked up. Recogniz- 
ing who had him, he exclaimed; ^'Oh, is that you, Mis'r 



MEMOIR OF HENRY HASTINGS SIBLEY. 269 

Sib-lee? I'll give up." These incidents will serve to show 
the nature of his life at Mendota for several years; indeed 
up to the time of the organization of the territory in 1849. 
Two very important criminal cases connected with early 
Minnesota history came before while a justice of the 
peace. One of these was Phelan, for the murder of Hays 
at St. Paul in 1838, and the other was the alleged mur- 
derers of young Simpson, the explorer, in 1840. The 
former was held to trial and the latter discharged by 
Justice Sibley. 

BUILDS A RESIDENCE. 

In 1835-6 he had constructed for his use the comfort- 
able and commodious residence at Mendota known for so 
many years as the "Sibley Mansion," and which, in the 
earlier years of our territory, but especially in the pre- 
territorial days, was the seat of such generous hospi- 
tality to the traveler and the public man. This building 
was the first permanent residence, strictly speaking, built 
in Minnesota, not connected with the military post, and 
is now, undoubtedly, the oldest building in Minnesota, 
except Fort Snelling. It has recently passed into the 
posession of the Sisters of the Catholic Church for a 
female academy. Here Mr. Sibley enjoyed, for many 
years, the establishment of a "country gentleman," with 
all the appointments of a manorial mansion or estate. 
He had his horses and dogs, and retainers to do his 
bidding. A French cook of the finest skill served his 
table, and never was one supplied more profusely with 
the choicest game. A good library, current periodicals, 
pictures, etc., completed the requirements of a cultivated 

-16 



270 



MINNESTA HISTORICAL COLLECTIONS. 



life, and the opportunities of the best society were af- 
forded by the officers of the fort and their families. 

HIS MARRIAGE. 

On May 2, 1843. Gen. Sibley was married at Fort Snell- 
ing to Miss Sarah J. Steele (sister of the late Franklin 
Steele and Dr. John Steele, of St. Paul), a lady of rare 
virtues and accomplishments and exalted worth, and ad- 
mirably fitted to adorn the prominent station in society 
which she occupied for so many years in Washington 
and St. Paul. After twenty- six years of happy married 
life, Mrs. Sibley died, May 21, 1869, lamented by a wide 
circle of friends in various parts of the Union. His do- 
mestic establishment at Mendota was now, and for twenty 
years the:yeafter, the abode of happiness and enjoyment. 
An interesting family of children grew up there, five of 
whom preceded their parents, in infancy, to the other 
world. Four of their children grew to mature years. 
One of his daughters, Augusta Sibley, married, in 18G7, 
Capt. Douglas Pope, of Illinois, who died in that state, 
February, 1830, leaving three children. Mrs. Pope and 
her daughters reside in St. Paul. Another daughter, Sa- 
rah Jane, married, several years since, Mr. E. A. Young, 
a well-known business man of this city. His sons, Charles 
Frederick Sibley and Alfred Brush Sibley, both of whom 
hav^ reached manhood's estate, are in business in this 
city. For some years, until, indeed, St. Paul became a 
place large enough to boast a hotel, distinguished trav- 
elers and explorers visiting this region were accustomed 
to sojourn at Gen. Sibley's residence, where they were 
hospitably entertained. Among the eminent travelers and 



1 



MEMOIR OF HENRY HASTINGS SIBLEY. 



271 



scientists who visited him were Jean J. Nicollet, John 
C. Fremont, George Catlin, G. W. Feathcrstonhaugh, 
Frederick Maryatt, Monsieur Picot, the naturalist, Stephen 
A. Douglas, etc., all of whom, in their works, speak grate- 
fully of the hospitality and ' aid received from Gen. Sib- 
ley, while the early missionaries to our native tribes were 
also aided as far as possible. Scarcely a steamboat 
landed at Fort Snelling, without bringing among its tour- 
ists, government officials, or military men, one or more 
guests for Gen. Sibley. 

FONDNESS FOR FIELD SPORTS. 

Some reference was made previously to Gen. Sibley's 
fondness for field sports, and that the superiority of this 
region as a land of game had largely determined him 
in his choice of residence here. He became, like Nim- 
rod, "a mighty hunter." This taste for field sports prob- 
ably had much to do in determining his future character. 
He once stated: 

"I believe that my fondness for hunting kept me from 
becoming demoralized by the tempi ations which sur- 
rounded every man in the Indian trade at that time, 
and were the ruin of many. With plenty of leisure on 
their hands during portions of the year, unrestrained by 
the ties of family or refined society, they were too apt 
to give up their time to gambling, to the bowl, or to 
vicious indulgences w^hich the proximity of the wigwam 
will suggest. But my fondness for shooting kept me 
out of such temptations. When not actually engaged in 
business I was out with my gun and dogs in pursuit of 
game, and this being a sort of passion with me, kept 
any other inclination from taking hold of me." 



272 MINNESOTA HISTORICAL COLLECTIONS. 

He procured from various sources, some of the finest 
blooded dogs, of various kinds, ever brought to Minne- 
sota. Part of these were setters and pointers, for duck and 
grouse shooting, but one notable part of his kennel was a 
pack of fox and wolf hounds. Persons visiting his house 
withm a few years past may remember a large oil paint- 
ing of one of his most famous wolf hounds, Lion, painted 
about 1843, by a young artist named Deas, at Fort Snell- 
ing. For some years during the period referred to there 
was stationed at the fort, Capt. Martin Scott, an army ofii- 
cer, whose fame as a hunter is so national (almost ev- 
ery one has heard of "Capt. Scott ai^d the coon") that 
it need not be mentioned at length. Capt. Scott and 
Gen. Sibley were continually in the field, each had splen- 
did horses and a full pack of dogs, and the latter, when 
in full cry after a fox or wolf, must have wakened the 
echoes of the bluffs and valleys as they never have been, 
before or since. These two hunters, in their many expe- 
ditions, destroyed whole hecatombs of animals and birds. 
The stories Gen. Sibley used to relate about the abun- 
dance of game in those days — for instance, droves of elk, 
numbering hundreds, etc., — make our latter day sports- 
men envious. Some accounts of his hunting exploits are 
given in his reminiscences published by the Historical 
Society. His fondness for hunting lasted until near the 
close of his life, and his pursuit of it was only prevented 
by his ill health the last few years. His keen eye and 
unerring aim were unalfccted by age. 

GEN. SIBLEY AS A STUDENT AND WRITER. 

When not permitted to engage in field sports. Gen. 
Sibley spent his leisure hours in study and writing. It 



MEMOIR OF HENRY HASTINGS SIBLEY. 



273 



might be supposed that one isolated as he was, on the 
frontier, with scanty mail service, far separated from the 
cities of the country where books, and newspapers, and 
libraries, and other sources of information are found, 
would lose step with the progress of the age, and lap*se 
into an indifferent knowledge of the world's events. But 
these impediments had no such effect. He supplied him- 
self with the best journals of the country, and the best 
works of the day, of which he was a close and faithful 
student. Thus no gentleman in any of the cities of the 
country had a more intelligent view of the progress of 
IDolitical events and the literature of the times. Political 
economy, history, social science, natural history, geogra- 
phy and statistics, and a few other branches were espe- 
cially studied by him, and he accumulated a large and 
valuable library on these subjects. Those acquainted with 
Gen. Sibley knew what a great fund of information on 
current topics of the day he possessed He was a close 
thinker and a diligent student, and the books in his li- 
brary were for use, not show. He was always fond of 
writing. During the pre-territorial days he kept up a 
large correspondence with persons in various parts of 
the country, and wrote articles for literary and political 
journals. He was a regular contributor of The Spirit of 
the Times, New York, and for many years (from 1846 to 
1852) wrote valuable papers descriptive of life on the fron- 
tier, Indian character and warfare, and sporting incidents 
and adventures. His noni de plume in this journal was 
"Hal, a Dakota." Through these papers he became known 
to writers all over the country, and in England. Henry 
William Herbert (Frank Forester), the eminent writer on 



274 



MINNESOTA HISTORICAL COLLECTIONS. 



field sports, said that Gen. Sibley's sketches were among 
the finest articles of the kind he had ever read, and val- 
uable contributions to sporting literature. By reading them 
he conceived a warm admiration for the writer, and when 
the latter became a member of congress in 1848, Herbert 
called on him, and made his acquaintance, commencing 
then a friendship which was broken only by the sad death 
of the gifted but unfortunate author several years after- 
wards. 

Several years ago, when the sportsmen of America 
raised a fund for a monument to Herbert, Gen. Sibley 
made a generous donation towards it, and wrote a beau- 
tiful and touching sketch of his acquaintance with the 
brilliant "Frank Forester." In the American edition of 
Col. Hawker's famous work on "Games and Shooting" 
(1853), the editor, William T. Porter, Esq., of the New 
York Spirit of the Times, includes some forty or fifty pages 
of Gen. Sibley's sketches of hunting adventures in what 
is now Minnesota. In 1866 or '67, at a period when his 
time was amply engrossed with business cares, and public 
and social duties, he contributed to the St. Paul Pioneer 
a series of sketches of the life and adventures of Jo- 
seph Jack Frazer, one of the most singular characters 
. connected with the early history of our state. These 
papers have been pronounced by competent judges to 
be among the most candid, faithful and minute pictures 
of Indian life and character ever written, and are penned 
(like all Gen. Sibley's writings) in an easy, graceful 
and unaffected style. Indeed, it may be said that as a 
writer he deserves a high rank. He had been in his 
younger days a close student of classical English com- 



MEMOIR OF HENRY HASTINGS SIBLEY. 



275 



position, studying analytically some of the finest models 
in our language, and based his style on them. He al- 
ways used terse, plain Saxon, as carrying more una- 
dorned force with it. All his letters, articles, messages 
and papers are models of smooth, concise and graceful 
expression. During the last few yeaj.-s his pen seemed 
never to rest, but was engaged several hours each day 
on every species of composition His penmanship was 
remarkably neat, clear and regular, and he had a very 
methodical and neat way of keex)ing his papers, accounts, 
etc. In the Executive Department of the state are a 
multitude of evidences of this, in the documents neatly 
folded, arranged and labeled in his handwriting, while 
all who have ever had any business with him, know how 
careful and precise he was in all details. 

It is a matter of great regret, to those interested in 
early Minnesota history, that Gen. Sibley did not write 
more of his entertaining reminiscences. His memory was 
stored with a multitude of the most interesting facts 
regarding pioneer days, and the pioneers themselves. It 
was a treat for any one who felt any interest in such 
subjects, to listen to his narration of the incidents and 
adventures of early times, which were recounted in a 
graphic and impressive style. But he had no time in 
latter years to write much of that kind. I have, on many 
occasions, got from him partial accounts of occurrences 
of the long ago, which I reduced to writing, but all 
these, together, were but a fraction of what might have 
been written down from his dictation, had there been 
any one interested in pioneer history with the leisure 
to have done it. 



276 



MINNESOTA HISTORICAL COLLECTIONS. 



WITH THE EARLY HISTORY OF ST. PAUL 

Gen. Sibley bore as prominent a part as if acluall}^ a 
resident. All its first settlers, as well as those at '-Pig's 
Eye," were, or had recently been, his emjDloyes. The 
first actual claim made and white man's tenement erected 
on its site, as every body knows, was by one Pierre 
Parrant, in the summer of 1838. Parrant that fall bor- 
rowed '^90 of William Beaumette of IMendota, and gave 
as security a "mortgage" on the aforesaid historical claim. 
The note and mortgage (now in the possession of our 
Historical Society) are in Gen. Sibley's handwriting — the 
first document connected with St. Paul real estate, or 
with its history in any shape. Reference was made above 
to the examination before Justice Sibley of Edward Phe- 
lan, for the murder of John Hayes in 1839. In the fall 
of 1847 the owners of the townsite of St. Paul caused 
it to be surveyed and recorded. Gen. Sibley was owner 
of some real estate at that time, and was thus one of 
the proprietors of the original town of St. Paul. The 
following year (Aug. 14, 1848) the first government sale 
of lands in Minnesota occurred at St. Croix Falls. Gen. 
Sibley had been selected by the settlers to bid in for 
them the sections of land covered by the townsite. Fears 
had been entertained that speculators might overbid the 
bona fide settlers. 

"When the hour for business had arrived," says General 
Sibley in one of his published articles, "my seat was sur- 
rt)unded by a number of men with huge bludgeons. What 
was meant by the proceedings, I could, of course, only sur- 
mise, but I would not have envied the fate of the individual 
who would have ventured to bid against me." 



MEMOIK OF HEXRY HASTINGS SIBLEY. 



277 



The land being thus entered by Gen. Sibley in trust, him- 
self, with two other owners, were selected as trustees to 
re-deed the various lots, blocks and fractions to the rightful 
owners. This was a very difficult task, as tlie claim lines 
and the surveyors' lot and block lines "straddled" each 
other in every conceivable way. It required much time and 
endless patience to adjust every title and satisfy all, but it 
was finally accomplished. Some of the simple Canadians 
suffered their title to remain in Gen. Sibley for years, and 
it required much persuasion on his part to get them to 
receive and record their deeds. So great confidence did 
they have in him, they preferred their titles to rest in him. 
This accounts for the name of Geh. Sibley being found in so 
many abstracts of title to lots in ''St. Paul Proper." 

MOVEMENT FOR A TERRITORIAL GOVERNMENT. 

Meantime Wisconsin Territory had been admitted as a 
state, leaving that portion west of the St. Croix and Mis- 
sissippi rivers '-out in the cold" without any government, 
and a strong etfort was being put forth by the residents of 
this locality — a mere handful — to secure a territorial organi- 
zation. The famous "Stillwater convention" of August 5th 
was held pursuant to notice circulated. Sixty one persons 
were present. Gen. Sibley took a prominent part in the 
proceedings. A memorial to congress was prepared and 
signed by all present, praying for a territorial organization, 
under the name "Minnesota," and Gen. Sibley was elected 
a delegate, to proceed to Washington (at his own expense), 
at the approaching session of congress, and urge the same. 
He accepted the trust, and jDledged himself to go. Soon 
after, John H. Tweedy, of Wisconsin, who had been delegate 



278 MINNESOTA HISTORICAL COLLECTIONS. 

from Wisconsin Territory, rcsii^med, and Hon. John Catlin, 
claiming to be acting governor of Wisconsin Territory, 
issued a proclamation for a special election of delegate on 
October 30th. Gen. Sibley and H. M. Rice were both named 
for the position by their friends. Neither made any effort 
to secure it, although some little show of a contest was 
made by their adherents, but there was no regularly defined 
election precincts, and but a sparse population, scattered 
in hamlets here and there. When the election occurred, 
Gen. Sibley was chosen. 

ENTRANCE ON PUBLIC LIFE. 

This was an important step for General Sibley, as it 
brought him into public life, where for the remaining 
thirty years or more of his career, he was kept, in some 
station or other, prominently before the people of his 
state. The call to official life found him prepared for 
its duties and responsibilities. He had been a diligent 
student of social and political science and economy, and 
of our government history, theory and polity. With a 
mind well stored with geographical and statistical infor- 
mation, a close thinker on all the political problems of 
the day and with a well balanced judgment in weighing 
men and measures, he was prepared to take his place, not 
as a novice, but one well equipped for his duties in the 
national congress. The only doubt in his mind as he 
journeyed to Washington was, whether he would be ad- 
mitted to a seat, claiming to represent a territory which 
had no legal existence. Of his struggle to secure a seat 
he afterward wrote: 

"I arrived in Washington two days before congress con- 
vened, and I soon became convinced that my admission as 



v 

MEMOIR OF HENRY HASTINGS SIHLEY. 279 

a delegate was extremely uncertain, in fact I may say, 
absolutely improbable. My credentials \vere presented on 
the first day of the session, by Hon. James Wilson of New 
Hampshire, yet though the case was by him set forth in 
a clear and strong light and no objection was made to my 
admission, my claim was referred to the committee on 
elections, with instructions to examine and report thereon. 
I will not enter into a detail of the mortifications and 
vexatious delays to which I was subjected from that time 
until the question was decided, six weeks later. Mean- 
while, my claim was resisted with bitter pertinacity by 
certain individuals of the committee, particularly by the 
Hon. Mr. Boyden of North Carolina, who made a long 
and labored argument against my right to a seat, and 
ridiculed the pretension that a territorial organization 
still existed in the country north and west of the state 
of Wisconsin. I made a reply before the committee, etc." 

[The reply mentioned by him was printed in the house 
documents of that session, and is an able and convincing 
argument on his right to a seat.] 

"Finally the majority of the committee reported in my favor 
and the minority presented a strong counter protest. On 
Jan. 15, 1849, the subject was brought before the house, and 
the resolution introduced by the majority of the committee 
was adopted by a strong vote, which admitted me to the 
full enjoyment of the privileges of a delegate." 

Some of the members who advocated and voted for the 
admission of Gen. Sibley to a seat, admitted that they did so 
largely out of courtesy to him, and because, having become 
acquainted witli him during the pendency of the question, 
they entertained such a warm personal regard for him on 



280 



MINNESOTA HISTORICAL COLLECTIONS. 



account of his bearing, high character and attainments; so 
that it is probable that the prompt organization of our terri- 
tory was largely due to the selection by the x^eople here of 
one who was calculated to make such a good impression 
abroad. When his claim to a seat was first presented, it is 
probable that some of the Eastern members thought that 
our delegate was some "border ruffian," in buckskin hunt- 
ing shirt and moccasins. Gen. Sibley, in one of his reminis- 
cential papers, says: 

was told by a New England member, with whom I 
became subsequently quite intimate, that there was some 
disappointment felt when I made my appearance, for it was 
expected that the delegate from this remote region would 
make his debut, if not in full Indian costume, at Jeast with 
some peculiarities of dress and manners characteristic of the 
rude and semi-civilized people who had sent him to the 
capital." 

Gen. Sibley at once set about securing the jiassage of a 
bill to organize Minnesota Territory. The bill was reported 
by Senator Douglas, chairman of the committee on terri- 
tories. He preferred Mendota as the capital, and had that 
name placed in the bill, thinking the confluence of our two 
principal rivers a proper place, geographically, for the seat 
of government. At the earnest request of Gen. Sibley he 
changed it to St. Paul, the point fixed on by the Stillwater 
Convention, and on the last day of the session, after a hard 
struggle by our delegate and a few friends, whose sympathy 
and aid he had enlisted by his personal influence and high 
character, the bill became a law. 

Gen. Sibley was re-elected delegate in the fall of 1849, for 
a full term of two years, without opposition, and again in 



MEMOIR OF HENRY HASTINGS SIBLEY. 28l 

1851, serving four years in all, and they were four years of 
faithful service to his constituents, too. At the beginning of 
his term he had many difficulties to contend with to secure 
the requisite appropriations for our territory, and matters 
connected with it. Some of the members characterized it 
as a hyperborean region, inhabited only by Indians and a 
few lumbermen, and of no account for agriculture, and there 
was much prejudice against the territory. Gen. Sibley pre- 
pared and published a paper, giving an account of this 
region and its resources, which was one of the first articles 
ever published in the East properly representing our capa- 
bilities. Still, during his term, the liberal appropriations 
made by congress, and other acts for our advantage, were 
largely owing to the personal influence wielded by our 
delegate, and the warm friendship and respect felt for 
him by his fellow members, on account of his upright- 
ness of character, ability and refined manners. During his 
term, he made the acquaintance of hundreds of the 23rom- 
inent men of the country, in civil and military life, and 
thus became known personally and intimately to persons 
all over the Union. As a representative man of Minnes- 
ota, our people felt proud of their delegate. His courtly 
bearing, purity of character, fine physical appearance and 
his mental ability, would have given him influence and 
standing at any court, and our state gained many firm 
friends through his presence at our national capital. 

RETIREMENT FROM CONGRESS, ETC. 

In 1853 Gen. Sibley declined to run for delegate again. 
Hitherto he had served on a non-party basis, and had 
either been elected without opposition or by the people 



282 MINNESOTA HISTORICAL COLLECTIONS. 

irrespective of party, as he contended that a delegate so 
elected would be better able to do good service to the 
territory. Meantime parties had become well organized 
here, and political lines strongly drawn. Such a contest 
being unpleasant, although always a firm Democrat, he 
declined to have his name come before the convention of 
1S53, and retired to private life. About this time, also, 
the fur trading house of P. Chouteau & Co. of St. Louis, 
-which had in 1842 succeeded the old American Fur Com- 
pany, of which Gen. Sibley was a partner, wound up its 
business, and he retired from the fur trade, the seat of 
which had become changed by the rapid settlement of the 
territory. From this time on, w^hen not in ofiicial life, he 
devoted himself to the management of his property in- 
terests. As a business man he was always successful, and 
the investments made by him in the early days of our 
city and elsewhere proved his foresight by their growth 
in value. He was elected a member from Dakota coun- 
ty of the House of Representatives, session of 1855, but 
after this was not again brought into public life until the 
Constitutional Convention of 1857, of which he was elected 
a member from the same county. The assembling of the 
convention, the inexcusable disagreement between the 
members of dilferent politics regarding the hour of as- 
sembly, the resultant organizing of each into a conven- 
tion,, each claiming to be the legal convention, etc., are 
too well known to need repeating. General Sibley w^as 
elected president of the "Democratic wing," and took a 
prominent and useful part in the proceedings. 



MEMOIR OF HENRY HASTINGS SIBLEY. 



283 



ELECTION AS GOVERNOR. 

When the state Democratic convention assembled in the 
fall of the same year, Gen. Sibley was nominated for 
governor, and, at the solicitation of friends, made quite 
an active canvass for the office. The election took place 
on October 13. The result was not announced for some 
weeks thereafter, however, as the returns from some of 
the frontier counties caused considerable delay and con- 
test in the canvassing board. The absence of any clearly 
defined election law providing how returns should be 
made, by whom, etc., and how canvassed, and whether 
Indians could vote, and similar questions, probably added 
to the disagreement. The labors of the canvassing board 
resulted in declaring the entire Democratic state ticket 
elected by a very small majority. Those who examine 
the files of Republican papers of this period will notice 
that the decision of the board was not acquiesced in with 
much resignation by them. Notably this was the case 
with the Minnesotian, the principal organ of the party, 
whose editor at that time wielded a pen fairly dipped 
in gall and vitriol. During the entire term of Gov. Sibley, 
he assaulted that gentleman with the vilest abuse, the 
coarsest epithets and the most vindictive and bitter cal- 
umny. "While no notice whatever was ever taken by Gov. 
Sibley of these attacks, and if referred to at all was with- 
out any, feeling of resentment, it is possible they may 
have injured him in the estimation of those who did not 
personally know him. This is inferred from an incident 
which occurred some years afterward. A leading Repub- 
lican living in the southern part of the state, then hold- 
ing a h'gh position, said: 



284 



MINNESOTA HISTORICAL COLLECTIONS. 



*'In 1858-59, I was a reader of the Minnesotian, and 
never having seen Gov. Sibley, imagined him, from those 
articles, to be a coarse, mean, ruffianly person. When I 
came here and met him personally, I was agreeably sur- 
prised to find him a courtly and polished gentleman, of 
irreproachable character and conduct." 

Through the delay in congress to admit the state, which 
admission did not take place till May 11, 1858, Gov. Sib- 
ley was not inaugurated until May 24. He entered on 
his office at a time when the people of the state were 
suffering from the disastrous financial revulsion of 1857. 
There was but limited agriculture, little reserve wealth, 
no established industries, a want of any system of finan- 
ces in either state or county government, and not a cent 
of funds in the state treasury. To build up a prosperous 
commonwealth out of such a condition as this, seemed 
hopeless. The state government could only be carried on 
by a loan, which was effected, and the machinery of 
the administration was soon organized and running 
smoothly. Nearly everything connected with the state 
government— its laws, courts, institutions and departments 
— had to be created and built up during his term. Dur- 
ing Gov. wSibley's administration, several very important 
measures were enacted, and events occurred which have 
affected the interests of the state more or less ever since. 
One of these was the loan of state credit to land grant 
railroad companies already organized. The act was 
passed and voted on by the people prior to the com- 
mencement of Gov. Sibley's term. He had been opposed 
to it, and voted against it. When some months later the 
railroad companies applied to him as governor to issue 



'v 



MEMOIR OF HENRY HASTINGS SIBLEY. 285 

bonds to them, he insisted upon receiving first mortgage 
bonds from them in return for those of the state. The- 
companies procured from the supreme court a writ of 
peremptory mandamus, ordering him to issue the bonds 
without this condition of priority of lien, and it was ac- 
cordingly done. Some time after the bonds were issued. 
Gov. Sibley was requested to proceed to New York and 
aid in negotiating the bonds. If this could not be done, 
the whole plan of the state loan would fail, and both the 
people and the companies suffer loss. Governor Sibley 
thereupon went to New York and labored hard to mar- 
ket the bonds. He w^ould probably have succeeded, but 
unfortunately, even at that early period, the failure of the 
whole scheme began to be apparent to the people, and 
threats that the bonds so issued would be repudiated, were- 
so broadly and plainly made in some of the state journals,, 
that capitalists were afraid to touch them. Thus the 
whole loan measure proved to be partially a failure. Gov. 
Sibley could in no way be censured for this, as he did 
everything he could to protect the state and insure the 
success of the scheme, so that no loss to any one could 
occur. Gov. Sibley was alwa^^s firmly of the opinion that 
the bonds had been legally issued, and that they should 
be paid by the people of the state. While serving as a 
member of the house in 1871 he advocated the adjust, 
ment of the outstanding bonds wath all his powder and 
earnestness. The plan then proposed did not meet the 
approval of the people of the state. He also warmly ad- 
vocated the mode of adjustment proposed by the legis- 
lature of 1877, but which w^as also equally unsuccessfuL 

-17 



286 MINNESOTA HISTORICAL COLLECTIONS. 

Up to the time of the final adjustment, whenever occasion 
offered, he did not cease to urge that the honor of tlie 
state demanded that these obligations should be met, at 
least on terms which the holders would accept as equi- 
table. It was not until October, 1881, that the legislature, 
at a special session convened for that purpose by a proc- 
lamation of Gov. Pillsbury, passed a measure for the set- 
tlement of the outstanding bonds, by the issue of new 
state bonds to the amount of §4,253,000. No citizen of 
our state was more delighted at this tardy but honorable 
measure of justice than Gen. Sibley, who had so long and 
ardently advocated it. 

THE WRIGHT COUNTY WAR 

was another of the events of Gov. Sibley's administration, 
which excited at the time acrimonious strictures on his 
action, and has been frequently mentioned since as an error 
of judgment on his part. It resulted from a firm determina- 
tion on the part of Gov. Sibley that the laws of the state 
should be obeyed and order enforced. In 1858 a man named 
Rinehart, who had been arrested in Le Sueur county for 
murder, was taken out of the jail by a mob of disguised men 
and hung. One or two other cases of lynch law had also 
occurred, and the law-abiding people became alarmed at 
these demonstrations and insisted that an effort should be 
made to suppress or punish them. In the spring of 1859. 
a man named Oscar F. Jackson, of Wright county, who had 
been regularly tried for the murder of a neighbor and ac 
quitted, was seized by a mob at Rockford and hung — a most 
daring and flagrant outrage. Immediately on learning 
these facts, Gov. Sibley issued a proclamation, offering a 



MEMOIR OF HENRY HASTINGS SIBLEY. 



287 



reward of ^500 for the arrest or conviction of any of the 
perpetrators. He said: 

"These deeds of violence must cease, or there will be no 
safety for life or property in our midst. If necessary, the 
whole power of the state will be called into action to i:)unish 
the perpetrators of such crimes against the laws.*' 

Not long after this Mrs. Jackson recognized, in a party at 
Minnehaha Falls, one Emory Moore, who had been promi- 
nent in the lynching of her husband. He was arrested and 
taken to Wright county for trial. On August 2d an armed 
mob broke into the building where he was confined and 
released him. The regular civil authorities of Wright 
county declared that they were powerless. Gov. Sibley at 
once saw that he must punish this defiant lawlessness or 
merit censure for an abject surrender of the rights and pro- 
tection of the people to a few rebellious ruffians. He was 
not a man to be daunted or intimidated by such a demon- 
stration. He at once ordered the uniformed and equipped 
militia of the state (of which there were then several finely 
organized companies) under arms, and on August 5th dis 
patched three companies under Col. John S. Prince, to 
Monticello to arrest the rioters and enforce the law. A few 
special detectives and civil officers accompanied the troops, 
and Gov. Sibley in person directed the whole movement. 
The force proceeded to Monticello, reinforced the civil 
authorities, arrested eleven lynchers and rescuers, and 
handed them over to the authorities. The lawless spirit 
having been effectually overawed, the forces returned, and 
the *' Wright county war" ended, fortunately without blood- 
shed. The cost of the expedition was necessarily consider- 
able, and was severely commented on by party papers, but 



288 MINNESOTA HISTORICAL COLLECTIONS 

there was no law-abiding citizen at that time who did not 
heartily sustain Gov. Sibley in his prompt and determined 
effort to uphold the majesty of the law— as was his sworn 
duty to do. 

HIS FURTHER OFFICIAL CAREER. 

It would expand this sketch to too great length to give 
much of a minute review to the principal events of Gov. 
Sibley's official career. During the whole term he labored 
most faithfully and earnestly to protect the interests of 
the state and its people, and in the aid of good govern- 
ment, good laws and good policy. Whatever may have 
been said by those politically opposed to him of his ad- 
ministration (and of course he did not escape criticism 
from such), no one did, nor could, say that he was not 
honest, scrupulous and incorruptible, and that he strove 
to secure such men for all positions, where he had the 
appointing power. His administration, more than any 
which have succeeded it, was beset with difficulties, ow- 
ing to the unorganized condition of everything, incident to 
the initial year of the state government, and it required 
patient effort and careful tact on his part to adjust all 
the delicate questions springing up. When his term was 
nearing a close, he was warmly urged by his political 
friends to accept the nomination for a second term, but 
he refused to do so, preferring the peace of quiet private 
life to the thorny path of public office. When the rebel- 
lion of 1861 broke out, Gov. Sibley earnestly advocated 
the Union cause. He had been, in common with a large 
class of patriots, strongly in favor of any honorable com- 
promise which would avert the threatened disruption and 



MEMOIR OF HENRY HASTINGS SIBLEY. 289 

the calamity of war, and spoke and wrote in favor of 
peaceful conciliatory measures. But when the attack was 
made on Sumter, and President Lincoln called for mili- 
tary forces to suppress rebellion, Gov. Sibley warmly ad- 
vocated upholding the honor of the nation by arms, as 
being the only course left us. To those who thought 
that the struggle would be a brief one, and that the se- 
cessionists could be easily subjugated, he said, decidedly, 
he knew better, that he had mingled with Southern men 
largely in the army and at Washington, and knew their 
pride and spirit better. He was satisfied that the contest 
would be long and bitter. During the war he was al- 
ways ready to contribute means for aid of the various 
sanitary and soldiers' relief measures set on foot, and 
wherever he wrote or spoke on the subject, it was with 
patriotic and loyal warmth. 

THE INDIAN WAR OF 1862. 

The Sioux outbreak occurred Aug. 18, 1862, and on 
Aug. 19, Gov. Sibley was appointed by Gov. Ramsey to 
the command of the military expedition then moving up 
the Minnesota River, with the rank of colonel, but really 
with the powers and duties of a general. At that time 
the appointment could have been bestowed upon no one 
better qualified to execute the difficult trust. His inti 
mate acquaintance with the Indian character and their 
eading men, his knowledge of the country and his ac- 
quaintance with military art, as well as the Indian mode 
of w^arfare, admirably fitted him for success as a com- 
mander-in-chief. Arriving at the frontier, everything was 
found in a terrible state. New Ulm and other towns 



290 MINNESOTA HISTORICAL COLLECTIONS. 

had been partly burned, hundreds of persons massacred, 
the country laid waste, and numbers of women and chil- 
dren captives in the hands of the brutal savages. Panic 
and confusion reigned everywhere. The troops who had 
been hurried to the front Were raw^ recruits, poorly armed, 
without rations or equipage, and many had never seen 
an Indian. The enemy w^ere the most numerous and 
well armed, and thus far victorious at every point. Such 
were the difficulties w^hich faced him. Gen. Sibley's first 
object was to protect the most exposed points, until he 
could be furnished with reinforcements and supplies. He 
was severely criticised at the time by newspaper fault- 
finders and military tyros for not throwing his raw troops 
on the enemy at once, and even some intimated that he 
was manoeuvering to let the Indians get more plunder 
and escape unharmed. But such a policy as was urged 
on him would have been disastrous. His troops would 
have suffered inevitable defeat and massacre. It would 
have been the repulse of Braddock or Custer re enacted. 
All his plans worked out successfully. The savages were 
repulsed at New Ulm by the force under Col. Flandrau, 
at Fort Ridgely and Birch Coolie successively, and finally 
completely beaten in the decisive battle of Wood Lake, 
by Gen. Sibley. Soon after Gen. Sibley was enabled, by 
strategy and diplomatic management, to not only effect 
the release of the w^hite captives, nearly 250 in number, 
but to take prisoners about 2,000 men, women and chil- 
dren of the enemy. He then instituted a military com- 
mission, with Col. William Crooks as president, and Hon. 
I. V. D. Heard as judge advocate, by which the Indian 
warriors, to the number of more than 400, were tried. 



MEMOIR OF HENRY HASTINGS SIBLEY. 



291 



Three hundred and three were condemned to death for 
murder and massacre, and others to various terms of im- 
prisonment, from one to ten years, for pillage and rob- 
bery. The execution of the condemned was prevented 
by the order of President Lincoln, at the earnest solici- 
tation of some pseudo humanitarians at the East, much 
to the dissatisfaction of the people generally of this state. 
Finally, Gen. Sibley was ordered to execute thirty -eight 
of the criminals convicted of massacre and rape, wiiich 
was done on Dec. 26, 1862, at Mankato. The remain- 
der were taken to Davenport, Iowa, and from thence to 
Fort Thompson, on the Missouri. On Sept. 29, 1862, 
President Lincoln commissioned Col. Sibley as a briga- 
dier general for gallant conduct in the field. He estab- 
lished his headquarters in St. Paul, and a new military 
department was created, embracing Minnesota, Dakota, 
Iowa and Wisconsin. At this time Gen. Sibley removed 
his family to St. Paul, and, after a few months, pur- 
chased the fine mansion owned by J. W. Bass, which 
was ever after his residence, and is associated in the 
minds of people of the state with innumerable acts of 
hospitality and social occasions. Gen. John Pope was 
in command of the district above noted, but he was here 
only a few weeks in person, his headquarters being in 
Milwaukee, and the management and oversight of the 
military aifairs in this state were left entirely to Gen. 
Sibley. 

The winter of 1862-3 was spent in forming a cordon of 
posts and garrisons, with a line of scouts and patrols 
across the frontier, which resulted in securing perfect 
protection to the people in the western part of the state. 



292 MINNESOTA HISTORICAL COLLECTIONS. 

Congress meantime having reduced the number of briga- 
dier generals, it seemed certain that Gen. Sibley's ap- 
pointment would not be confirmed. In anticipation of this 
event the legislature on March 3rd passed a joint resolu- 
tion referring to his successful management of the cam- 
paign of 1862 and his fitness for the command, and that 
the failure to confirm his nomination would be regarded 
as a misfortune, and asking the president to appoint him 
a brigadier general of volunteers and assign him to the 
command of the district of Minnesota, etc. The senate 
having failed to confirm his nomination. Gen, Sibley was 
again appointed by the president, as above requested, and, 
having some scruples about accepting under the circum- 
stances, was urged to do so by a petition, or request, 
signed by all the prominent business men and firms in 
the city. To this wish he yielded, and immediately set 
about preparing for the campaign of 1863. An expedition 
was at once organized to proceed to Devil's Lake and vi 
cinity, and attack and defeat the hostile Sioux known to 
be in that region. The expedition was finely equipped 
and well officered, and was led by Gen. Sibley in person. 
It left Camp Pope on June 16th, marched into Dakota, 
had three battles and sundry skirmishes with the hostile 
Sioux, defeating them at every encounter, and driving 
them beyond the Missouri river, which was the farthest 
point reached by the troops. Having accomplished its ob- 
ject, and freed the Minnesota frontier from all apprehen- 
sions of Indian raids, it returned to Fort Snelling in Sep- 
tember. During the' time of the expedition the leading 
hostile chief, Little Crow, was killed and his son cap- 
tured. During the absence of Gen. Sibley, also, the sad 



MEMOIR OF HENRY HASTINGS SIBLEY. 293 

news reached him of the death of one of his children at 
St. Paul. The years 186-4 and 1865 were employed in con- 
ducting measures for the defense of the frontier, which 
resulted in completely restoring safety to our Western 
counties, and depriving the savages of an opportunity to 
molest them. On Nov. 29th, 1865, Gen. Sibley was ap- 
pointed brevet major general "for efficient and meritori- 
ous services." He was relieved from the command of the 
district of Minnesota in August, 1866, by order of the 
president, and detailed with a mixed civil and military 
commission to negotiate treaties with the hostile Sioux and 
other disaffected bands on the upper Missouri, which duty 
w^as successfully discharged, treaties having been made 
at Fort Sully with the Sioux and subsequently ratified b}^ 
the Senate. It might, in this connection, be remarked 
that Gen. Sibley always had great influence with the In- 
dians at treaties and had attended all the prominent 
treaties with the various tribes of the Northwest ever 
since his advent into this region. His advice was always 
sought, and relied on by the officers of the Indian bureau 
at Washington, and was of great value to them on nu- 
merous critical occasions. Almost to the period of his 
death, he took a great interest in the Indian question, 
and frequently gave his views in writing, to the Depart- 
ment, in answer to questions submitted by its officials. 

IN CIVIL LIFE AGAIN. 

On retiring from military life and cares, Gen. Sibley 
again assumed the duties of a public-spirited and use- 
ful citizen. The business to which he mainly devoted 
himself during the remainder of his life was the presi- 



294 MINNESOTA HISTORICAL COLLECTIONS. 

dency of the St. Paul Gas Company, to which he was 
elected, he having secured a majority of the capital stock 
of that company. He retained the presidency of this 
corporation until his death, a period of just twenty three 
years. It was at once considerably extended, the works 
enlarged and the company put on a footing commensu- 
rate with the rapid growth of the city about that time, 
February, 1868. He had, in addition to this, numerous 
investments in other directions, which required constant 
care and watchfulness on his part. He was president of 
two banks at one time, the City bank and the Minne- 
sota Savings Institution, the former of which was subse- 
quently merged into the First National Bank, of which 
he became a director. At the same period, and for a 
long time subsequently he was a director in the Sioux 
City railroad, and possibly of other business corporations 
in which he was a stockholder. In all these organiza- 
tions he was continually on the most responsible and 
laborious committees, and his advice and counsel were 
continually in request. In 1867 he was largely instru- 
mental in organizing the St. Paul Chamber of Commerce, 
and in giving it its efficiency and character. He was its 
president at different periods, for several years, served 
on its most important committees, and attended its meet- 
ings with a punctuality and regularity which shamed 
youno^er men and those of more leisure. In 1868 he was 
by it elected a delegate to the national board of trade, 
which met that year in Detroit, and in which body he 
took a leading part. He also served as chairman of the 
committee on relief of grasshopper sufferers in 1873-4, 
devoting a large amount of time and labor to the duties 



MEMOIR OF HENRY HASTINGS SIBLEY. 



295 



of that trust, collecting and disbursing money, food and 
clothing, writing letters, relieving special cases of dis- 
tress, etc. The people of the frontier counties will re- 
member these labors with gratitude. 

On Nov. 15, 1867, a very afflicting tragedy occurred at 
Gen. Sibley's residence. At the close of a social enter- 
tainment, a young servant girl was extinguishing an oil 
lamp, when it exploded, covering her with blazing oil. 
At her screams, General Sibley ran with a blanket and 
wrapped it around her, succeeding, at length, in extin- 
guishing the flames, but not until the unlucky young wo- 
man had received injuries from which she died in a short 
time. Gen, S. had his hands very severely burned, as 
also his daughter, Augusta, and his wife, in their efforts 
to aid the girl, while his residence narrowly escaped 
destruction. 

In 1871 and '72, Gen. S. w^as president of the Cham- 
ber of Commerce, of which he was also for several years 
a director, and a perpetual member. He was also (1873- 
1891) a director in the First National Bank, and (1878. 
1891) president of Oakland cemetery. From 1885 to his 
death he was president of the Minnesota Club, and in 
1888, commander of the Loyal Legion of Minnesota. In 
1883, he was appointed by President Arthur, as presi- 
dent of the commission to settle claims for damages due 
to the Ojibway Indians from the construction of the na- 
tional reservoirs. He was also a member of Acker Post 
No. 21, G. A. R., from May, 1885, until his death. 

Other honors were also bestowed on him, by institu- 
tions elsewhere. In 1875, he was elected a member of 
the American Geographical Society, of New York. Al- 



296 



MINNESOTA HISTORICAL COLLECTIONS. 



most the last year of his life (in 1888), General Sibley, 
very unexpectedly to himself, received the compliment 
of his creation as a Doctor of Laws, by the College of 
New Jersey, at Princeton, and received the diploma in 
due form. It was a jiist and well-merited recognition 
of our foremost citizen, and he always appreciated it 
highly. 

OFFICIAL TRUSTS AND APPOINTMENTS. 

He w^as also appointed delegate to the Cleveland soldiers' 
convention in 1866, and visitor to the West Point Jvlilitary 
Academy in 1867. It is gratifying to remark that where- 
ever he went on such missions as this, he was always re- 
cognized as a representative man of our state, and found 
that he was no stranger to leading men of other sections, 
having in some degree a national reputation, which was 
gratifying to his fellow citizens of Minnesota, who always 
regarded him with a just pride. These years were also 
crowded with official duties of various responsible kinds. 
He was elected school inspector from the Fifth ward in 
1867, and gave the position faithful and conscientious at- 
tention, not escaping criticism, however, for the independ- 
ent stand he took in regard to sharing the school funds 
with Catholic schools. In 1870 he was elected a member 
of the house of representatives, and, in addition to other 
faithful and conscientious labors for his constituency and 
the state at large, he labored hard to secure a recognition 
and adjustment of the outstanding State railroad bonds." 
His speech on that question, which was widely circulated, 
was a masterly argument in favor of good faith to the 
bondholders. 



MEMOIR OF HENRY HASTINGS SIBLEY. 297 

In 1868 Gen. Sibley was appointed a regent of tlie State 
University, and from tliat date until his death rendered 
faithful services in aid of that institution, although it 
sometimes taxed his time, engrossed as he was by num- 
erous other cares, to a great degree. Frequently he 
urged his resignation, on the plea of age and failing 
strength, but his associates on the board prized his ser- 
vices and ability too highly, to consent to his withdrawal. 
In 1874 he was also appointed a member of the state normal 
board, and for several years did good service in aid of 
normal education for Minnesota, being president of the board 
also. In 1875 Gen. Sibley w^as appointed by the president 
as a member of the Board of Indian commissioners, an 
important and difficult post, but one for w^hich his val- 
uable knowledge of the Indian character made him espe- 
cially valuable. He served on this commission for some 
months, and rendered services highly esteemed by the 
department, but finding that it would require his absence 
from home too much, interfering with other duties, and 
his health being also precarious, he resigned in 1876, 
to the regret of his associates on the board. In 1872 
Gen. Sibley was created by act of legislature a member 
of a commission to purchase a park for the city of St. 
Paul, and aided in securing the valuable tract now known 
as Como Park, a measure, w^hicli, though it was met 
with nauch adverse criticism at the time, has since de- 
monstrated the value of the move. 

In the fall of 1880 Gen. Sibley was prevailed on to yield 
to the earnest solicitations of his party friends in the 
Third congressional district, and became their candidate 
for congressman. It w^as wholly unexpected and unde- 



V 

298 MINNESOTA HISTORICAL COLLECTIONS. 

sired by him, and his acceptance of the nomination was 
simply a favor to his friends. He saw at the time that 
success was impossible, as the opposite party had a large 
majority in the district, which his friends could not hope 
to overcome, even by the 'great popularity of their candi- 
date. He made as little personal canvass as was possi- 
ble under the circumstances, though his friends did active 
work for him, and large numbers of the opposite party, 
even, advocated his election and voted for him. His de- 
feat, therefore, did not disappoint him, and it is probable 
that he even rejoiced at it, as it is certain that he pre- 
ferred the quiet of home to the exciting and laborious 
life of a congressman. 

THE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

Gen. Sibley was a charter member, and one of the 
founders, of both the Minnesota Historical Society and 
the Old Settlers' Association of Minnesota — the former in 
1849, the latter in 1858. He was greatly interested in the 
objects of both, and was president of each, at different 
times, for several years. He wrote several valuable pa- 
pers for the historical society, which have been published 
in their collections. These papers are memoirs of prom- 
inent pioneers, accounts of historical occurrences, remi- 
nisences of early days, etc. He made the society valuable 
gifts ,at various times, and rendered it signal services in 
many ways. He was twice its president, the last time, 
for thirteen years continually, and until his death. As 
the infirmities of age began to affect him, he several 
times, at the election of officers, begged his associates in 
the society to relieve him from his duties as president, 



J 



MEMOIR OF HENRY HASTINGS SIBLEY. 299 

but they valued and appreciated his devotion to its suc- 
cess, and the influence of having his name at the head 
of their roll, too much to yield to his request. It is well 
known, that some years ago Gen. Sibley had provided in 
his will for a handsome bequest to the Historical Society, 
for the purpose of aiding it in the erection of its proposed 
fire proof building, but towards the period of his death, 
finding that the society did not appear to have any inten- 
tion of pushing its project of a building within a rea 
sonable period, he cancelled the bequest, and instead, 
provided for a gift of books from his private library, 
which has, since his death, been received. Among them 
were many books w^hich the society highly prizes. 

It may be proper to state here that the society has 
had the assurance from the heirs of General Sibley that 
they will donate to it, all the papers and manuscript left 
by the general at his death. There are many thousands 
of these, of great historical value. They constitute his 
business and personal correspondence, reaching back to 
the time of his engaging in the service of the American 
Fur Company, at Mackinac, in 1829; all his manuscript 
records, journals, files of documents, memorandum books, 
account books, etc., for over sixty years. So careful and 
methodical was General Sibley in his habits, that it is 
certain that every scrap of writing which came into his 
hands during that period, wos filed by him. There are 
many thousand letters from old fur traders, pioneers and 
explorers, government officials, Indian agents and treaty 
makers; army officers, early residents and travelers, 
officials and missionaries, reaching back over half a 
century. Most of all this long list of the heroes of our 



300 



MINNESOTA HISTORICAL COLLECTIONS. 



pre-historic period, have been gathered to their fathers, 
a generation ago. and undoubtedly these precious memo- 
rials of their life and times on the northwest frontier, are 
the only autograjDhs in existence of most of them. They 
relate to events in Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan, Hud- 
son's Bay, Lake Superior, Red River, and many import- 
ant events are perhaps recorded in no other form. The 
value, for historical material, of this mass of manuscript 
is beyond computation, and constitutes a more valuable 
legacy from our deceased president, than anything which 
he could have left to us. When received and properly 
bound and indexed, they will form one of the most valu- 
able departments of our collections. 

A BUSY LIFE 

The appointments and official trusts above referred to 
were really but a small portion of those in which Gen. 
Sibley served his state or his community. There are 
a number of other committees, delegations, commissions, 
etc., in which he served, giving to each careful and con- 
scientious service. Indeed, for some years, scarcely any 
movement would be inaugurated without getting Gen. 
Sibley to countenance or head it, and if he could be in- 
duced to serve on it, or even give it the sanction of his 
name, it would secure influence and weight at once. 
Thi§ engrossed his time to a degree which must have 
been, and certainh^ was, a severe tax on his health and 
strength. Sometimes his intimate friends, wiio feared that 
he was permitting too many burdens to be laid upon him. 
remonstrated with him. He felt the justice of their advice, 
and endeavored to decline some of the appointments urged 



MEMOIR OF HENRY HASTINGS SIBLEY. 



301 



on him. But it was difficult, in his proverbial willingness to 
aid his friends and to help enter])rises and objects they 
were interested in, and which he, as a public-spirited citi- 
zen, wished to succeed, to say no to their importunities, 
lie was for some years, perhaps, one of the hardest 
worked men in St. Paul, and that, too, at times when 
he w^as suffering physical pain and debility. He used 
to jocosely remark to his friends, when these duties were 
thrust upon him, "I am almost a public pack-horse," 
but always cheerfully and energetically assumed the du- 
ties. During these years, also, his pen was never idle. 
In addition to his large correspondence, he was contin- 
ually engaged in writing addresses, lectures, reports of 
various kinds, papers for the Historical Society, etc. 
Being so familiar with the history of the state and its 
people, he was continually resorted to for information, 
and people would write to him for facts of various kinds, 
about the state or portions of it, and always received 
patient and courteous answers. So much was his judg- 
ment relied on and valued, that he w^as continually being 
selected as arbitrator in various matters. Persons would 
even resort to him to ask. advice about business matters, 
property investments, and even regarding domestic trou- 
bles. One class of persons were his old half-breed and 
Canadian retainers, or their descendants. They would 
come to him for advice and aid about property and other 
business matters. Sometimes he spent considerable time 
in aiding them, or gave them valuable advice which saved 
them much expense, and wrote letters, or prepared con- 
veyances and other papers for them. Many of them 
-18 



302 



MINNESOTA HISTORICAL COLLECTIONS. 



came to bog pocuniciry aid, and, if wortliy, never went 
away empty handed. The amounts he expended in this 
way must have been large in the aggregate. Indeed, for 
several years he ahnost entirely supported two or three 
families of former valued- serviteurs of his trading period. 
Gen. Sibley's patience in listening to all these demands — 
engrossed, as he always was, by business cares — has 
often surprised his friends. The humblest person that 
ever called on him to ask a favor was courteously and 
kindly received, and his request granted, if proper. 

His kindness of heart and his feelings of broad charity 
for all men was one of his most admirable traits. He 
was never known to sjjeak harshly or disparagingly of 
any one, no matter what the provocation might be, and 
when others have done so in his presence, he would seek 
some way to excuse and palliate the oifense of the per- 
son so criticised. 

DOMESTIC LIFE. 

The demands of social life on Gen. Sibley's time were 
also very large. His prominence in official life, and in 
the community, necessarily made his list of visitors a very 
large one, and his hospitable mansion was the point to 
w^hich a wide circle of friends, as well as casual ac- 
quaintances, made frequent visits. Strangers, even, vis- 
iting th'^* city were accustomed to visit him — authors, 
tourists, journalists, artists and others, who wished to 
see him for either mere curiosity or some other purpose. 
When distinguished guests visited our city, Gen. Sibley 
usually served on the committee of reception. Thus his 
time, even the hours which he would have devoted to 



] 



MEMOIR OF HENRY HASTINGS SIBLEY. 



303 



the family circle, were largely engrossed Vjy cares inci- 
dent to his position. In his family relations he was 
greatly blessed. A fond wife and dearly beloved chil- 
dren made his home precious to him, and he was a loving 
husband and tender parent, as those who knew his home 
life were aware. Several children blessed this union (as 
mentioned above), some of whom were early called away, 
and in 1869 the great sorrow of his life, the death of 
his wife, interrupted the years of quiet domestic enjoy- 
ment of his home.* He bore thiS' great loss patiently 
and resignedly, bearing with him through his remaining 
years the memory of ihe quarter-century of married life 
that had been so happy and blest. Ere long there came 
grand- children into his home, and it seemed to be a source 
of intense enjoyment to him to listen to their interest- 
ing prattle and receive their affectionate caresses. Visit- 
ors to his house have frequently witnessed his intense 
affection for them and also theirs for their "grandpa." 
He was by nature one of the most tender and sympa- 
thetic of men, as his friends were well aware, and per- 
haps his own bereavements had made even that kindly 
nature more softened. Those who had troubles and sor- 
rows or had suffered the loss of dear relatives know how 
sympathizingly and soothingly he could address them with 
consoling words. 

HIS RELIGIOUS VIEWS. 

In this connection perhaps some reference to Gen. Sib- 
ley's religious views will not be misplaced. These are 

*Duriii.<r the reiiKUiKler of Gen. Sible3''s life liis wife's sister, Mrs. Abl)ie A. 
Potts (Widow of Dr. Tlios. K. Potts, pioneer pliysician). :ir» esti!nal)le and ac- 
cotuplished lady, superintended his household, and dispensed his hospitality lu 
a noteworthy manner. 



304 



MINNESOTA HISTORICAL COLLECTIONS. 



best expressed in a letter from himself, answering an in- 
quiry on the subject addressed to him by the writer of 
this sketch, while he was sojourning at the springs in 
Canada for his health: 

St. Catherine's, April 16, 1877. — My Dear Sir: Your 
favor of the 4th inst. was duly received. I have no objec- 
tion to state my views on the subject of religion. I am a 
believer in the cardinal doctrines of the Christian faith, hav- 
ing been educated in that belief, and never having swerved 
from it. I am aii attendant regularly upon the Episcopal 
service and a vestryman in St. Paul parish in our city. I 
am not a communicant, for the reason that I am not a sec- 
tarian, and none of the denominations come up to my idea of 
what the church militant of Jesus Christ should be. Theol 
ogy has loaded what I regard as a very clear and simple 
creed, with so much unnecessary mystification and ceremo- 
nial, that I shrink from the labor of penetrating the laby- 
rinth and prefer to turn to the pages of sacred w^rit for 
guidance. I find there certain well-defined and clearly 
expressed precepts for the guidance of the seeker after 
truth. First, love of God is inculcated, and love of our fel- 
low men. "Do [justly, love mercy, and walk humbly with 
your God," keeping the commandments in their spirit and 
letter, with entire reliance upon the savior as the mediator 
between God andnnan, and upon the H0I3" Spirit for grace 
to lead in the straight and narrow path. I regard the ordi- 
nance of baptism as mandatory, but no other, and I trust 
the time will come, sooner or later, when all Christians will 
cease controversies upon non-essential points, and unite in 
an unbroken front^against infidelity in all its forms. I be- 
lieve the doctrines of the Bible to be the only safe guide for 
nations, as well as individuals, and that they are all-sufii- 
cient for this life, and for that eternity to which we are 
hastening. Such, in brief, are my convictions upon this im- 
portant subject. Truly yours, H. H. SIBLEY. 



) 



MEMOIR OF HENRY HASTINGS SIBLEY. 



305 



That such deep, clear, catholic views of religion as Gen. 
Sibley expresses in his letter were exemplified in his daily 
life, no one who knew him could doubt. His high moral 
purity, his conscientious honesty, his delicate sense of honor, 
his detestation of anything gross and coarse, his lofty ab- 
horrence of deceit or duplicity, his benevolence and sym- 
pathy, and his readiness for every good work, w^ere an out- 
growth of this religious sentiment. He was in every respect 
and particular the highest mold of a perfect Christian gen- 
tleman. His friends, who visited at his house, must have 
seen on the table of his sitting room, a well-worn copy of 
the Scriptures, bearing marks of daily use for years, and 
daily prayer, also, was undoubtedly his custom. Of 
this, perhaps his most intimate friend, maybe not even his 
own family, were ever made acquainted. Nothing could 
have been further from his nature than anything which 
savored of affectation, cant or display in religion, and the 
self-distrust which prevented him from making any public 
profession of religion, and from parading it before men, 
arose from a real and admirable Christian humility. 

It is proper to remark, in this connection, that though his 
own self-distrust had long prevented him from formally 
uniting wdth the church, he was confirmed in St. Paul's 
Episcopal church, in which he had been so long an attend- 
ant and ofticial, but a few months before his death. 

rilS PERSONAL APPEARANCE, HEALTH, ETC. 

Some reference to his physical appearance maj' not be 
out of place for those readers of this sketch wiio never 
had the pleasure of meeting him in person. Gen. Sibley 
w^as a man of striking api)earance. He was fully, if not 



306 



MINNESOTA HISTORICAL COLLECTIONS. 



over, six feet in height, and always very erect in his car- 
riage. In his youth he was quite slender, though very 
active and muscular; but as he advanced in years became 
somewhat stouter. At this period he w^as a man who 
would have attracted attention and commanded respect 
anywhere among strangers, from his fine appearance and 
dignified manners. His complexion was dark; his eyes, 
with the iris rather small, of a dark, lustrous brown, 
and of a kind, pleasing expression — which, when animated, 
as they always were during conversation, became what is 
usually termed piercing. His hair, until he had attained 
quite an advanced age, was black, and in his earlier por- 
traits he is represented as wearing a plain, black, closely 
trimmed moustache. Toward the close of his life, he wore 
a full beard, afterward quite silvered with gray. Several 
excellent portraits of him, in various styles, and taken at 
different periods after his entrance into public life, will 
perpetuate his features throughout coming years. He was 
what would be termed by any one a handsome man. while 
the noble soul which gave a dignified and kindly expres- 
sion to his features was apparent to even a casual observer, 
and inspired even strangers with respect and confidence 
toward him. In his early years, and until perhaps the 
age of sixty-five, he had enjoyed excellent and uninter- 
rupted health. About 1876, he was attacked by a painful 
and debilitating disease (thought to be ulceration of the 
stomach), and suffered severely from it for some weeks. 
He was often confined to his bed, and his feeble appear- 
ance and apparently failing condition excited the appre- 
hensions of his friends that the race might soon terminate. 
Still, in the intervals of his severer attacks, though still 



MEMOIR OF HEXIiY HASTINGS SIBLEY. 307 

suffering pain, he resolutely and cheerfully attended to 
business and to his public duties. In 1877 he spent some 
time at the medicinal springs in St. Catharine's, Canada, 
and at a health resort in North Carolina, and experienced 
much relief. Remedies which his physicians employed 
about the same time, were fortunately successful in restoring 
him to a fair state of health, considering his age, and, 
though looking somewhat more feeble and broken, he 
actively engaged in his ordinary business and social duties 
again with something of his old-time vigor and determina- 
tion, and his useful life, to the great joy of his friends, 
was prolonged for fully a dozen years more. Indeed, so 
much was his health improved, thiat it was this fact which 
encouraged his friends to prevail on him to accept the 
nomination for Congress in 1880, spoken of before. But 
this was the last occasion on which General Sibley came 
before the public. The remaining term of his life was 
quietly devoted to his duties as president of the Gas 
Company, president of the Board of Regents of the State 
University, and president of the State Historical Society. 

THE CLOSING YEARS OF HIS LIFE 

were passed in the most complete enjoyment of the es- 
teem and love of the people of his state — a fruition of 
his long and usefully spent life. By his upright char- 
acter, iiis worth as a public spirited man, his prominence 
as a pioneer of the state, and one of its very oldest 
inhabitants, his creditable record in both civil and mili- 
tary life, his culture and attainments in mental and social 
development, his generosity towards every good work 
and project, he had won a foremost place in the esteem 



308 



MINNESOTA HISTOKICAL COLLECTIONS. 



of the public. It is safe to say that ho had no peer in 
all those clem outs of moral excellence and personal worth 
combined, which successfully win and retain the love and 
warm esteem of the people and endear one to them. His 
intimate friend, Col. E. S. Goodrich, tersely summed up 
the popular estimate of his primacy in everything admir- 
able when he said, in one of his articles on our early his- 
tor}^ that it was a title universally accorded Gen. Sib- 
ley as ''the first gentleman of Minnesota.'' Indeed, his 
name may be truthfully said to have become almost a 
"household word" in our state, so closely interwoven it 
had been with the history of Minnesota for over half a 
century, and with the social and business life of this city 
for a generation past. It is also perpetuated on our maps, 
Sibley county, in Minnesota, the town of Sibley, Iowa, the 
city of Hastings, Minnesota, and the important commercial 
street, Sibley, in the capital of our state, bearing the name 
to future generations. 

Inheriting from his ancestors a vigorous constitution, 
which was strengthened by the free, out door life which 
he led for some years, and preserved by his pure and 
temperate habits, his days had been prolonged beyond 
the ordinary span usually allotted to man. He rounded 
out four-score years, save two days. But the strong and 
erect form was beginning to bow under the weight of 
years. For several months before his death, he declined 
visibly. His chair in his oftice was vacant more frequent- 
ly. The last meeting of the Historical Society at which 
he was present, was April 14, 1590. Still, when at his 
post in the gas office, notwithstanding his feebleness, he 
continued to carry on his duties, conversing cheerfully 



] 



MEMOIR OF HENRY HASTINGS SIBLEY. 



309 



with callers, and evincing unabated interest in all public 
questions and events. But his voice seemed feebler, and 
his hand moved slower with his pen. Even his familiar 
signature was growing more tremulous. The last war- 
rants which I took to him to sign as pi-esident at his 
office, was on Sept. 14, 1890. Closely following this date, 
he was compelled to keep his room, and just five months 
afterwards, was borne out of it. Even through this i)e- 
riod of walking through the ' ' valley of the shadow of 
death," he was not confined to his bed all the time, but 
retained his consciousness to the very end, and his in- 
terest in current matters. At four o'clock, on the morn- 
ing of February 18, 1891, surrounded b}'- all his famil3^ 
rest came to him, calmly and almost imperceptibly. 

The intelligence of the death of Gen. Sibley was re- 
ceived by the people of the state with profound and sin- 
cere sorrow. A number of bodies, boards, and societies 
in the state passed resolutions appropriate to the event, 
and many warm and just eulogies on his character were 
pronounced. The press of the state, and to a consider- 
able extent, that of the entire country, printed obituary 
notices of the deceased, and all united in fitting praise of 
the subject, and in warm encomiums of him as a man, a 
public official and a citizen. Everywhere, on the streets, 
in the public marts, were heard heartfelt expressions 
showing how much the late general was beloved and 
esteemed. 

THE FUNERAL OBSEQUIES 

of Gen. Sibley's remains, were held at Saint Paul's 
church, on Feb. 20. The intention of the family had 
been to have all the ceremonies as simple and void of 



] 



310 



MINNESOTA HISTORICAL COLLECTIONS. 



pageantry as possible. There was no military display, 
or escort. The body was quietly borne from his home to 
the church, the following gentlemen acting as pall-bear- 
ers: 

Active: Harvey Officer, J. I. Beaumont, John D. Ludden, 
J. W. Bishop, Geo. L. Becker, W. W. FolwelL Lewis 
Baker, Sr., and Charles Nichols. 

Honorary: Alex. Ramsey, John S. Pillsbury, Charles 
H. Berry, Chas. E. Flandrau, Cyrus Northrop, Alex. 
Wilkin, Russell Blakeley, A. H. Wilder, R. R. Nelson. 

In the church were seated the Loyal Legion. Com- 
mandery of Minnesota; Acker Post of the Grand Army; 
the St. Paul Chamber of Commerce; the Regents of 
the State University; the members of the Minnesota His- 
torical Society, and of the Old Settlers' Association, state 
officers, and officers and members of the Legislature, and 
officers of the U. S. Army. Large numbers were unable 
to obtain admittance. 

The services in the church were simply those of the 
Episcopal church, conducted by Bishop M. N. Gilbert, 
Rev. John Wright, rector of St. Paul's church, and Revs. 
Wm. C. Pope and Wm. Wilkinson. Profuse and rich floral 
olferings covered the casket. 

At the conclusion of the services, the body was taken 
to Oakland Cemetery, followed by a long cortege of car- 
riages,, and the remains were deposited in their last rest- 
ing place. 

The flags on all public buildings, and most of the bus- 
iness blocks, were suspended at half mast during the day. 
The Capitol was draped in black. 



) 

\ 



Mounds in Dakota, Minnesota and V/isconsin. 



By A. J. HILL. 



Between 1860 and 1873, I personally visited all the places 
mentioned in this paper, and surveyed, with more or less 
accuracy, as circumstances permitted, the aboriginal 
mounds and groups of mounds now described. 

§ 1. IN THE VICINITY OF SIOUX FALLS, DAKOTA. 

About a dozen miles westward from the southwestern 
corner of Minnesota, are the well-known Falls of the Big 
Sioux river. The river here makes a very singular bend 
in the form of an irregular letter CO so that any one leav- 
ing the river at that point and traveling in a direct line 
on any one of the eight points of the compass — except 
due north or south — would soon come to it again. This 
peculiarity of shape has caused the stream to be known 
to the Sioux Indians as Ipakshan Watpa, or Rivor of the 
Bend. There are no mounds immediately at the Falls, 
but several groups are found not far off above and below 
them. All the mounds, however, that the handful of peo- 
ple living there in 18G0 seemed to know about, were the 
two groups now to be described. 

The first group surveyed was situated on the left bank 
of the river, about three miles south of west from the 



] 



312 



MINNESOTA HISTORICAL COLLECTIONS. 



Falls, somewhere on S. 10, T. 101, R. 49. It consisted of 
seven round mounds varying- in heights from two to five 
feet. The view from their site of the extensive plains 
westward beyond the river, was a glorious one. 

The other group visited lay between the Big Sioux and 
Imneezha rivers, about six miles a little north of east 
from the Palls, on Ss. 9 and 10, T. 101, R. 48, probably. 
The site was a narrow neck of land or plateau, which 
sloped gently towards the west and south, but bordered 
abruptly on the latter or eastern stream. The mounds 
surveyed, extended for about a quarter of a mile north and 
south, and were twenty-six in number, varying in height 
from two to twelve feet. To the S. SE. an eighth of a 
mile, were two isolated ones of but little height, and across 
a wide swarth to the N, NW. about the same distance, 
was the beginning of a series of other mounds, stretching 
indefinitely in a northerly direction on the eastern bank 
of the Big Sioux river. Unfortunately this new group 
had to be left untouched, for the sun was too near the 
horizon. 

There were no trees growing either on or near these 
Big Sioux river mounds, except those on the immediate 
banks of the stream. 

§ 2. AT ST. PAUL, RAMSEY COUNTY, MINNESOTA. 

There were formerly two groups of mounds on the 
bluffs of the left bank of the Mississippi river, in the 
lower part of the city of St. Paul. An accurate location 
survey of them was made by Mr. William Wallace and 
myself May 7 and 8, 1862. 



1 



MOUNDS IX DAKOTA, MINNESOTA AND WISCONSIN. 313 



The lower groui^. which was the finest by far, was in 
that addition of lots known as Suburban Hills, laid out 
in 1856, and distant in an air line about a mile and a half 
due east of the present Union Depot, on Sibley street. 
These mounds were irregularly placed along the edge of 
the bluff, occupying a distance of about one seventh of a 
mile from the lower to the upper end of the group. The 
lowest down, or first numbered mound, was perched at 
the angle where the highest river bluff terminates, or 
rather trends back from the river to the northward, near 
the point where commences the extensive meadow land, 
known in old times as Grand Marais, but more recently 
as Pig's Eye. From such a site, one hundred and fifty 
or two hundred feet above the river, it can well be 
imagined that the view is a superb one. Fortunately 
these fine tumuli have a good chance of being pre- 
served for the benefit of posterity, as it is proposed to 
lay out a public park on the bluff there, which will include 
most of the mounds, together with the adjacent hillside 
slopes. We found twelve undoubtedly artificial mounds 
in the group, the largest of w^hich, the one at the street 
angle, though somewhat mutilated by a hasty excavation 
made a few years before, was fully fifteen feet high. 
The elliptical mound next to it w^as only four and a half 
feet high. 

The upper group lay just one half mile W. NW. of the 
preceeding, across the (then) city limits, in Lyman Day- 
ton's addition. Like the others the mounds were strung 
along the edge of the river bluff, which is there lower, 
being about one hundred and fifty feet in height. 



314 



MINNESOTA HISTORICAL COLLFX'TIONS 



What, witli the unavoidable extension of the quarrying 
of the limestone on Avhicli they stood, the grading of the 
streets, the erection of dwelling houses, and the establish- 
ing of gardens, but one mound of this group remains in exis- 
tence. They were, however, on the whole, much smaller 
than those of the lower group, as the highest did not 
exceed six feet. In examining the map one would naturally 
suppose that there were mounds between Short and Cherry 
streets, but, if so, they must have been very insignificant, 
as Mr. Dayton, the owmer of the addition, when asked 
about the matter, on the ground itself, said that he did 
not know of any having formerly existed along the edge 
of the bluff where cut aw^ay. 

The Wakan-teebe, or cave described by Captain Carver, 
1766-7, lies between the site of the upper group and the 
river bank. Whether he meant these mounds by certain 
expressions of his, or not, is an unsettled question. He 
says, on his first visit: "A little distance from this 
dreary cavern is the burying place of several bands of 
the Naudowessie Indians * * * they always 
bring the bones of the dead to this place;'' and on his 
second visit: "When we arrived at the great cave, and 
the Indians had deposited the remains of their deceased 
friends in the burial place that stands adjacent to it 

It w^as the intention of Mr. Wallace and myself to com- 
plete the survey of these two groups by making measure- 
ments for the outline and height of each mound, but the 
civil \var interfered with the execution of that design, 
as it did with many more important projects of other 
people. 



MOUNDS IN DAKOTA, MINNESOTA AND WISCONSIN 315 
g 3. OTHER MOUNDS IN RAMSEY COUNTY, MINNESOTA. 

At the lower end of the Pig's Eye marsh alread}^ men- 
tioned, there stood (April, 1868) an isolated mound, not 
situated on the blufYs, but below them, near their foot, at 
the highest part of the river bottom on tlie sloping ground 
half-way between the military road and the road-bed of 
the St. P. & C. R. R., then in course of construction, 
and distant about three hundred and fifty feet southward 
from the culvert on the former. It was in a cultivated 
field, and had itself been plowed over for years; yet it 
had still a mean height of six and a half feet; its diameter 
was sixty-five feet. The top of it was only thirty-one 
feet above the highwater of the Mississippi, according to 
the levels taken by the railroad engineers. The location 
of the mound, according to U. S. surveys, was on the 
N. i of SE. i of Sec. 23, T. 28, R. 22, ^ and about one 
mile north of Red Rock landing. Mr. J. Ford, one 
of the old settlers of the neighborhood, said that a man 
named Odell had, some years previously, dug into it far 
enough to satisfy his curiosity, as the discovery of human 
bones clearly proved it to have been built for sepulchral 
purposes. 

Near the southwestern corner of White Bear Lake, on 
the SE. i of Sec. 14, T. 30, R. 22, was, and fortu- 
nately still is, a fine tumulus, which has been gazed 
upon by many thousands of people, for it is near the most 
frequented part of that popular lake, and the county road 
ran by it, even graded a little way into its base. Indeed, 
the mound narrowly escaped being graded away altogether 
in order to allow a sufficient width for the road between 



J 



MOUNDS IX DAKOTA, MINNESOTA AND WISCONSIN 317 



torical Society held a field meeting on the ground for the 
purpose of opening one or more of these mounds. Taking 
advantage of the opportunity I surveyed all of the group 
which were in open grouTid. eight in number. The largest 
of them was sixty-five feet in diameter and six feet high, 
and was the one most dug into. There were undoubtedly 
other mounds concealed in the thickets, together with 
some sort of an embankment. 

In the Upper Lake Minnetonka, is what was known as 
Nobles' or Mound Island (now Phelps'), stretching from 
NE to SW, about two miles. On its eastern shore, near 
the south end. was a group of ten mounds, of which I 
made the best survey I could under the circumstances, 
on October G, 1S72. The mounds were situated on ground 

about feet above the water, and were quite small, 

being only fourteen to twenty-five feet in diameter, and two 
to three feet high. 

On the same shore of this island, a quarter of a mile 
or more to the west of the preceding, were two circular 
mounds lying thirty-six feet apart. The eastern one was 
twenty feet in diameter by three-and-a-half feet in height, 
and the other thirty feet by five. This latter I opened 
the same day, assisted by John Eastlake. 

About half a mile to the southwest of Cook's hotel was 
a spot by the lake then known as the picnic grounds, 
near wjiere now is the Bartlett Place, where was a well- 
known group of mounds. I could not get all of them by 
reason of the dense and tangled thickets at the south- 
western end of the site, but managed to survey twelve after 
a fashion, the two largest of which (Nos. 7 and 12), were, 
-19 



318 



MINNESOTA HISTORICAL COLLECTIONS. 



respectively, forty-eight and fifty- two feet in diameter, and 
five feet high, the others diminishing in height to two feet. 

Besides the above visited and surveyed, numerous 
mounds were reported as existing at other points on the 
lake. 

§ 5. MOUNDS AT LAKE CALHOUN, MINNESOTA. 

A large number of mounds, or "little hillocks ranged 
in rows," had been mentioned in a newspaper letter as 
existing on an elevated spot on the southeastern shore of 
Lake Calhoun. Hennepin county, Minnesota, but careful 
inspection of the site soon after (September 1867), did not 
enable me to find more than, three, which lay in a row 
close to each other. They were circular in outline, be 
tween two and three feet high, and thirty to forty in 
diameter, as estimated, not measured. Their surface was 
seamed and irregular, but whether from the effects of 
digging subsequent to their erection, agricultural opera- 
tion, or other artificial cause, I could not determine. They 
were all grassed over, and certainly had been that way 
for several years. The site was the high steep blulf bank 
of the lake, about where the Ljmdale "Pavilion" stood 
in subsequent years, I should judge. 

§ 6. MOUNDS AT CENTERVILLE, ANOKA COUNTY, MINN. 

On July, 1869, I made a rough survey of some mounds 
that, had been described as somewhere near the shore of 
Centerville lake, eighteen miles from St. Paul. There were 
seven in the group, and they varied in height from three 
to five feet, except the last one, which was twelve feet 
high. This high and steep mound was then in use as a 
chicken house, a square excavation having been made right 



MOUNDS IN DAKOTA, MINNESOTA AND WISCONSIN. 319 

into it for that purpose. The sides of the cut furnished 
good sectional views of human bones imbedded in the 
earth, disconnected and without order, as if they liad been 
piled together after some promiscuous or piece-meal burial 
custom of old times. 

§ 7. MOUNDS AT PRESCOTT, WISCONSIN. 

At the angle formed by the confluence of the St. Croix 
and Mississippi rivers, on the eastern bank of the former, 
is the town of Prescott, Wisconsin. On May 13, 1873, 
three hours' time was employed in making such reconnois- 
sance survey as was feasible of the mounds which stretch 
along the bluff of the Mississippi tiiere. The smallest of 
them was about twenty -five feet diameter and one foot 
high, and the largest fifty-six feet diameter and four feet 
high, as nearly as could be then ascertained. 

§ 8. MOUNDS AT PINE CITY, MINNESOTA. 

In August, 1873, a large mound was graded away at 
Pine City, on Snake river, which I located and measured 
carefully at the time; it was nearly half gone, having been 
cut through perpendicularly. It stood on the south side 
of Third avenue, just to the west of the middle of the 
block, between Ninth and Tenth streets. Its diameter 
was seventy feet, and height exactly eight feet. Bones 
(on the west side), had been taken out of it, relics of 
human skeletons, but there were no more visible in the 
face of the cut at the time of my measurement. There 
were other mounds on the townsite, not far off, but no 
one ever surveyed them, and they are probably all gone 
by this time. 

St. Paul, Minn., May 12, 1888. 



j 

\ 



COLUMBIAN ADDRESS 



BY 



HON. H. W. CHILDS 



Befoee the Minnesota Historical Society, at the 
Capitol in the City of St. Paul, 
October 21, 1892. 



In the early centuries of the Christian era Norsemen be- 
came distinguished upon the sea. They had swept the coasts 
of Europe in their stauneli ships and phmdered and levied 
tribute upon many an English town before the close of ihe 
eighth century. These rugged '-sons of the fiord'' recognized 
no other bounds to their roving than their own whims and 
caprices. Their brave keels plowed the waters of the Mediter- 
ranean, even to Algiers and Constantinople, and their stout 
axes were wielded against "Magyar and Saracen.'' But the 
spirit of plunder came to yield in time to that of colonization. 
Normandy confessed them master and became their province. 
Norseman blood mixed with Norman, and in the person of 
AYilliam the Conrjneror Iriiimphed on the field of Hastings. 



I. 





322 



MINNESOTA IIISTOIIICAL SOCIETY COLLECTIONS. 



They settled, too, in Ireland, and planted their roof trees over 
the greater part of Scotland. Deterred neither by distance 
uor tempestuous seas, they sought the bleak shores of Iceland, 
and there i^hiuled one of tlie most remarkable settlem^'uts 
known to the history of civilization. It is now more than a 
thousand years since that settlement was made, yet on that 
island, itself the chance child of plutonic forces, where the 
language of the Norseman is still spoken in its purity, and 
where their glorious deeds, preserved in poetry and saga, are 
still recited by elder sons in the half-singing tones of the 
Skalds of old, grew up a literature of wondrous richness. 

Well may we marvel, whose lots are cast under friendlier 
skies, that in that home of poverty, where life is maintained 
only by continuous strife with the elements, civilization 
bloomed in its fairest forms. While continental Europe lay 
shrouded in a night of deepest ignorance, learning's lamp was 
brightly burniug and tolerance had gained the mastery among 
that interesting people. And there, too, was framed and 
adopted an enlightened code of jurisprudence in which a sys- 
tem of trial by jury had been carefully worked out, thus an- 
ticipating the fame of Rtmnymede b^' more than two hundred 
and filty years. Not only Iceland, but the still more bleak and 
distant Greenland received their settlements. For four hun- 
dred years at least, the sails of commerce kept that land of ice 
in touch with European countries. Bristol merchants ex- 
changed their goods in Greenland marts; and there the rep- 
resentatives of the Church of Kome administered holy consola- 
tion. 

Why doubt that these adventurous seamen had become ac- 
-quainted with the American const long before the Columbian 
^-oyage? Accident or adventure must have impelled them 
thither on some occasion during the centuries of coiumercial 
intercourse carried on with those northern countries. The 
•evidence of Leif Ericson's voyage, which further time and re- 
:search will only strengthen, is already as conclusive to the 
candid inquirer as is that on which rests the illustrious 
achievement of 1492. 



COLUMBIAN ADDRESS. 



323 



The Coluiiibiau voyage was the logical sequeuce and cul- 
ininaiion of a series of illustrious intellectual achievements. 
As a rational enterprise it is expressive of the highest attain- 
ments of science at the close of the lifteenth century. It was 
the final triumph of the teachings of Thales. But between the 
Ionian astit)nomer and the Genoese discoverer stretched a 
vale of ignorance and prejudice, with only here and there a 
hill-top lighted witli the beams of the eternal truth. Thales 
had taught the true form of the earth six centuries before our 
era. The work so brilliantly begun in Greece was continued 
in both the Ionian and Alexandrian schools for centuries there- 
after. The fame of these schools is durably founded upon the 
labors of Pythagoras and Aristotle, Euclid, Ilipparchus and 
Ptolemy. 

It should not be overlooked, however, that those great 
X)ioneers in the cause of truth are representatives of almost 
as many distinct ages of Grecian and Egyptian knowledge. 
Slowly, with steps measured by centuries, science was march- 
ing toward that stupendous achievement which the whole ci^ll- 
ized world celebrates to-day. The Arab was the torch bearer who 
transferred the light of the East to the European world. Bag- 
dad and Cordova shone resplendent in the fame of their 
schools, the wisdom of their teachers and the value and extent 
of their libraries. It is incredible, however irreconcilable the 
antagonism between Moor and Spaniard, that the learning of 
the land of the Caliphs was not felt in the countries by which 
it was surrounded. 

There can be no question that the learned men of Europe 
had long been acquainted with the teachings of the Alexan- 
drian schools. I>ut applied science is slow of pace. The ap- 
plication of knowledge often demands the rarest genius. 
There is too frequently a wide gulf between the student and 
the man of practical affairs; and he who bridges that gulf 
oftentimes becomes deserving of immortal remembrance. 

But more than a knowledge of the earth's sphericity was es- 
sential to the great voyage. An agency must l)e provided 
whereby the vessel's helm could be grasped witli no uncertain 



J 



324 



MINNESOTA HISTORICAL SOCIETY COLLECTIONS. 



hand in the deepest night, amid the densest fog, and under 
the cloudiest sky. And this was supplied by the compass and 
the astrolabe. But onother agent still was requisite to the 
birth of the inspiration which fdled the soul of the great navi- 
gator, iiefore a Columbus there must needs have been an 
Eratosthanes. Geography, aided by its twin sister, astronomy, 
became 'early illustrated by the construction of maps. The 
comprehensive genius of l*tolemy, grouping under one view all 
knowledge then extant, had composed in the early part of the 
second century a system of geography which is the ground- 
work of all that has been subsequently accomplished in that 
field of thought and labor. 

The avalanche of Gothic barbarism w^hich overwhelmed 
the Koman empire, made Constantinople the only refuge, for 
a season, of European art, taste, and elegance. Almost fruit- 
less is the search in that symposium, however, for evidence 
of any advance in geographical knowledge beyond the worli of 
Ptolemy. "Except for the Scandinavian world, and some very 
important additions made to the knowledge of Asia by Marco 
Polo, the map prepared by him fairly represents," says Fiske, 
"the maximum of acquaintance with the earth's surface pos- 
sessed by the Europeans previous to the great voyage of the 
fifteenth century." Even Ptolemy's work had been lost, per- 
haps, but for Moorish intervention. This interesting people, 
bursting forth from their boundaries, scourged the Mediter- 
ranean coasts and secured a foothold, maintained for centuries, 
upon the soil of Spain. There were founded great marts of 
commerce. There Avere garnered the rich spoils of the East. 
Thence sped the sails and caravans of trade. Btit best of all 
there learning shed its luster. There the wisest of the earth 
gathered in its scholastic groves, ^lahometan travelers there 
spent the leisure of their lives in placing in durable forms what 
they had seen and heard in distant lands. The worthy son of 
Harnn-el-Rashid, himself keenly alive to the importance of 
geographical knowledge, did not fail to appreciate the value 
of Ptolemy's masterly work. He caused it to be translated 
into the language of his people, to whom it became a model 
and an inspiration. 



J 



COLUMBIAN ADDRESS. 



325 



The boundaries of ;^^('0?,raphical kiiowlt'd^e had been lua- 
terially eidarg:ed by ]\Iooii8li h\l)or and Chrislhln Europe had 
already felt the impulse thereby imparted long before Prince 
Henry of Portuj^al had begun his brilliant career. The har- 
vest was ready for the reaper. 

11. 

Genoa is fittingly named su])erb. 8eat?d on the highway, 
over which rolled the volume of a great comnunce, it strove for 
centuries for the mastery with Venice. ''The patriotic spirit 
and naval prowess of the Genoese, developed in their defense 
against the Saracens, led to the foundation of a popular con- 
stitution and to the rapid growth of a powerftil nuirine." She 
wrested from the Saracens many of their seaport towns and 
planted there her colonies. Her ships were long nuisters of 
the sea and bore the richest burdens. The vast hosts of the 
crusaders, hurled by Home against the Islam power, con- 
tributed for ages to the wealtli and prosperity of Genoa. Her 
sails swept every sea known to European commerce in the 
middle ages, nor did her seamen fear to venture on discovery. 

In a city with such a history was Christopher Columbtis 
born. His birth, in keeping with nearly every other 
feature of his eventful career, is the subject of learned con- 
troversy. Disputes have arisen as to the year, the house, the 
city and even the country in which he first saw the light. The 
best authority now ascribes his birth to the city I have named 
and the year 143G. Obscurity veils his childhood. Scholar- 
ship retreats in despair from the effort to trace his ancestiy 
beyond his grandparents. It is conceded that the discoverer 
of the new world was the son of an humble wool weaver, and 
that he himself assisted at the loom in. early childhood. His 
education was limited at best. The humble circumstances of 
his father re])ressed. rather than inspired, scholastic pursuits. 
At fourteen he had been caught in the giddy whirl of maritime 
adventure, which at no place was more i)ronounced than at 
Genoa. And why not? The very atmosphere of his native 
town was rife with the adventures of buccaneers. The news 



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32G MINNESOTA HISTORICAL SOCIETY COLLECTIONS. 



which sj>ed from one end of the Mediterranean to the other 
was of fip:ht and plunder, here and everywhere. The sij^n of 
the cross did not phicate the fury witli whicli Christian strove 
witli Christian, nor liad Moorish pride yet been humbled on the 
plains of Granada. 

At Genoa the irrepressible Columbus became fired with the 
ruling spirit of the age. Little time, indeed, for books had 
leisure been afforded. Then, too, was it not the golden age of 
Portugal? The illustrious Prince Henry had but recently 
closed his glorious career. Men yet wondered at the fame of 
his explorations. His ships made their way through Southern 
seas and returned with argosies of wealth. What is the phil- 
osophy which could chain the vaulting spirit of the coming 
admiral? What, but the philosophy of the sea? He had not 
been Columbus if he had not absorbed rather than learned 
whatever appertained to the ruling passion of his soul. ^'The 
gorgeous churches of Genoa made of Columbus a crusader, its 
schools a geographer, its palaces filled with paintings and 
statues an artist, its shores a mariner, its industries and com- 
merce a shrewd calculator and a thorough-going man of busi- 
ness." 

We read that he was an expert in chartography. But was 
not his boyhood passed almost in the very shadow of Benin- 
casa's house, famous for his sea charts? He himself says, "I 
have associated with scientific men, lay and clerical, of the 
Latin church and the Greek, with Jew and Moors and many 
others. To that end the Lord gave me a spirit of understand- 
•ing. In the science of navigation he endowed me richly; of 
astronomy and of geometry and arithmetic he gave me what 
was necessary." 

A few years was he voyaging to and fro ui)on the ^Moditer- 
ranean, now and then coming face to face in bloody fray with 
Moorish pirates, gleaning here and there the fragments of that 
knowledge which was soon to kindle in his breast that daunt- 
less zeal which wavered not under the most trying circum- 
stances. Then Lisbon Avon him. 



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COLUMBIAN ADDKESS. 



327 



Already have I spoken of rriuce Jleiiry, the patrou saint of 
all the navigators of his clay. Lisbon was their Mecca. Bar- 
tholomew, a brother of Columbus, his equal as a sailor, his 
superior in the art of making maps and globes and in the still 
higher art of persuading and controlling men, had preceded 
him to Portugal. Xot to cross the unknown and trackless 
Atlantic, save as they unconsciously obeyed the silent man- 
dates of that "divinity that shapes our ends," had the brothers 
journeyed hitherward. They went there for a livelihood; to 
practice their art of chartmaking; to enlist, as others of their 
countrymen had done before them, in maritime adventure. 
The story of the naval battle near Lisbon, the burning ship, 
the miraculous escape of the future discoverer by heroic efforts 
in the sea, is but a cunning blending of fact and fiction, akin 
to the endless rubbish Avritten to illustrate with what special 
Pro^idential agency the course of Columbus was directed. 

m. 

Columbus arrived in Portugal in 1470. Twenty-two years, 
full of toil and heart-ache, must yet be crossed before he 
should attain to the splendid triumph of his life. But the 
time of his coming, viewed in the light of after events, was 
most opportune. Then were being gathered the fruits of the 
art of printing with movable types. The secret treasures of 
learned monks began thus to find their way into the hands 
of laymen. Could anything be more natural than that the 
ministrations of that beneficent discovery should be first and 
most i)erceptibly felt in the aid of the foremost enterprise of 
the age? A world thirsting for the discoveries and specula- 
tions of travelers and scientists was sure to hail with un- 
stinted applause the publication of their books. The old 
geographers, dressed in printer's ink, find their way into lay- 
men's hands. 

Columbus had not yet forsaken his native Italy when the 
famous work of Strabo was issued from the press. Then, too, 
he had been closely pursued to Portugal by the growing fame 
and popularity of Pomponius ^lela. Manilius had sung the 



328 



MINNESOTA HISTORICAL SOCIETV COLLECTIONS. 



sphericity of the Ciiith iiiid charmed the iiioiiks of the middle 
ages; but now his measured lines do service in the common 
ranks of learning. A little later, but in accord with the 
greater richness of the fruit, is harvested from the press the 
sublime work of Ptolemy, well styled the prince of astrono- 
mers, whose work on geogi'aphy called forth from Humboldt 
himself the expressive term "colossal." These and other rev- 
elations to the lowly walks of learning were the blessed fruit- 
age of the newly discovered and noble art of printing. The 
thought of Portugal was profoundly moved by this generous 
outpouring from the garners of the wise. Wlio should walk 
before Columbus in receptivity of this quickening spirit? 

Most circumscribed at best was geographical knowledge in 
1470. The known was strangely blende^d with the unknown. 
The distant was invested with the color of splendid mystery. 
Superstition and credulity peopled distant seas and lands 
with the horrible creations of disturbed imagination and with 
gulfs of flame set barriers to travel. Truth staggered in a 
drunkenness of marvel. The soberest chronicler of events 
could not resist the temptation to dip his pen in ink of 
iridescent hues. Toscanelli could write with no fear of cen- 
sure, but with certainty of applause, of "two hundred towns, 
whose marble bridges spanned a single river." It was the age 
of marvel; and its mongers vied with one another in the rich- 
ness of their coloring. Toscanelli and Marco Polo, Sir John 
Mande^ille and Nicholas de Conti were a galaxy of stars in the 
scientific heavens of the fifteenth century. It is impossible to 
accurately estimate at this time the potency and reach of their 
influence upon the spirit of discovery in that century follow- 
ing the dissemination of their observations and researches 
among the reading public. 
« 

IV. 

This is no time to dwell upon the incidents of the domestic 
life of Columbus. It is far more to our purpose to trace 
through these causative events which culminated in the great 
discovery. It is a question of more or less uncertainty when 



I 



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COLUMBIAN ADDRESS. 



329 



the idea of reaching India by sailing westward first found 
lodgment in the mind of Columbus. He had not been a resi- 
dent of Portugal above four years when he was known to 
meditate the project. What was its origin? Was it the nat- 
ural outgrow til of study and reflection, the necessary deduc- 
tion from given premises, a splendid triumph of the mind? Or 
was it the knowledge of truth, otherwise derived, selfishly con- 
cealed and basely employed for personal advantage? AMicn 
Columbus urged his views upon the courts of Spain and Portu- 
gal, was he inspired with that lofty sincerity characteristic of 
scientific discovery, or was he but the thrifty merchant seek- 
ing to vend at most advantageous terms the wares he had 
surreptitiously acquired? 

The most venomous criticism must concede that long before 
the year 1492 science had demonstrated, as already suggested, 
that Cathay might be reached by a westward course. It is 
the prevailing error of to-day to ascribe to Columbus the first 
conception of the possibility of reaching India by a westward 
route. But centuries in advance of him liratosthenes had 
held that one might easily sail from Spain to Asia but for 
the wide expanse of intervening sea. One fact alone robs 
Columbus forever of every vestige of credit for that concep- 
tion. Eoger Bacon had, two centuries before, gleaned and 
compiled from ancient writers numerous j^assages to prove 
how limited was the distance stretching from Spain to the 
eastern shore of Asia. On this the great English philosopher 
had built an argument; and argument and quotation were 
alike incorporated by the bishop of Cambrai in his great work, 
the Imago Mundi. None of the biographers of Columbus, and 
their name is legion, forget to say that the Imago Alundi was 
his favorite book. Its effect upon his thoughts was profound 
and lasting. His copy of it, still ])reserved, bears every token 
of close and frequent study. IIcmt', then, between the covers 
of a single volume, is material sufficient to inflame the im- 
agination, convince the judgment and intensify the zeal of 
one less impressible than Columbus. It must be noted, too, 
that by an error of mathematical computation, which had 
received almost universal acquiescence, the circumf(»rence of 
the earth was materially underestimated, and even those 



330 



MINNKSOTA HISTOKICAL SOCIKTY COLLFX'TiONS. 



whose coiiipututioiis accord more nearly with the result of 
modern times had committed the correspoudinj^ error tendin*; 
to the same practical effect of excessively ])rotrudin^^ to the 
eastward the coast line of China and the islands lying to the 
east of it. The great genius whose computations were start- 
lingly correct had fallen into the common geographical error. 

V. 

We are now i)repared to consider wliat influence, if any, the 
Norsemen discoveiies exercised upon the mind of the immor- 
tal Genoese. There are writers who strenuously insist that 
he is directly indebted for his idea to Icelandic sources. A 
learned and ingenuous author states it thus: "We must in- 
sist that it is, to say the least, highly probable that he had 
in some way obtained knowledge of the discoveries of the 
Norsemen in the western ocean, and he thought their Vinlaud 
to be the eastern shore of Africa. But no matter what in- 
duced him to go to Iceland. We know positively that he went 
there and over 300 miles beyond it. The last Norse voyage to 
America of which we have any account was in the year 
1347, and is it possible, we ask, that Columbus could have 
visited Iceland only 130 years later and learned nothing of 
the famous Vinland the Good?" 

The infirmity of this view, as already pointed out by a dis- 
tinguished writer, is that the gifted author does not produce, 
nor is there available, the slightest evidence that Columbus 
ever acquired any such knowledge. The mere fact that he 
visited Iceland, which, indeed, is not universally assented to, 
falls far short of proving that he there acquired information 
regarding Vinland. Tlie cautious inquirer will require more 
tangible proof than mere hy])othesis before impugning the 
motives of any man: and especially those of one of the greatest 
benefactors of mankind. Besides, what strange shortsighted- 
ness on the part of Columbus to have conceah^d such knowl- 
edge, if he possessed it, when zealously importuning aid from 
king and noble. Col. Higginson has happily said that "an 
ounce of Vinland would have been worth a pound of cos- 
mography" to this project. It is reasonable that in all the 



J 



COLUMBIAN ADDRESS. 331 

lifteen years in which ho was moved by liis sublime purpose, 
disputing with the learned, appealing with burning eloquence 
to kings and courtiei's, listening to the incredulous verdicts of 
counseling juntos, rebulTed at times with jibes and sneers, 
that the one masterly argument which must have silenced 
criticism and enlisted the enthusiastic supi)ort of the king of 
Portugal, had never escaped his lips? A painstaking survey 
of the whole question comi)els the belief that Norsemen dis- 
coveries contribute in no respect to the Columbian achieve- 
ment. 

Italy was a land of bold and sagacious navigators. "There 
is nothing," says Winsor, "more striking in tlie history of 
American discovery than the fact that the Italian people fur- 
nished to Spain Columbus, to England Cabot and to France 
Verrazani, and that the leading powers of Europe, following 
as maritime explorers in the lead of Portugal, who could not 
dispense with Vespucius, another Italian, pushed their rights 
through men whom they had borrowed from the central region 
of the Mediterranean, while Italy, in its own name, never pos- 
sessed a rood of American soil." 

There is the faintest belief that Columbus offered the golden 
opportunity to his native Genoa, and was denied; then to her 
rival, Florence, and yet denied. Certain it is that to Portugal 
the opportunity came and was, in an evil hour, declined. The 
luster shed upon this people by the glorious T^ork of Prince 
Henry was seriously darkened by the prudent and costly 
trickery of its king, John II. When to the last-named mon- 
arch Columbus had disclosed his project and had half-con- 
vinced him by his burning zeal and persuasive reasoning he 
was rewarded by an order of the king sending a ship secretly 
to test the experiment of the westward voyage. It failed, of 
course, for what captain, fired with a zeal less than that which 
filled the breast of Columbus, could pilot a ship across those 
unknown and terrifying seas? 

The insult drove Columbus to the court of Spain. Already 
his brother Bartholomew had caught his brother's spirit and 
sailed to England to procure the aid of its sovereign. The land 



J 



332 



MINNESOTA HISTORICAL SOCIETY COLLECTIONS. 



of Ko^^ei* liacon refused to dciuonstrate tlie wisdom of her ^rifted 
child. France, too, failed to recognize the angel of «ilnry in 
the Genoese chartmaker. To undeserving Spain attaclied the 
imperisliable renown. It is a weary story of waiting, taunts 
and ridicule, a cup of bitterness drunk to the lees, a heart be- 
reft of hope, thouglits filled with dr'spaii-, that records the final 
triumph of Columbus in the impulsive conduct of TsabeHa of 
Castile. To that princess belongs the never-ending praise, 
whatever the actuating sentiment, of affording substantial 
encouragement to the mighty enterprise. 

The port of Tales, long since abandoned by the fleets of com- 
merce, is immortalized by the three small caravels which is- 
sued from it in the early morning of Aug. 3, 1492. 

VI. 

Greatly do they err who see in Columbus but the common 
man. True enough, his character presents a picture of strong 
lights and deep shadows. He was "seer and traveler, visionary 
and calculator; crusader and mathematician, a sort of Isaiah 
in his prophetic insight, and banker in his computations, his 
thoughts set upon religion and business alike ; a sublime oracle 
from whose lips predictions fell in impetuous torrents, and a 
singularly bad governor, resorting to irregular and arbitrary 
measures; advocating the conquest of the Holy Sei)ulcher 
through a mighty effort of his devout will, and of the mines 
of Golcouda by a shorter route to India than any then known ; 
ever in suspense between lofty ideas and idle fable, believer 
in magic and student of nattire, mystic and astronomer; so 
multiplied and various are his traits that they scarcely come 
within the group of any logical chain of reasoning." Such is 
Castelar's vivid and masterly pen-])ainting of this man of 
matchless fame. Grant his many foibles, his numerous sins 
of omission and commission, all that his detractors urge, and 
they are many, yet there still attaclK^s to him, deathless as the 
mighty world he brought to light, the sublime attribute of Dis- 
coverer of America. 

"It ja-ew to bo time's burst of dawn. 
He ^^iiiiu'd ii w orld; he gave that world 
Its .qrnndest lesson, On! and On!" 



J 



COLUMHIAX ADDRESS. 



333 



The inspired faiili of Columbus iuipelled liim to a fruitless 
search for the <;orgeous j)ahic'es and maguificc^nt capitals of 
Cathay. He died unconscious of the fact that between this 
island, on Avhich lie raised the standard of Castile and the pos- 
sessions of the grand Chain, slept a virgin world and stretched 
an almost endless waste of sea. Yet the fascinating visions 
with which his thoughts were filled have been more than 
realized in the work of the four centuries which close to-day. 
It may be said of him more than of any other man that "he 
builded better than he knew.'' 

"Not the old and suffocating East, but the new and promising 
West, responded to the wave-beat of the best of European 
civilization. The great discovery was the rescue of the im- 
periled spirit of civil liberty. The champions of the opposing 
forces in the Old World strove for the mastery of the XeAv. 
One built its watch fires in the South American peninsula, the 
other on the rock of Plymouth. The former emitted neither 
light nor warmth, the latter became the beacon of the world. 
A grand idea, shining brightly for a season in the schools of 
Greece, and then in those of Italy, but well-nigh extinguished 
in the universal gloom of later ages, reasserting itself along the 
Rhine and around the industrious fires of the Netherlands and 
in the land of Cromwell and Milton, became a well-defined and 
resistless purpose, in Independence hall, on the 4ih day of 
July, 1776. To-day it thrills the world; a mighty people, 
planted in the choicest territory of the earth, are moved and 
actuated by it. It is the mission of that people to dominate 
the earth, not by the devastation of the sword, but by those 
pacific agencies whose progress is marked by a wealth of 
moral, intellectual and material blessings. Already it has 
enriched mankind in spiritual and material achievements be- 
yond -all precedent. 

A great thinker has said : "The world's scepter passed from 
Persia to Greece, from Greece to Italy, from Italy to Great 
Britain, and from Great Britain the scepter is to-day departing. 
It is passing to Greater Britain, to our mighty West, there to re- 
main, for there is no further West; beyond is the Orient. Like 
the star in the east, which guided the three kinirs with their 



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334 ISriNXESOTA niSTOKICAL SOCIETY COLLECTIONS. 

treasure westward uuiil it stood still over the cradle of the 
young- Christ, so tin.' star of empire rising in the easr has ever 
beckoned the wealth and power of the nations westward, until 
to-day it stands still over the empire of the ^A'est, to which the 
nations are bringing their oirerings."' 

O mother of a mijrhty rrice, 
Yet lov«*ly in thy youthfvil j^race; 
The elder dainos, thy haii?hty peers, 
Admire and hate thy blooming years; 
^^'ith w oi'ds of shame 

And taunts of scorn, they join thy name. 

• 

There's freedom at thy gates, and rest 
For earth's downtrodden and opprest, 
A shelter for the hunted head, 
For the starved laborer toil and bread. 
Power at thy bounds. 

Stops, and calls back his baflled hounds. 

O fair yonn;:: mother' On thy brow 
Shall sit a n(.blcr grace than now. 
Deep in the brightness of the skies, 
The throndng years in glory rise. 
And, as they lleet. 
Drop strength and riches at thy feet. 



J 



j 




Col. John Bliss, U. S. A. 
In Conimaiid at Fort Snelliug in 1S33. 
(Taken from a portrait paifittd at about the age ot fifty-five years.) 



J 



REMINISCENCES OF FOliT SNELLING. 



335 



REMINIi^CKXCES OF FORT SNELLING. 

By Colon kl John II. F.t.iss. 

After many years of outpost life and terrific liar(ishi})S, which 
were the military loi in those early days, my mother and 
myself were havinji a rest with relatives in Meadville, Pennsyl- 
vania; my father. Major John Bliss, being then in command at 
Fort Armstrong, Eock Island. In the early spring of 1:^32, I 
(then nine years of age) well remember my mother telling me 
one day on my return from school that she had just received a 
letter from fatlier to tlie elTect that he had been ordered to take 
command at Fort Snelling, and would soon be on to take us 
and our household chattels to that immensely distant post. He 
soon follo^^ed the letter, and some bustling days were passed 
in preparation; bedding and carpets were stowed away in 
water-tight tierces, and books in shallow boxes, so contrived 
that they could afterward be arranged in library form; these 
were consigned, if I recollect rightly, to McGunnigle & Co., St. 
Louis, and were conveyed by wagon to Pittsburg, Pa., and from 
there by steamboat to St. Louis. 

The first section of the journey was by stage coach to Pitts- 
burg, where we recujx-'rated several days at the hospitable home 
of our old, warm-hearted. Irish friend, John Anderson, who was 
engaged in the foundry business. Tke next move was to Cin- 
cinnati by steamboat. Here a stop of several da^'s was impera- 
tive for making further purchases of supplies for the wild region 
we were to enter; quantities of hams, dried beef, tongues, rice, 
macaroni, family groceries in general, furniture, crockery, and 
>vhat in these days would be considered a huge supply of ^^ines 
and liquors, were purchased and shipped to St. Louis, and to this 
point was our next journey, of course . by steamboat. It was 



Col. John IT. liliss, of Erie, Pa., where he is ensa£re<i in manufacturing. Is 
a son of Maj. John Rliss. of the United States army, who was in command of 
Fort Snelling from 1S33 to IS-''.". Col. J. H F.Ii.ss visited Fort Snelling and vi- 
cinity In October. 1S03. He was greatly interested In the stupendous changes 
which had taken place during the sixty years since he. as a boy. knew the 
country. At the solicitation of the Minnesota Historical society, he wrote these 
reminiscences. He was spending a winter vacation in Venezuela when the pa- 
per was written. Col. Bliss served w ith honor in the Union array during the 
Civil War. His father served during the War of 1812-13; resigned in 1S37. 
and died in lSr.4. 



J 



33(> MINNK.SOTA HISTORICAL SOCIKTV COLLECTIOXS. 

then not more than a stia^j^Hng vilhi.ire. I am quite sure llicre 
was not a paved street, and a lar*ie proportion of rlie iiilialjitanis 
were Fi'cneh Canadians. One moriiiiio- my fatlier took jiie 
around lo see some of liis old friends, and amon^- others, ini re- 
duced me to (Mark, of iIk' famous Lewis and Clark exijediiioii. 
My recolleetion of him is that of a larj^e-framed, sedate, vener- 
able gentleman, and what greatly- excited my open-eyed aston- 
ishment was the fact of his wearing his gray hair in a queue. 
At the hotel, that evening, the expedition was talked over, and 
the death of Lewis was commented upon as a suicide. Xo men- 
tion whatever of murder was suggested, and it was not until 
many years afterward that 1 learned this was a mooted question. 

On the voyage from Pittsburg, we one day saw a deer swim- 
ming the Ohio; and, as there was a good supply of rifles among 
the passengers, he was soon dispatched, and venison added to 
our bill of fare. At St. Ix)uis the last of our necessary pur- 
chases was made, to wit: a nice-looking yellow girl and an un- 
commonly black man. On arriving at our final destination, she 
proved to be a very good servant, but became such an attractive 
belle among the soldiers that before leaving Fort Snelling we 
were obliged to make her a part of the cargo of the ^>teamer 
'Warrior," and send her to St. Louis for sale. The man, Han- 
nibal by naine, was a most excellent and faithful fellow. The 
only difficulty I remember his getting into was brewing spruce 
beer and selling it to the soldiers. Everything in this line was 
among the prerogatives of our sutler, Mr. ^lyrie, who made com- 
plaint to my father, who admonished Hannibal that this was 
outside the line of his duties. He made promise of amendment, 
but was soon caught at it again, which resulted in his catching 
a good licking and forty-eight hours' confinement in the black 
hole, effecting a thorough reformation. Some five years after- 
ward, when my father resigned his commission, he gave Hanni- 
bal his freedom, and he settled in Newport, Ky., where he be- 
came a preacher, and was quite an oracle among the blacks. 
WTiile T was a student at Cincinnati college, he came to see me 
every week, put my belongings in order, and polished my shoes, 
as it seemed to be the dread of his life that I ''should be taken 
for a poor man's son." Poor, faithful old Hannibal I T have 
often wondered what ultinuitrly became of him. 

Vnu\o at Cincinnati T had for friends many of those men- 
tioned so charmingly by Mrs. Van Clove. General O. M. 
Mitchell (who died of yellow fever at Port Royal) taught me the 



J 



REMINISCENCED OF FOKT SNELLING. 



liij^lior l)r;nu-li(*s of iiiathciDalics and civil cii^iKecriiifj;. I often 
look tea witli J-^dwaid Mansfield and his excellent mother. She 
wore a turban, and was altogether of the last century. She 
used to tell nie of her dancing ii minuet with General \Vashing- 
lon. I have a lively recollection, too, of the excellence of the 
buckwheat cakes made by her wonderful cook, old Clara. Then 
there was AVilliam Lytle, whom I saved from drowning one 
Saturday afternoon when a lot of us went in swimming, and who 
afterwards became General Lytle of the Union army, and was 
killed, I think, at the battle of Stone river. But this is not 
getting very rapidly in the direction of Fort Snelling. 

The next step in our journey was by steamboat to Trairie du 
Chien. I remember stopping at Hannibal, Quincy, Des Moines 
and Galena, all very small places. At the hrst-named town I 
bought a beautiful pair of young fox squirrels, to the disgust of 
my mother and the thorough emp) tying of my pocket. .Vt one 
of the sto])i>ing places I was introduced to the old chief Iveokuk, 
one of my fathers Indian friends. We were detained a day at 
one of the rapids on the ^lississippi. The captain of the boat 
got into an altercation >\ith one of his men, which resulted in 
his bejng knocked do^^ n. lie started at once for his cabin, and 
soon emerged with his rifle; but the num, in the meantime, 
prudently went on shore and disappeared. The captain spent 
nearh the whole day looking for him, but without avail, al- 
though he had several friends aiding him, who were as deeply 
interested as though on a bear hunt. AVhile I was wandering 
about I went into a low groggery in search of some apples, and 
there spied the very man they were after; but he had made 
friends with me during the voyage, so I did not report my find. 
Had he been a tro'ublesome, annoying fellow, the result no 
doubt would have been widely different — a strong illustration of 
the truth of the old saying, ''It is better to have the good will 
of a dog than his ill wilk'' 

Col. Zachary Taylor (afterward president of .the United 
States) was then in command at Fort Crawford, l^rairie du 
Chien. He and my father were old friends, having been to- 
gether in the Sauk and Fox campaign, and we were received at 
his quarters most hospitably, and made perfectly at hom(\ The 
sobriquet of "rough and ready,'' according to my recollection, is 
not pro])erly descrij^tive of the man. Ready for any duty or 
emergency, he certainly was; but I cannot see wher(» the rough 



i 



338 MINNESOTA HISTORICAL SOCIETY COLLECTIONS. 

came in. As a boy, I was ver^' fond of liim. He was a large, 
stroiij^ly built man, rather quiet and deliberate in niovemont 
and conversation, .'ind with the same disre^^ard of dress and 
"the pride, pomp and circumstance of glorious war" which was 
so consi)icuous in General Grant, and was thoroughly different 
from Scott, who well earned the nickname of "fuss and feath- 
ers." Mrs. Taylor was a most kind and thorough-bred Southern 
lady; the Colonel, as every one knows, being a sph-ndid speri- 
men of the Kentuckian. Two of their children, Bessie ana 
Dick, were about my own age, and during the two or three 
weeks of waiting for further transportation to Fort Snelling 
we became excellent friends. Dick afterward spent a year in 
Buffalo when I was a young man there, and we saw a good deal 
of each other, but we never met again. My youngest daughter, 
I may sa}', renewed the acquaintance in Washington. Poor 
Dick! he was very handsome, well educated, very bright, a fine 
conversationalist and well liked by all. His book, "Destruction 
and Reconstruction," is thoroughly indicative of the man, so 
entirely different from the bitterly Aindictive and mendacious 
book of his brother-in-law, Jefferson Davis; no one can read it 
without being impressed by his unending, good-natured buoy- 
ancy, and the fact that he had "charity for all and bore malice 
to none." He even had a good word to say for Ben Butler; and 
General X. P. Banks was made abundantly aware in the South- 
west that his military talents were of a high order. In fact, 
his book, containing no vile abuse of the North, has been but 
little noticed, and I do not now remember having seen any one 
who ever read it. Two or three years after seeing Dick in 
Buffalo, I was going down the Alabama river, and to my sur- 
prise and delight found among the passengers on the steamer, 
Mrs. Taylor, Bessie and her husband, W. W. S. Bliss. He was 
of the Kliode Island branch of that family, a man of uncommon 
ability, and fi'om the phenomenal perfection and accuracy of 
his recitations at the military academy, won there the name of 
"Perfect ]iliss." AVhile we were at I'rairie du Chien, Jeff Davis 
was a lieutenant, and violently in love with Colonel Taylor's 
daughter "Knox;" but the Colonel "would none of it" — he did 
not like a single bone in his body. 

Due course of time brought the steamboat ^Warrior," with 
Captain Throckmorton, loaded with supplies for Fort Snelling, 
and we then bade a long farewell to our kind friends and civili- 



J 



KEMINISCENCES OF FOKT SNELLINO. 339 

zation, and pushed into the wilderness. I was awfully sorry to 
part with Dick, and to show the strongest evidence of niy re- 
gard, named one of iny squirrels aftei- hini. Accordinij^ to my 
recollection, Prairie du Chien was then a s(ra;:.i,dinji: Canadian 
village, where, outside of the garrison, one heard more French 
than English spoken. I^efore leaving, all available space in 
the '^Varrior' was tilled with cord wood, and when that gave 
ont we were obliged to lay by and cut fresh supplies, for not a 
house or a wiiite man did we see until our arrival at P'ort Snell- 
ing, so the trip of course was a long one. 

At Lake Pepin, on account of a heavy wind, we were obliged 
to tie up for nearly two days in sight of the "^Faiden Rock,-' or 
"Lovers' Leap," as in those days it was unromantically called. 
I shall never forget the clear transpnrency of the waters, and 
beautiful wild shores of that lovely river, long before its charms 
were ruined and outi'aged by hard practical civilization. On 
our way we overhauled and took on board a canoe with five 
soldiers, conveying the monthly mail to Fort Snelling, and thus 
saved the boys many a weary pull. A sight never to be for- 
gotten was when on turning a point in the river there suddenly 
appeared, a mile or so before us, the imposing and beautiful 
white walls of Fort Snelling, holding, as though by main force, 
its position on a high precipitous bluff, and proudly floating the 
stripes and stars. It was a fortified oasis of civilization in a 
lovely desert of barbarism. We at once took possession of the 
commandant's quarters, and were soon most comfortably es- 
tablished — the young officers frequently supplementing our bill 
of fare with the nicest of young prairie chickens, or grouse, as 
we called them. There were then two w^ell-beaten wagon roads, 
one leading to Lake Calhoun, the other to the Falls of Saint 
Anthony. The latter crossed a little stream, a hundred feet or 
so above the Falls of Minnehaha, but which then knew no other 
name than Little Falls. This was a beautiful spot. There w'as 
a break-neck path leading to the foot, down which T used to 
scramble and fish for bass in the basin. The Falls of Saint: 
Anthony, too, were picturesque; the government had a little 
muley saw-mill there, and a small grist-mill, for grinding corn, 
all, of course, for the use of the garrison; there, too, was kept our 
supply of beef cattle. All this necessitated the erection of a 
comfortable building, for the sergeant and eight or ten men 
who had charge of things, and this was all there then was of 



1 



340 M1XNE.S0TA HISTORICAL SOCIETV COLLECTIONS. 



the spleiK-lid riiy of Minnoaixjlis, AVe used occasioiially to liavc 
incnics there, and drove out n f<'\v times of a winter ui^iht, li;id 
a liot sujtper ami a wliisky jninch. and back to the Fort a.uain. 
with the (.oyotes howlin;^ jibout us, but rarely in si.^lil. In no 
l^kice I have uv^r seen (and 1 have lu-on in many) were the 
winter nights so clear aud beautiful, and the stars sr) many and 
so bright as there. Another picnic ground was the vicinity of 
the Lakes of tIu- JsU-s. Calhoun and Harriet; the tishing in them 
was excellent. They bear the same names now as they did 
then, so that a statement I saw making the rounds of the pa])ers, 
that the last was named for the first schoolmistress in :krinne- 
sota, is sheer nonsense. If ^Irs. General Leavenworth's first 
name was Harriet. I am positive it was named for her. An- 
other j)icnic resort was a cave in the white sandstone near the 
east l)ank of the river, and, as I recollect it, a little above the 
site of the great city of St. Paul; a little stream of the coldest 
and clearest water issued from it, just the thing for the lemon- 
ade and rum i»unch ^\hich made more agreeable the fii*st civil- 
ized meals taken in the immediate neighborhood of that city. 
I became the happy possessor of an Indian pony, a double-bar- 
reled gun, a canoe and jointed fishing rod, and during my entire 
stay, so long as ihe weather admitted of it, they wore the re- 
cipients of my almost undivided attention. 

That summer. Major Taliaferro, tke Indian, agent, brought 
his wife, a very handsome woman, to the Fort, and they made 
their home with us until their quarters were prepared. About 
this time the post sutler, Mr. Myrie, married and brought his 
wife there, so the garrison boasted of three ladies. The entire 
country then was prairie, with no timber at all except in the 
immediate vicinity of the lakes and water-courses, so that we 
could drive in wagons in any direction. Going by the road to 
Lake Calhoun, on the left of the junction of the road and lake, 
was quite a large permanent Indian village surrounded by ex- 
tensive corn fields, which from the time the corn was in millc, 
required the undivided attention of the Indian children to drive 
away the tlocks of blackbirds, which were in great numbers. I 
remember very well knocking over twenty-five at one shot. 

This village and Saint Anthony and Little Falls were the 
three show ]>la<fs which brought into requisition all the horses 
and wagons belonging to the Fort, wiienever the steamboat 
^'\A"arrior'* appeared with her hold filled with supplies and her 



REMINISCENCES OF FORT SNELLING. 



311 



cabins with deli^^litfnl and dclijilitod tourists who wore making 
an excursion, considered more wonderful in tliose days than 
would be a trip to the Hawaiian Islands now. We received tlie 
mail but once a month, and then through the agency of a cor- 
poral and a few men, whom we sent th(.' whole distance to 
l*rairie du Chien for it; in summer they went in a canoe, in 
winter it was an expedition on foot, and the hardships encoun- 
tered were very great. They had to carry their provisions, 
blankets and tlie mail, and camp out in the snow every night, 
unless it found them in the neighborhood of an Indian tepee. 
You are sulliciently acquainted with the rigors of your climate 
to know that in winter this was no holiday excursion. I think 
it was the first mail after our arrival that brought word of the 
elopement of Jeff. Davis and ''Knox" Taylor. We all felt very 
bad about it, knowing what a blow^ it would be to the grand 
old colonel. The next mail brought us news of another elope- 
ment from his family of quite a different characrer; one of his 
female slaves had most mysteriously disappeared, leaving not a 
trace or clue behind. No sooner had my father mentioned it, 
than up I spoke and said, "^Miy, she is at (men- 
tioning a place I have since forgotten). 

He fairly turned white, and asked: 

'^ow do you know that?'' 

*Well,'' said I, "when we were at the Colonel's, she asked me 
one day if I could write. I answered that I could. She then 
asked if I would write a letter to her husband for her, to 
which 1 at once assented, and wrote down the words as she 
gave them, and among other things, she said she would see him 
next month, by fair means or foul." 

'^liy didn't you report it at once?" asked my father. 

"Well," I replied, ^'I did not know that she meant that she 
would run away, and if I had, I doubt if it would have been 
just the thing for me to have betrayed her contideuce." 

He looked at me very hard, bit his lips, and dro]iped the sub- 
ject. By the next mail, he was a gi'eatly relieved man, on 
learning that Mrs. Taylor was almost paralyzed one day when 
the girl quietly stepped into the kitchen and set about her 
duties as thougli notliing had happened; she had iierformed 
the precise journey that her letter indicated. 

The first discovery of consequence my father made on arriv- 
ing at the Fort, was that in winter the quarters were heated 



342 



MINNESOTA IILSTORICAT. SOCIETY COLLECTIONS. 



(or rather frozen through and through) by open firephices. He 
at once made a r<^quisition for the proper quantity of old-style 
ten-plate stoves, and the last steamer arriving thai: fall brought 
them, so the garrison was kept perfectly comfortable, and with 
a greatly reduced consumption of fuel. 1 had my skates with me, 
and even the oldest and most stolid warriors would watch my 
gyrations with unbounded admiration and astonisliment. One 
winter day, I noticed in the hospital a bottle of (piicksilver, and 
while the steward's attention was drawn elsewhere, 1 poured 
some in the hollow of my hand, walked out of the fort among 
the Indians, and passed it off as melted lead. I would stir it 
around with my linger, and try to get them to do the same, but 
the evidence of their eyesight was quite sufficient without run- 
ning the chance of burning off the ends of their tingers. I was 
usually present at their councils and consultations, with my 
father, and I presume on account of mj mysterious powers I 
was never omitted in the passing of the pipe. I always pulled 
away at it with becoming gravity, and this early introduction 
to the practice is perhaps the reason why I am an inveterate 
smoker. 

The winters were undeniably tedious, but had their usesT; we 
had a good library, and I read a great deal, which has stood by 
me well; then there was of course much sociability among the 
officers, and a great deal of playing of cards, dominoes, checkers 
and chess. The soldiers, too, would get up theatrical perform- 
ances every fortnight or so, those taking female parts borrowing 
dresses from the soldiers' wives, and making a generous sacri- 
fice to art of their cherished whiskers and mustaches. 

The following summer the ''^A'arrior'' made her usual calls 
with supplies for the Fort, and loads of tourists. These supplies 
were chiefly clothing, salt beef and pork, flour and beans. lu a 
large garden back of the fort, the soldiers cultivated all the 
corn, potatoes, turnijis. onions, etc.^ which they required. They 
cut and piled up near the fort all the wood that was consumed, 
and in marshy spots on the prairie secured the hay necessary for 
keeping our live stock through the long winters; these duties, 
together with those more directly in the military line, kej^t 
them constantly on the go through the short summers. It was 
then popularly supposed that we were too far north, and the 
seasons too short, to make the raising of wheat a success. 
Melons were planted early every spring, but tlu\v never ripened. 



REMINISCENCES OF FORT SNELLING. 



343 



Kvery "winter an abinidant supply of the finest ice was secured 
for summer use. Early that season (1S33), the excellent Major 
Loomis and his wife and dauiiliter arrived, haviiip; traveled the 
whole Avay from Prnirie du riiien in what was then calU'd a 
mackinaw boat (I think they were sometimes spoken of as 
pirogues). They were like mammoth skill's, drawin-^^ consequently 
but little water, and I believe the stern was shaq), as well as 
the bow, and they were propelled by oars, poles, tow-line, or sail, 
according to the exigencies of the case. I was at the landing 
when they arrived. The family was in a little canvas cabin at 
the stern and they seemed in very good trim, but the six or eight 
soldiers looked as though they had been through a hard cam- 
paign. The Loomis quarters were next to ours, and we saw a 
great deal of them, and became much attached to them. With 
a small command they had been sent to St. Augustine at the 
time Florida was ceded to the United States, and their reminis- 
cences of the Spanish garrison there were very entertaining. 
Like the rest of us, the Major had his peculiarities, chief among 
which was an engrossing enthusiasm in the cause of religion. 
He had divine services on Sundays (w^e had no chaplain), and 
the following winter had prayer meetings on week-day evenings, 
and got up a red-hot revival among the soldiers; so much was 
he carried away by his subject, that one day when my father 
was doing his best to make me comprehend the rule of three. 
Major Loomis entered the room. He was evidently ill at ease, 
made a few commonplace remarks, and then blurted out: 
"Major Bliss, I have called to inc ite you to embrace Christian- 
ity." My father turned to me, saying.: ''John, leave the room:'' 
which John incontinently did. The interview lasted nearly an 
hour. My father never alluded to it, but when the Major left. I 
noticed that he did not carry the triumphant air of one who 
Lad been successful in his mission. Among his converts that 
winter were the biggest rascals in the garrison. They made 
long 'prayers, sang psalms and looked solemn, until the simulta- 
neous arrival of summer and a barrel of surreptitious whisky, 
when they backslid almost to a man. One of his converts never 
recanted; Lieutenant Ogden, an uncommonly nice fellow, who 
afterward married the ^lajor's daughter. During the ^lexican 
war, I ran across him at ^Matamoros. He was very kind to me, 
and i)rocured transportation for me on a government steamer 
to Brazos, Santiago. A few years after that he died of cholera, 
if I mistake not, at some frontier post. 



344 :\rrNxi:soTA iirsroiiiCAL society collections. 

Kcligious discipline was not the only kind the ^rajor believod 
in, for keeping it up in the military way, a favorite punishment 
with him was to start a soldier, with a big billet of wood on his 
.hoiilders, walking in a circle, with a sentinel at hand to see 
""liat he neither strayed from the track nor lagged on the way; 
on acconnl of whicli idiosyncrasy he was neVer known among 
the men by any other name than "C)ld Ring." Every officer bad 
liis nickname, and it almost universally fitted like a glove. 
AMiat they called my father, I do not know, but from his style 
of punishment, and the following little cii'cumstance, it was very 
likely ''Black Starvation.'' In the garrison was a most can- 
tankerous and vicious Irishman, named KeUy, who was com- 
petent for the commission of more wickedness in a month than 
an ordinary rascal could compass in a lifetime; he was the dis- 
gust of the men and the despair of the officers. One morning 
my father was endeavoring to give me some insight into the 
rules of Englisli grammar, when the orderly ushered in a pep- 
pery little corporal, who, withotit any unnecessary circumlocu- 
tion, stated that Kelly was on his fatigue party; and that upon 
calling on him to turn out with the other men he had kept his 
seat and ])ointedly remarked he would "see him damned first." 
"All right," said my father, "leave him alone and go out with 
the rest of your party.'' Tlie end of the next ten minutes saw- 
Mr. Kelly in the black hole, without even the customary bread 
and water, and for t\\enty-four hours with nothing to chew ex- 
cept ''the cud of sweet and bitter fancy." ^Mien the sergeant 
of the guard asked him if he wotild promise to behave himself, 
at once came Kelly's favorite reply, that he would "see him 
damned first.'' For another twenty-four hours he was cut off 
from the world, when through the grated door the question was 
repeated. The answer this time was no, he had made up his 
mind to starve to death. At the end of the third day, the ])ris- 
oner's reply to the stereotyped question, and delivered in a 
weakened voice, was no, that it was nearly over now, and he 
might as well die that way as any other. The situation was 
growing awkward, and my father was wondering in what way 
he should report the man's death at AVashington, when the 
guard heard a faint call from the subdued and wilted prisoner. 
^ He begged for God's sake for sun and air and something to eat, 
declaring that he never again would give trouble. It is but 
Jair to add that the promise was faithfully kei>t, and up to the 
day of his discharge he remained a most exemplary soldier. 



\ 

J 



REMI^'ISCE^'CES OF FOKT SXELLING. 



345 



About this time, a tattered, ^vild-lookillg fellow, calliii;,^ him- 
self Dixon, arrived at the Fort, haviiic: made the entire journey 
from Prairie du Cliien on foot and alone. After the lapse of a 
few days he enlisted, and did fairly well for a few months, when 
he turned up missinfr. Nearly two weeks afterward he was 
brought back by some Indians, who captured him while making 
his way to the prairie, and who received a reward of s20. Dixon 
was court-martialed, sentenced to fifty lashes from the cat, and 
to be drummed out of the Fort. Now in the entire institution 
there were no felines except those known to natural history, 
and the getting of one up required a large amount of discussion 
and experiment. When it was completed, I examined it, and it 
certainly did not appear to be a formidable affair; the handle 
was about eighteen inches long, the nine thongs about the same 
length, of rather fine hard cord, with knots an inch apart. The 
eventful day of punishment came. Dixon was stripped to the 
waist, triced up to the flagstaff, and the drummers took turns 
at delivering the fifty lashes the best they knew how; but the 
fellow never winced nor w^as the skin once cut through. His 
clothing was restored, and at the word, half a dozen men 
charged upon him with fixed bayonets; they were followed by 
the band playing the rogue's march, and Mr. Dixon soon had all 
the world before him. I followed out to see the finish. When 
the charged bayonets ceased their pointed attentions. Dixon 
stopped, when two or three men brought him a blanket, his few 
belongings, and a small quantity of provisions. He spit from 
his mouth a musket ball, which he had pretty well chewed up 
during the administration of the cat, shouldered his pack, shook 
hands with us all, bade us good-bye, and started off for Prairie 
du Chien as composedly as though going a-fishing. We heard 
he arrived there safely, worked his way to the lead mines, was 
lucky enough to strike a lead which he sold out for §600, and 
then disappeared forever. 

I well remember Mr. George Catlin and his wife, who came up 
that summer and were at our house during their stay. A room 
in the officers' quarters was given him for a studio, and he 
worked away with great industry. They were very pleasant, 
and Mr. Catlin had an exhaustl(\^s store of anecdotes and rec- 
ollections of his Indian experiences. He seemed to have been a 
born delineator of Indians, and his aptness at striking off their 
likenesses and attitudes was something wonderful; but all of 



V 



MINNESOTA HISTOKICAI. SOriKTY COLLfX'l IONS. 



bis portraits of white persons had a certain Indian look about 
them. He once painted one of my father, and all it require*! 
was a few changes in the way of a blanket and spear and .soia.- 
eagle quills, to have it passed oft as the portrait of a warrior of 
some nnknown tribe, quite ready to try conclusions with toma- 
hawk and scalping knife. 

In those days the Sioux and Chippeways never had a settk-d 
peace. In spite of all i)romises and treaties, they would take 
shots at each other if too tempting an opportunity occurred, 
and one of the great annoyances of the military commandants 
was to keep peace among them and settle their endless dilfer- 
ences. With so many Indians around us, we Avere soon familiar 
with their different dances, feasts and games, and when tourists 
visited us, something of the sort was gotten up for their amuse- 
ment just outside the Fort; but on such occasions the big gate 
was always closed, if they were in large numbers. They were 
unmitigated barbarians. In one of their dances (I forget what 
it was called) a stout stick some six feet long was stuck in the 
gi'ound, a dog was killed, his liver fastened to the top of the 
stick, and cut in slices, but without entirely separating them 
from each other. The Indians would then dance and howl 
around it, and as they became excited, they would, without the 
aid of their hands, bite off slices of the raw and bloody liver, 
chew and swallow them, and then yell and shriek as though 
possessed of the very devil. One day word was brought to the 
Fort that they had burned the mills at the Falls of Saint An- 
thony and murdered the men in charge. A strong force was at 
once dispatched there, and everything about the Fort put in 
defensible shape. "WTien the detachment reached the mills they 
were found uninjured, and the men quietly pursuing their avo- 
cations without the slightest suspicion that they had been toma- 
hawked and scalped. At one time our sentinels contracted a 
bad habit of firing their muskets at night for trivial causes. 
Stringent orders were consequently issued, that for one nnison 
only should a sentry's gun be discharged when on duty, and that 
sole reason would be the approach of a body of Indians, evi- 
dently about to make an attack. A fortnight passed quietly, 
when the uttt^r silence of a summer's midnight was shattered to 
pieces by a most terrific discharge of a gun. The entire garri- 
son was up like one man, their anxiety increased by a strong 
glare of light. My father, waiting only for trousers and boots, 



REMINISCENCES OF FORT SNELLINC;. 



347 



was out like a cycloiio, the men were under arms in a jilTj, and 
on investigation it was found tlie sentry liad simply wislied to 
call tlie attention of the guard to the fact that the bakery chim- 
ney was on lire. The sentence of darkness and a meager diet 
which fell to his lot was a long one, and he emerged into light 
a much thinner and wiser man; but it was the last of our false 
alarms, and happily we had no real ones. 

I do not remember a single Indian, man or woman, who made 
the slightest attempt at learning our language, so we all picked 
up more or less of theirs. On one occasion, at a council, both 
the official interpreters (Quinn and Campbell, I think, by name) 
were absent, and their place was well filled by one of the sol- 
diers. The last I saw of Campbell was two or three years after 
leaving the Fort. I was a student at Cincinnati college, and 
when crossing one of the principal streets, heard a familiar yell 
with its terminating prolonged low note. Turning my head, I 
recognized Campbell, leading a body of Sioux Indians. We had 
a warm, pleasant greeting. He was on his way to Washington 
with a deputation of Sioux, and was showing them the city: 
their home then being on the "Warrior." I visited her, and for 
the last time in my life saw our old friend. Captain Throckmor- 
ton. 

I think it was during our first summer at the Fort that it 
was visited by Count Portales, a young Swiss some twenty years 
of age, in company with an Englishman named Latrobe, and an 
American named Ewing or something like it. They came in a 
fine birch-bark canoe, with a crew of Canadian voyageurs. My 
father invited them to dinner, and they proved to be uncom- 
monly bright and pleasant men. The American was very ready 
with his pencil, and gave my mother a good sketch of the Fort. 

It was the first or second autumn after our arrival that I first 
saw Mr. Sibley, who afterward became governor of Minnesota. 
He was then a very young man, but uncommonly large, strong 
and fine looking, with a very pleasant, and frank, but deter- 
mined face. He was in the employ of some fur company, and 
the very man for that hard, wild, venturesome life. He was a 
good chess player, and for that time was a wonder of correct 
and temperate habits, and by my father and the officers gener- 
ally was held in high esteem. 

To the best of my recollection, it was in the spring of 18.33 
that two brothers named Pond wandered that way. They said 



348 



MINNESOTA HISTORICAL SOCIETY COLLECTIONS. 



they had come to devote themselves to the welfare of tho In li- 
ans, and I believe they did this to the full extent and limii ot 
their abilities. They were earnest workers, with no nonsense 
about them, ^ly father supplied thcrii, from the saw-mill, with 
the necessary lumber for a neat, comfortable, two-roomed little 
house, and in conjunction with Major Taliaferro, aided them in 
their start at housekeepinj? on the shore of Lake Calhoun, a 
short distance from the Indian village. It was probably a year 
after this that another missionary, named Stevens, with his 
wife and a very beautiful daughter, appeared on the scene. 
They have not left a very distinct impression on my mind; the 
Loomises were more particularly their friends. My recollec- 
tion, too, is very misty as to where they located, but I think it 
was about Lake Harriet. 

"^liile we were at this post, the cholera made its first appear- 
ance in the United States, and progressed in our direction as far 
as Prairie du Chien, where it was quite fatal; a mackinaw boat 
left there for Fori Snelling, and when it arrived it had one case 
on board, but the patient happily recovered. 

The summer of 1833 has one briglit spot in memory: the re- 
ceipt from Dick Taylor of a small box of apples, pi'obably the 
first except dried ones ever sent to the Fort. This was some- 
what darkened by the untimely death of one of my squirrels; 
the little fellows Avere not confined, but had the range of the 
whole Fort, and this one on an outside excursion was knocked 
over by a young Indian. The other one then became morose 
and solitary in his ways, left our house, and established himself 
in the commissary store, where he knawed a hole in a barrel of 
flour and set up housekeeping, cutting a carpenter's line into 
bits and making himself a bed in the barrel ; Ik^, too, came to an 
end by incautiously wandering about, when he was picked up 
by an Indian dog. There were two things about those squirrels 
that always puzzled me. I slept in a room without a fire, and 
in winter it was about as cold as out of doors, making a heaA v 
pile of blankets on tlie bed a necessity; the squirrels slept witli 
me for warmth, establishing themselves close beside me in ihe 
centre of the bed, going fast asleep, and not making a moiion 
the whole night. Now, what was it that saved them fmm 
smothering? Again, I would sometimes wake up before it was 
light, and lay staring out the window which faced the east, f<^r 
the approach of day; at the very first suspicion of dawn those 



REMINISCENCES OF FORT SNELLING 



349 



squirrels, though apparently sleopinj: their hist sh-^'p. w.Mild both 
commence fussing about, and wiili their funny little bai ks U-ave 
the bed. Xow, with four or live thichnesses of bhinl;ets over 
them, how did they know day was breaking? 

During the fall and winter of 1833, rumors reached the Fort 
that a Canadian (Kenvilh-, or some such name) living up what 
was then th(^ St. I'ettM-'s river (now tlu.' .Minnesota) was making 
himself of too much imi>ortance among the Indians, that he pre- 
tended to be in correspondence with the president, and would 
read to them, long letters purporting to be from liim, and was 
collecting large quantities of arms and ammunition; so, on the 
coming of spring, my fathei' sent Caj)tain Vail with a few men 
in a large canoe propelled by oars, to investigate. On their 
way they encoriUtercHl a young Indian, with a heron or some 
such bird, wliose plumes would be just the thing to rejuvenate 
the Captain's dilapidated '"chapeau de bras,'' so he commenced 
negotiations for its purchase; but the young buck declined all 
his overtures, saying it was the first killed that season, and 
must be made a sacrifice to the Manitou. Vail, however, in- 
sisted, and finally secured the envied bird. Tlie Indian went on 
to his village and reported the circumstance. The medicine 
men were much disturbed at Vail's action, and said a severe 
misfortune would happen to that expedition before its return. 
The next day a large fiock of black ducks came flying along, 
when a soldier named Little, but a very large, powerful man. 
seized a fowling piece by the muzzle and was drawing it from 
a pile of ];napsacks, when the hammer caught in a strap and 
t^he piece was discharged, and his immense arm was literally torn 
to shreds from wrist to elbow. All haste was made to get back 
to the Fort, where the arm was at once amputated, but the 
poor fellow died a few honrs after the operation. A subseciuent 
expedition to Renville's place demonstrated the falsity of the 
current reports. 

Being so far beyond the frontier, we were free from the 
trouble which in those days often occurred from the friction be- 
tween the civil autliorities and the military authorities, acting 
under ordei-s issued from Washington. The case of a Captain 
Jewett (I think that was the name) now occurs to me. Orders 
from Washington wei'e ])ositive, that all stocks of liquors lield 
by parties selling the same to the Indians should be destroyed. 
Captain Jewett, hearing of a man engaged in the nefarious 



350 MINNESOTA inSTORICAr. SOCIKTY COLLECTIONS. 



tratiic, knocked his whisky barrels in the head, whcnniion 
damages were assessed by a justice of tlie peace at Prairie dii 
Chien, and the unfortunate officer was oblip:ed to pay SGOO. T 
heard of tlie occuirence some two years after it ha])i)f'iied, and 
up to that time he liad not been reimbursed; perhaj>s lie had no 
political intUionce, for the army was as much |2:overned by 
favoritism then as now. . ISly father was nothing of a courtier, 
and not accustomed to "crook the pregnant hinges of the knw," 
consequently he was kept on the frontier, engaged in most ardu- 
ous service. After leaving Fort Snelling. he was put on the re- 
cruiting service, and then in midsummer, 1S.'>T, he was ordered 
to Florida to fight the Seminoles. He replied that if his orders 
could be held back until fall he would be quite ready to serve; 
but to go to the everglades in the hot season he could only con- 
sider as a sentence of death, and if the order was insisted upon 
he must tender his resignation. The acceptance of his resigna- 
tion came by next mail, and in this summary manner was a vet- 
eran of 1812 set adrift. 

I remember very well the arrival of a party of emigrants from 
Lord Selkirk's settlement on the Red river of the North, whence 
they had been frozen and starved out. They had traveled nn 
foot and in wagons, bringing their live stock and other posses- 
sions with them, and in the same way were journeying south- 
ward and eastward to a land of civilization. I went to their 
camp, and remember how odd it seemed to hear white people, 
not connected with the Fort, talking English instead of Cana- 
dian Fi'ench. They were under the leadership of quite an old 
man, who came to our quarters and had a lengthened interview 
with my father, who advised him to locate in Illinois on the 
Mississippi, as in addition to a tine prairie soil he would stand 
the chance of finding a lead mine on the land. "But," inter- 
polated the patriarch, "avouUI not that belong to the king?" 

In the fall of 1S34, an English geologist named Featherstone- 
haugh ("Frestonhaw," the English call it.) and an American as- 
sistant (an exceedingly nice fellow whose name unfortunately I 
cannot recall), in the employ of our government, arrived in a 
beautifully equip])ed birch-bark canoi*, paddled by five Cana- 
dian voyageurs. She was a beauty, caiTied a quantity of geo- 
logical specimens, a tent, fine camp equipage, plenty of bedding, 
provisions, etc. She was at least thirty-five feet long, and so 
wide that the middle seat gave ample room for three persons 



KEMINrsCENCFCS OF FORT SXELLINC, 



351 



bundk'c] up in winter clothinj^'. After recujierating a few days, 
they proceeded up the St. l*eter river, and we did not see them 
again until November, whon there was a foot of snow on the 
ground and winter was fairly setting in. 

In the meantime, it was determined in family council that 
r had had quite a suflicient experience of Western life, and Mr. 
Featherstonehaugh, with kind cordiality, accepted the charge 
of escorting me in safety to our Pittsburg friends, the Ander- 
sons; so, one sharp, frosty afternoon, I made my farewells, and 
we dashed gayly off, the Canadians singing at the tops of their 
fine voices. The vo^-age to Prairie du Chien was accomplished 
without incident, and without seeing a white man or a white 
man's house. The weather was very cold, and though no ice 
was running in the river, the water would freeze in a ring at 
the water line of the paddle handles. The evening was the most 
interesting time for me. As darkness approached, the canoe 
was brought to shore, and without grounding her, everybody 
and eventhing was gotten out, and the canoe carefully picked 
up and deposited bottom up in a safe place in the snow. The 
ground for a space was cleared and an oil-cloth spread, in front 
of which a rousing fire was built, and at the rear the tent was 
pitched and the bedding of tlie three passengers duly spread. 
The men made their camp a short distance away. They htmg 
a kettle over their fire, and seemed to make a promiscuous 
bouillon of all Iheir food. They had neither oil-cloth nor tent, 
but sat contentedly before the fire, and smoked and chatted 
until well into the night, when they rolled themselves 
up in their blankets and went to sleep in the snow. 
One day I noticed a dead duck in the river. The canoe was 
headed for it, when it was ])icked up, and duly went into their 
bouillon that night. Mr. Featherstonehaugh mentioned that 
one evening in the summer, one of the men, as he emptied his 
spoon in his mouth, exclaimed in his Canadian patois: ''There 
goes the third big blue bottle fly I have found in my soup this 
evening." After hearing this, you will not be surprised to learn 
that we did our own cooking and our mess was entirely dis- 
tinct from theirs. Immediately after sundown we would hear 
the faint howl of a distant wolf. Soon it would be answered by 
one nearer by, in another direction, then others would join in 
the chorus, and when night fell they were close at hand but 
never in sight. In the early morning the canoe would be 



V 



352 MINNESOTA IIISTOBICAL SOCIETY COLLECTIONS. 

loaded, with the same motherly care that it was unloadiMl, beiui^' 
kept well atloat during the whole process. Then, after w^ll 
under way, we would see the wolves sneaking about the de- 
serted camp, seeking what they might devour. Tliey were 
very plenty in those days, and in winter they made bL'aten 
l)aths under the walls of the foi't with their nightly forays, and 
I heard them quarreling and snarling more than once. We 
hunted them occasionally wiih dogs and guns. They would 
always run if possible, but when cornered would light de.»pi.-r- 
ately, snap])ing iheir jaws together like a steel trap. 

On our way we noticed immense llocks of swans, geese, brant, 
and all varieties of ducks on their southern migration. In those 
early days the water fowls in the fall were in myriads, and I 
never tasted such nice fat ducks as had arrived at perfection 
in the wild rice swamps. Arrived at Prairie du Chien, I went 
direct to Colonel Taylor's, and of course was received with, most 
cordial hospitality- How little we imagined that the next day 
would find them in the lowest depths of anguish and sorrow, 
for within twenty-four hours a letter was received informing 
them of the death of their daughter, Mrs. Jeff. Davis. I have 
seen it stated in print that she died within six months after 
marriage, but I know the interval was more than two years. 

The day following, I left the sorrowing family, and our canoe 
voyage was resumed. Our men were fearfully demoralized 
from their short contact with civilization, and with the 
exception of the old steersman, were more or less drunk, with a 
choice exhibit of black eyes and battered faces. It was not 
until we were approaching Galena that they resumed their usual 
rollicking spirits. 

At Galena we found the Hon. Charles Augustus Murray, an 
English nobleman, tiuishing up a tour of the United States. He, 
Mr. Featherstouehaugli and myself occupied the same room, 
two of us sleeping on the lloor. Here Mr. Featherstonehaugh's 
assistant left us. I regret to say that there was much jangling 
and discord between them, and I am forced to believe that ^Ir. 
Featherstouehaugli was chiefly at fault. He was a large, fine- 
looking and di'termined man, with many excellent qualities, 
but with an unfortunate dis])osition to bully and domineer over 
those who were under him. He was admirably calculated to 
get along with the Canadian voyageurs, whom he treated like 
brutes, as they deseiTed, and they consequently feared and re- 



REMINISCENCES OF FORT SNELLING. 353 

I spected him. Here we sold the canoe, paid off the men, and, bv 

I a singular chance, went to St. Louis on my old acquaintance 

the "Warrior," Captain Throckmorton. The city was then 
greatly excited over the Texan stru;^{^le for independence, and 
young men were daily leaving to aid in lighting the Mexicans. 

From there we traveled by steamer to Pittsburg, mucli im- 
peded by ice on the way. At that city Mr. Featliersionehaugh 
duly delivered me to m}' friends, the Andersons, and I regret to 
say that I have never seen him since. While admitting his 
weaknesses and peculiarities, I feel bound to say, that from be- 
ginning to end he did the fair thing by me. Tlie only time he 
gave me a good blowing up was one horribly cold night, when 
we got out of the canoe nearly cramped and chilled to death, 
and I capsized the tea kettle just as it got to the boiling point. 

I must not close without mention of my excellent old friend, 
Dr. Jarvis, the eccenti-ic surgeon at the post. The excursions 
we had together on horseback went into the Inmdreds, but he 
could never be tempted in my canoe, although he was a splendid 
swimmer and taught me that invaluable accomplishment. He 
w^as a born caricaturist and very apt with the pencil. 

More than a passing notice should also be made of Major Tali- 
aferro, the Indian agent. He belonged to a class more common 
then than now. He imagined it to be his imperative duty to 
see that every Indian under his charge had the enjoyment of all 
his rights, and never seemed to realize his opportunities for ar- 
ranging with contractors for the supply of inferior goods and 
for dividing the profits. His otlice was not the reward of doing 
dirty work for his party, for his get-up was so peculiar that he 
was not competent for that occupation. 

Tliis completes the more vivid of my reminiscences of dear 
old Fort Snelling. 

Caracas, Venezuela, 8. A., April 23, 1894. 

—22 

Since the foregoing article was printed, the following letter 
has been received from Mr. Bliss. 

Erik, Pa.. Nov. 13. 1894. 
In the footnote on pa£:e 335 of the "Reminiscences. I notice :in Important error. 
It Is stated thiu I served in the Union Army, but it was my paid .substitute who did 
it. While a vount; man in BuiTalo. I was Litnitonant Colonel of i he beventy-fourth 
Uniformed Militia, then the crack rciriment of that city, and the title -Coloner" has 
stuck to me with nu^-e or less pertinacity ever sitice. 

I would here mention, so ihai it may be a matter of record, that on Mr. Feather- 
.stonehautrh s expedition, he was accompanicil by an assistant of whom he does not 
make the sli^htt'st mention in any part of his book, lie was a pleasant, energetic and 
educated gentleman, an American, Mather by name. 



V 



354 MINNESOTA HISTORICAL SOCIETY COLLECTIONS. 



MES. J. E. DE S^^T:ET'S NAEKATIMC OF HEK au^- 

TIVITY THE SIOUX OUTBREAK OF 1SG2. 

After a lapse of more tliau thirty years I am solicited to 
write au account of my captivity among the Sionx Indians 
during the massacre of 18G2. It is a part of my life which 1 
would much rather forget than remember, and which, after so 
many years* time, I can now dwell upon but with feelings of the 
utmost horror. 

It is not my purpose in these pages to attempt a portrayal of 
the dreadful scenes enacted on that 18th day of August, 1SG2, 
and the many following ones — days so replete with savage 
atrocity that each moment of time seemed written over in lurid 
characters of blood and lire. It will only be necessary to dwell 
upon the subject long enough to record the most important 
events which history- desires to preserve. 

Many things have been written concerning the tragedies of 
that dreadful period; but, as far as I know, none who were eye- 
witnesses have attempted to narrate what passed in the Indian 
camp during those dreadful weeks. Having been an actor in 
the sad drama which desolated and almost depopulated some 
of the finest portions of our fair state, I will try to give as ac- 
curate a description of what I saw and heard during those fate- 
ful four weeks which followed the 18th of August as length of 
time and lapse of memory will permit. Of the brutalities per- 
petrated during those dreadful days (seemingly multiplied into 



In a letter of July 13, 1S94.* ^r^s. Sweet gives the following brief sketch of her 
life. My malficn nrtme was Jannette E. Sykes. My father's family came from 
England early In 1700. and settled in Springfield, Mass. In 1794, my father 
was carried on horseback (being three months old) by his mother while mov- 
ing to what Is now ^-'prlngfield, N. Y., which became the family home, and 
"Where many members now lie. I was born near Lockport. N. Y., July 20, 1S33. 
My husband. Joseph Warren De Camp, a descendant of Gen. Warren of 
Bunker Hill fame, was born In Licking county. Ohio, Oct. 13. 1S2G. 

We were raarrle<i. May 30, lS."i2, In Van Wert county. Ohio, and came to 
Minnesota In IS.'."), settling In Shakopee, where we lived until ISGl, when we 
went to the Red Wood Sioux agency. Mr. De Camp was employed by the 
agent, Maj. Galbralth. In charge of the saw-mlll. We were living there at 
the time of the outbreak, Aug. 18, 1862. 



V 




Mrs. J. E. DkC. Swkkt. 



MRS. DE CAMP SWEET'S CAPTIVITY. 



355 



years, so dreadful now tb(\v aj^pcar to mo), iiothinfc that could 
be written could describe the actual occurrences which took 
place from the incejnion of the massacre to its close. 

"Then woinau's shiieU was licard iu vain. 
Nor infancy's unpitifvl plain 
More than the warrior's groan could gain, 
Respite from ruthless butchery." 

For more than a year we had lived amoni,^ them on terms of 
friendly intimacy, if I may so describe it. They were daily vis- 
itors at our home — not always welcome ones, it is true. They 
came with their bead work, game, fish or anything which they 
happened to have, to trade for i)ork, sugar, flour or anything 
which they needed most, and always expected to receive in re- 
turn more than twice the value of any article brought. It was 
not a pleasant life among them, but we tried to make the best 
of it while we were there. The Indians, with few exceptions, 
were kind and peaceable, and after a few months I grew so ac- 
customed to their presence that no thought of fear ever en- 
tered my mind. My husband had charge of the mills which 
sawed the lumber for their houses, and during the autumn fol- 
lowing our removal there put in a mill for grinding the corn 
which the Indians raised on their lands. They came almost 
daily with their bags of corn to be ground, and would linger 
about the doors and windoWvS, asking questions and recei\ing 
answers about everything usually discussed, and in their child- 
ish way comprehending many things; but they seemed more 
especially interested in the conflict between our disrupted 
states. Our daily papers came in each weekly budget of mail, 
and those of us who had friends at the front eagerly scanned 
the lists for news of our loved ones. Nothing seemed more- 
terrible then than waiting for news from the seat of war. 

How well I remember the usual reply when asking my hus- 
band for news. "All quiet on the Potomac*' was invariably his 
answer. 

Of course the Indians could not help knowing of our many 
reverses during that and the following year, and drew their 
own conclusions. Xot until I became a captive did I realize 
how they put things together and which seemed to have woven 
a web of fate around their unconscious victims. They often de- 
scribed, most accurately, the accounts of the terrible battles in 



356 



MINNESOTA HISTORICAL SOCIETY COLLECTIONS. 



Milich our defeats were more niinierous than our victories, and 
wlien the call came for additional troops and they were actu- 
ally enlisted in our very midst, taking half-bloods, employes, 
every one for soldiers, small wonder that tliey should think our 
government in the last throes of dissolution!^ The winter pre- 
ceding the massacre set in cold and snowy, the roads were 
drifted and almost impassable. There was a great amount of 
suffering among the Indians, as their crops had been bad from 
drought and cut-worms, and there was much sickness attend- 
ant upon starvation, of which there were actual cases. Mr. De 
Camp (my husband) gave me lea^'e to feed tlie women and chil- 
dren who Avere most destitute, and we otherwise alleviated 
their distress many times when they would not go to Dr. 
Humphrey, the government physician. The Doctor was not a 
favorite with them, and they preferred to take the medicines 
which I often prepared for their little ones. 1 have related the 
foregoing only to show that "the good will of a dog is better 
than the ill will." Owing to the deep snow, the roads were 
almost impassable and government supplies became scanty. 
The weekly issues of flour, pork, etc., failed to meet the wants 
of so many hungry people, and at Christmas time things looked 
very gloomy. We concluded that we must do something for 
those who most needed help, and accordingly opened the cellar, 
distributing many bushels of vegetables to those who were 
actually suffering. I cannot doubt that our friendly attitude 
toward those starving wretches eventually became tne means 
of our preservation from horrid tortures and a lingering death. 
There were many things of almost daily occurrence which 
showed that the Indians were very much dissatisfied with their 
condition, but we gave no heed, supposing it had always been 
so before, and knowing that there was much jealousy between 
the various bands, some thinking that others were better 
treated by the agent than themselves. My husband was 
made a confidant of many grievances, as he was invariably kind 
to all. They named him Chan-ba-su-da-su-da-cha, the friendly 
man. He was always very loyal to the agent also, knowing 
that he was trying to do all he cotild for them, and he would 
tell them to have patience and the government in time would 
do all it had promised and that the agent was not to blame for 



MRS. DE CAMP SWEET'S CAPTIVITY. 



357 



the supplies or the weather. June, the month for the annual 
payment, came and no money came with it. July passed and 
the Indians g:rew anjrry and believed what the traders told 
them— that "that payment, if ever made, would be the last." I 
could never understand why the traders should have told such 
things; but I was assured by many of the wisest among the 
Indians that it was what the traders told them more than any- 
thing else that caused the uprising. How surely they atoned 
for it with their lives history does not fail to record. 

The day preceding the outbreak Mr. De Camp started for St. 
Paul to transact some business with the agent when he should 
arrive there. Maj. Galbraith had gone on with the enlisted 
men, and my husband 'expected to overtake them at St. Peter, 
go on to St. Paul and return by Saturday, at the latest, to the 
agency. Xot a dream of danger was in either of our minds, 
but the separation for even a week seemed long in anticipation. 
Nothing but the most pressing business, which required his 
immediate attention, could have induced him to leave me, as 
our youngest child was ill; but I urged him to go, knowing how 
necessary it was for him to do so, and pretended to feel much 
braver than I actually did. Monday morning, after a restless 
night with my baby, I awoke late, and myself and children (one 
of whom was nine years and the other four, and the baby) ate 
our breakfast and afterward I attended to my usual duties. 
The children went out to play, and the kitchen girls (a half- 
breed and a German girl) arranged the day's work. My eldest 
boy came in and asked me if he might go up to the agency to 
play with one of his mates. For some reason I told him he 
could not. We remarked upon the stillness of the morning, in 
the absence of the noise of the mill and the men being away 
from work. They liad all gone up to the agency, as the mill 
would not run in ^Ir. De Camp's absence. About 10 o'clock 
I went into the garden, and while there I observed an Indian 
coming out of the stables with the horses harnessed. He im- 
mediately hitched them to the wagon and drove along toward 
tlie house, my two boys following him. I also observed that he 
was a stranger, and as he came opposite the door I asked him 
where he was taking our horses. He replied ''that they were 
his horses and that everything else was his thereabouts. That 



V 



358 MINNESOTA HTSTORICAL SOCIETY COLLECTIONS. 

all the white i)eoi)l(' had be<'n killed up there," pointiii^r to tlie 
aj^ency, "and you had better be f»:ettinj? out of this." All this 
was said iu the Dakota lanuiiajre. He did not otTer to sto]) l)nt 
drove iuiuK^diately on toward the ferry. Lucy, the half-bitnMl, 
hearing; what he said, immediately bep^an to scream that we 
would all be murdered. I told her I did not believe a word of 
it, that he had said so just to f»et the horses, and that if the 
whites had been kilh.^d we would have heard the guns and the 
shouts. The German girl hurriedly bundled up her clothes and 
started with all speed to the ferry, about a quarter of a mile 
above us, and I never saw her again. Lucy, the half-bretnl, 
urged me to fly, as she was sure it was all true; so, taking my 
sick boy out of his cradle, we started for'the top of the hill. As 
so(m as we arrived there 1 saw it was all too true. The agency 
buildings and the Traders' stores were in liames and hundreds 
of shouting savages were surging about the government ware- 
house, shrieking and brandishing their weapons. Paralyzed 
with fear, I knew not where to turn. I looked toward the ferry 
and I saw a dense crowd surrounding it. 1 knew that all hope 
was cut off in that quarter. It seemed incredible that all this 
had gone on without our knowledge, that not a sound had pen- 
etrated to our place where all had been so still I I could not 
reason, much less hope, that we could escape; but while 1 stood 
there motionless (Lucy having lied at the first sight), an old 
squaw, Chief Wacouta's mother, came running past. As she 
came up she cried, "Puck-a-cheel Puck-a-chee! Dakota, mepo- 
wa-sicha squaw I Puck-a-chee I" "Fly I fly I they will kill you, 
white squaw I" and she threw my four-year-old boy over her 
shoulder, not stopping a moment. I followed with the other 
children, running toward Wabasha's village, about a mile 
away. Just before we reached it we met a large body of In- 
dians in war paint, armed with guns and bows and arrows. 
Each had a war club and tomahawk and were brandishing 
them in an excited numner. Chief Wabasha was sitting on a 
large >hite horse, looking as if just out of one of Catlin*s 
pictures. He was dressed in chief's costume, a head-dress of 
red flannel adorned with bullock horns and eagle feathers, 
wings of feathers over his shoulders and down his back, great 



MRS. DE CAMP SWEET'S CArTlVITY. 



359 



strinf,'S of beads aioimd his neck and a bell of wainjHim around 
his waist. His lower limbs were clad in fringed buckskin and 
he carried a beautiful rifle across his lap, with two pistols in 
their holsters. He had no other arms. Every detail seemed 
to strike me as if photo«iraphed. I can yet see him, sittin;^ like 
a Centaur, haranguing his men, and, as he rode up, he dis- 
mounted. Drawing his pistols from their holsters he ap- 
proached us. I felt that our time had come to die. I immedi- 
ately fell on my knees, imploring him to spare our lives and 
asking him to remember what we had done for his sick child 
the past winter. The Indians, sullen and scowling, crowded 
around closer and closer, raising their tomahawks as if ready 
to strike, when Wabasha thrust them back, and, presenting his 
pistols, told them that I should not be killed. He said that I 
was a good squaw, and called them cowards and squaws for 
wanting to kill women and children. They were very angry 
and determined ; but, after a long speech, in which he told them 
that he would not be accessory to what had been done and that 
he should protect and defend the whites as long as he could, 
they mounted their ponies and rode off. Wacouta's mother 
had disappeared, and Wabasha, seeing we were still so much 
frightened, told us to follow him. We entered a house near, in 
which he said we would be safe, as all the Indians had gone to 
the agency, and he would ride up and see what had been done. 

He told us it was the upper Indians who were doing all the 
mischief, and that he would always be a friend of the whites, 
and would see that we were not killed. He then rode away. 
(It was nearly two weeks before I saw him again, when he 
came to bid me good-bye before he started with the Indian 
soldiers on an expedition somewhere below.) After he was 
gone the children became so frightened, feanng others would 
come, that we left the building and wandered toward the river, 
hoping we might find some way of crossing. But finding none 
w^e sat down in a cluni]) of bushes, not daring to go ont on the 
open prairie lost we should meet Indians. All this time I felt 
assured that it was the Sissetons, as Wabasha had said, who 
were doing the killing, as I had not yet recognized any whom I 
knew of the lower bands among those with Wabasha. We re- 



360 MrXXESOTA HISTORICAL SOCIETY COLLECTION'S. 



mained hidden in the bushes by the river until the sun was 
settiuj,^, wlieu 1 saw an Indian, whom I reco;;nized, cominj^ 
down the bluff toward a liouse uear by. It proved to be one 
who had often been to our house asking favors and to whom we 
had sent a man to help him put up a stove but a short while 
before. Feeling sure he would aid me, I made myself known, 
telling him how liungry the children were, and asking what had 
happened. He said that all the whites who had not escaped 
from the agency had been killed, but did not say by whom. I 
asked if he had seen Wabasha. He said there had been a bat- 
tle and he might have been among the killed, but did not tell 
me that it was with the white soldiers they had fought. He 
said the lower bands were in camp just below the agency and 
he was going back there. I asked him if he would protect us 
into camp. He said he would do all he could, but feared the 
warriors would kill us. Still thinking that the lower bauds 
were friendly to us and that they were arrayed against the Sis- 
setons, I told him we would go with him, as we could not stay 
there. We went with him to camp, which we reached just at 
dark. Instead of meeting friends, as I supposed we would, 
there were only angry, sullen faces on all sides. Everywhere 
were piles of goods from the stores and houses, and they were 
angrily discussing the ownership among themselves. I then 
knew that those whom we had relied on as friends were our 
enemies. I asked a squaw for some food for the children, but 
she did not pretend to hear me. Seeing an Indian leading one 
of our horses by the bridle, I went to him and asked him if he 
would not help us and give us some food. I knew him well and 
had often fed his family, but he said he did not know anything 
about us and we had better be getting out of the camp or we 
would be killed. I asked him if he knew of any place where we 
could go and be safe. He replied: ^Tou can swim the river. 
It is better to drown than be tomahawked." I looked in vain 
among all that excited assemblage to find one friendly face 
upon whom I could rely in my present extremity. The instinct 
of the savage had been fully aroused and blood and plunder 
was their only desire. Feeling sure that we would receive 
scant mercy if we remained where we were, I determined to 



MRS. DE CAMP SWEI T'S OAPriVITY. 



3G1 



creep silently out and hide in the grass till they should remove 
from there, or perhai)s get far enough away to escape them alto- 
gether. I had scarcely resolved to do so when I saw Wacouta 
(the chief who had lived nearest us) approaching as if he were 
seeking some one. I went immediately to him and asked his 
protection. He said, "Come with me. You are in danger 
here," and lifting my little boy in his arms he rapidly led the 
way out of camp. We followed and soon came to one of his 
empty houses. He opened the door, and, bidding us go inside, 
he gave me a small box of figs and left, locking the door on the 
outside. Feeling momentarily secure, I tried to hush the 
frightened children, giving them the figs to eat, as they had 
had no food since morning. They then knelt down and said 
their evening prayer, and, drawing close to me in the darkness, 
were soon sleeping the innocent sleep of childhood. What 
words could convey the feeling of complete desolation w^hich 
seized me as I sat there dwelling on the events of the past day 
and the prospects of the coming morrow? Twice we had been 
rescued; but would Wacouta do as he had said? Would he 
be able to protect us from their hellish deeds? I did not fear 
death so much for myself, but the thought of seeing my chil- 
dren perish before my eyes, or leaving them to be the victims 
of a cruelty surpassing death, I felt that I could not endure it! 
Wacouta had assured me on the way that he was a true 
friend of the whites and would save as many as he could. But 
I knew that the warriors would not be controlled by their 
chiefs, and that nothing would stay their murderous hands 
when once aroused. Besides all else, they had found plenty of 
Uquor on the reservation, and a drunken Indian was more to be 
dreaded than a tiger in the jungle. While thinking this I was 
alarmed to hear some one trying to unfasten the door, and, 
hearing voices, I discerned that of Mattie Williams. They un- 
fastened the door, and, entering, I was surprised to see both 
Miss Williams and ^lary Anderson with two Indians. They 
had just been brought there in a wagon and Mary at once hast- 
ened to tell me that she had been shot in the back. She was in 
great pain and apprehensive of immediate death. The three 
girls, Miss Williams, a niece of J. V>. Keynolds, who had come 



362 MINNESOTA HISTORICAL SOCIETY COLLECTIONS. 



out on a visit from I'aiiK-svillc, Oliio, and was expecting to re- 
turn in a few days, and Murv Andei'son and ^lary Swandt, wlio 
were domestics in the family of ^Ir. Reynolds, upon hearin?^ of 
the trouble, had started from his place in a waj^on in which 
were Mr. Patoile and Lee Davis of Slialcopee. Mr. and Mrs. 
Reynolds were in a bu;^|iy and they all started together. After 
a short time they became separated. Those in the wagon were 
near the fort, on the opposite side of the river, wlien they were 
overtaken. The men were killed and ihe girls ran av>ay, but 
were soon overtaken, Mary Anderson being shot in the back, 
the ball lodging in the abdomen. They were brought into 
camp after dark and were brought where I then was. In a few 
moments the negro, Godfrey, came in with Mary Swandt, and 
then a crowd of Indians, nrined with guns and carrying the 
knapsacks of the soldiers killed that day at the ferry. In a 
moment all was terror and confusion. Lights were struck, 
curses and imprecations resounded on all sides. The children, 
by this time awakened, were terror stricken. Mary Anderson 
was urging Mattie and myself to extract the bullet from her 
body, thinking it would save her. Mary Swandt had lied to me 
for protection from their indecent assaults, begging me to tell 
her what they said. My eldest boy was crying, "Are we going 
to be killed now, nuimma? Don't let them kill us with knives I" 
Nothing could describe that awful scene. 

•'It was as if the fieuds that fell 
Had pealed the banner cry of hell." 

Shocked into a feeling of desperation and an absence of fear, 
I determined to tell them how it would end, even if they killed 
me while doing it. Some of the young men I knew. Tliey had 
often come to me to learn English words. Turning to them I 
asked what had instigated them to do the deeds they had done. 
They. replied that it was such fun to kill white men. They 
were such cowards that they all ran away and left their squaws 
to be killed, and that one Indian could kill ten white men with- 
out trying. Without fear, I told them that they would all be 
hanged before another moon; that if the white men had gone 
away they would soon return; that "the whispering spirit" (the 
telegraph) would at once bring more men than would cover the 



MRS. DE CAMP RWEET'S CAPTIVITY. 



363 



prairies, and that if they did kill us it would not be long till 
their hideous forms would be dandling from a rope's end. 
How they scoffed and jeered as tliey swung their rilies and 
tomahawks around their lieads, aiming to strike as near as 
they could without liitting. The liendish work went on until 
the uproar became so loud and furious that Wacouta ap- 
pearc^d, having heard the din and the shooting. Going up to 
his two sons, who were among the crowd (boys not more than 
sixteen), he demanded of them how they came there and what 
they were doing. Then, thrusting them out of the door, he 
cleared the rest, ^vho seemed to have nearly all been of his 
band. The most of them were so drunk tliey could haidly 
stand. Turning to me, lie asked how long this had been 
going on, and I told him everything that had been done while 
he was away. He seemed distressed beyond measure to know 
that his sons had been of the number. Telling us not to fear 
further molestation, he turned to Mary and asked what he 
could do for her. 8he told him to tiy to take the bullet out of 
her body, and, using an old jack knife, he probed the wound, 
first taking out the pieces of wadding and finally found the 
ball quite near the surface. He brought some water, and, tear- 
ing up an old apron, soaked it and placed it on the wound. 
The poor girl had grown delirious, and we all knew that the 
wound was fatal. Gathering some old clothes together for her 
to lie on, we lifted her on a rude bedstead, and Wacouta left 
us, telling us that he would keep watch that we should not be 
disturbed again. The terrors and fatigues of the past day 
were succeeded by broken slumbers, from which we would 
arouse at the slightest noise, and I will say in passing that 1 do 
not think I had one hour's real sleep in the four weeks I was a 
captive. Morning dawned at last, and Wacouta came accord- 
ing tp promise, telling us that we must stay there as the In- 
dians were preparing to go below to attack Fort Kidgely. He 
said we must not show ourselves outside until he returned. I 
asked in surprise if he were going and he said yes! That his 
band would kill him if he did not He carried Mary up the 
stairs to the loft, told us to follow, and, bringing us a i>ail of 
water, shut the trap door of our ])rison and left us again, im- 
pressing u\)on us the necessity of remaining perfectly quiet. 



364 MINNESOTA HISTOIUCA.L SOCIETY COLLECTIONS. 



No food was left us to oat, to which I called Wacouta's atten- 
tion; but he said there was no time ihen to ^ret any, as his band 
was waiting for iiini and he must be off. We could see from a 
hole in the chamber the gay cavalcade marching by. The 
bodies of the warriors were entirely destitute of clothing ex- 
cept the loin cloth, which they invariably wore, and a blanket 
worn loosely round the neck, floating to the breeze as their 
ponies pranced and caA'orted. They were painted in all the 
colors of the rainbow, and their ponies were decked with rib- 
bons and tassels of every bright hue. The chiefs were dressed 
in their war costume, which I have before described. They 
rode gayly away, shouting and whooping as only an Indian can. 
We now turned our attention to our own situation. Mary was 
in a violent delirium of fever, calling for food, and there was 
not a morsel to give her. My baby lay perfectly passive, and 
did not seem to notice anything. How long we were to remain 
there depended alone on the Indians' return, and the families 
of the Indians had left the camp for the upper villages when 
the warriors started below, l^nless the whites came to rescue 
us (which we dared not hope for after the battle at the ferry be- 
came known to us) we might starve before help came, and but 
for Wacouta's strict injunctions a part of us would have gone 
in search of food. We could see the scouts riding past from 
our post of observation and knew that they were watching. 
Mary became so violent in her ravings that we feared discovery, 
and Wednesday night Mattie and Mar\' Swandt went out in the 
darkness and found some green corn in a field not far away. 
Bringing it in, we ate ravenously of the raw corn and tried to 
give Mary some. But she would not eat it, crying all the time 
that "we wanted. to starve her! and if only Dr. Daniels would 
come he would cure her!" Thursday, about noon, the war party 
returned, some of them passing the house we were in. At last 
a wagon stopped and took ^lary Swandt away. Then another, 
which took Mattie Williams, and at last a man, whom I knew, 
drove up and told us to get ready and go with him to the camp 
above. I got into the wagon with my baby in my arms; then 
he lifted Mary and placed her head in my lap and the two chil- 
dren crept into the bottom of the wagon at our feet. Mary's 
limbs were getting rigid and she could scarcely speak; but I 



MRS. DE CAMP SWEET'S CAPTIVITY. 



365 



hoped she -would live until we reached the camp. Our way lay 
through the streets of the agency, where the bodies of the first 
day's victims were still lying. It was an awful sight, and I 
tried to screen the childiVm from seeing the dead. When we 
came to where the stores had been I saw DivoU, one of 
Myrick's clerks, lying extended on the burnt floor, his features 
looking natural as in life but the body burnt to a cinder. 
Myrick, Lynde and others lay there outside. Some of them had 
been decapitated, but the Indians did not touch them then or 
seem to notice them. Just as we were passing the last build- 
ing which, for some cause, had not been fired, they began to 
stone the windows and set fire to them. A dreadful storm had 
been gathering for some time, and just as the buildings were 
fired it burst with great fury upon us. The noise of the thun- 
der and the flashing of the lightning, together with the roaring 
and crackling of the flames from the burning houses, made a 
scene not easily forgotten, and the horrors of that ride will 
never be effaced. The cavalcade numbered many hundreds 
and seemed one sad, unending caraA'an. No pen could describe 
the hideous features of those painted demons as they rode fran- 
tically backward and forward outside the wagons, yelling and 
shouting and brandishing their weapons with their hands still 
reeking with, the murders they had committed. I will not 
dwell longer upon it, but say that w^e at last came to Little 
Crow's village, where a part of the Indians had camped, and 
there we found Mattie, who had just arrived. The Indian who 
claimed the d^ing Mary came up and said she must get out 
there. I told him she was dying and to let her go on with me 
so that I could be with her till the last. He brutally said, "She 
is better than two dead squaws yet. Get along out!" Mattie 
came up and we lifted her out and they carried her into a tent 
as I left, Mattie promising to bury her. She lived about an 
hour after, reviving, however, to take a little food which Mattie 
gave her. She was buried there with an old tablecloth wrap- 
ping her and in the autumn her friends removed her. We 
went on farther to Shako])ee village, near where Kedwood 
now stands, and remained there until the next :\Ionday, when 
the whole of the bands went up near Rice creek, where they 
camped until after the battle of Birch Coulie. The morning 



iMINXESOTA HISTORICAL SOCIETY COLLECTIONS. 



after our arrival at Shakoi)ee caiiip tlic Indians wore .'ilert 
very early, havinjr made i)reparati()ns for attackin^,^ the fort. 
They had prepared ariows with combustible material in or<l<'r 
to shoot into the roofs of the buildinij^s to burn them. Tlu*y 
were very san<»uine of success that day, and it)d(* away sayin^^ 
that they would not come back before "Esan-tanka-tujK*e*' 
(meaning the ''big knife fort") was taken. How they gloated 
over the anticipated si)oils of the day and talked of the good 
things in the ''commissary" and the number of guns and the 
ammunition, and, above all, the pleasure of hewing down and 
scalping their enemies! Glad as we were to see them ride 
away, our anxiety was greater, fearing they would succeed. 
During the afternoon an old squaw mounted one of the look- 
outs which belong to every village and called my attention to 
a vast volume of smoke rising far off on the prairie in the 
direction of the fort. She seemed frenzied with joy, saying to 
me, "Look I look! see the big steamboat coming! Hurry and 
get ready to go." My heart died witliin me as I saw The 
flames and smoke mount higher and higher and thought of 
what might be taking place in the doomed garrison. The 
squaws made haste to leave with their ponies and wagons, if 
they were fortunate enough to have them, to be in at the plun- 
dering of the fort. I had just had an interview with Frank 
Roy, a half-breed, and he said that he feared they would suc- 
ceed. If they did not, that himself, John ?kloore and some others 
had determined to get us away if possible. Saturday the In- 
dians began to return in straggling parties, bringing large 
quantities of goods of every description. Some had been to 
New Ulm, and the harrowing tales they told of murder and 
destruction nearly froze our blood. Godfrey told of killing sev- 
enteen women and children and would relate how they fought 
for their lives before they were killed. Sunday the warriors 
returned and were feasted according to their custom. That 
day a woman was shot in our camp for trying to escaj)e. Mon- 
day morning the tents were taken down and orders werc^ given 
to march. The whole of the lower bands were in motion (^arly 
in the day, and the cavalcade started. Their haste was so 
great that we were sure the while troo])s were .after them. 
When we came to Redwood river crossing the stream was 



MRS. DE CAMP SWEET'S CAPTIVITY. 



3G7 



greatly swollen from recent rains and all on foot were com- 
pelled to wade. In the rush of teams I fell sure we would be 
crushed, but 1 hastily threw my four-year-old boy on to a 
Avagon, the other climbing up behind him, and with my 
baby in my arms I addressed myself to the river, ])lunging 
bravely through in order to keep near my other children. 1 
never knew how I got over; but when on the other side I missed 
my shoes, which I had taken oil in order to have them dry when 
I landed, and was compelled to go on without them. The In- 
dian in whose tent I had been was wounded at 2sew Ulm and 
had to be carried in a litter, and we had strict orders to keep 
close to the litter at all times and not get away from our 
friends. As we reached the place where Mr. Reynolds had 
lived the train halted for fresh water from the spring. AVhen 
our turn came and I was raising the water to my lips I heard 
a shout, and looking up saw a horrible form bending over me 
just ready to strike. It was ''Cut Xose,'' who had sworn to kill 
every man, woman and child that he was able to kill. I darted 
quickly round behind the litter containing my friend, whose 
voice had saved my life, and after that experience was careful 
to keep as close to our party as possible. 

1 wish it were possible for me to describe that march up- 
ward. Long lines of wagons, carriages, ponies with poles trail- 
ing (as customary with the Indians) ; each vehicle loaded to its 
utmost capacity, without regard to size or capability (many of 
which would suddenly collapse, leaving the occupant stranded, 
as it were, in mid ocean). The long lines of cattle driven before 
each band, and the horses lashed without mercy, the warriors 
riding outside of the cavalcade in order to prevent any es- 
caping, all combined to render it a scene which, once looked 
upon, could ne^'er be forgotten. There were numberless flags 
carried in the procession. Two or three were of the largest 
size, but where procured I never knew. One of Wabasha's 
band, "Old Brave," had one which he said was given him in 
Washington once when he went there with other Indians years 
before. The negro Godfrey is one who always stands out most 
prominently in my UK^nory, not excepting 'Cut Nose.'' lie was 
everywhere; up and down the line he rode, passing us twenty 
limes an hour and always trying to frighten the captives by his 



3G8 MINNESOTA HISTORICAL SOCIETY COLLECTIONS. 

hideous autics. Many of the warriors wore hidies' bonm-ts on 
their heads, and furs dragged downward from their legs. 
Their breasts were covered with brooches and chains of value; 
from their ears depended wheels from clocks and watchos 
which they had destroyed. The finest silks w^ere made into 
shirts; beautiful shawls were used for saddle cloths and cut up 
for head-dresses and waist girdles. There was no device too 
ridiculous for their attire and nothing too costly for them to 
destroy. How often I wished that I might have some of my 
own comfortable garments to keep us from the cold, but no 
amount of asking would induce them to give us so much as a 
blanket, and as the nights w^ere cold, although the days were 
hot, we needed covering, especially as our bed was the bare 
earth, often soaked with rain. How vividly I remember the 
time when a medicine man came to doctor my wounded friend, 
who was about to die. We were all thirst out of the tent and 
sat huddled together for warmth till nearly midnight, when 
the evil spirit, having been ejected from the sick man and shot 
at as it departed, we were allowed to return. While we were 
sitting outside an old squaw named Hazatome came along, and 
seeing us huddled together began to exclaim at our poverty. 
She had often came to our house and been kindly used. Her 
pity was so great that she offered to give each of us an Indian 
costume. Never dotibting her sincerity, I was greatly pleased 
and told her I would come for it the next day. I ran the risk 
of going some distance from our lodge to meet her and receive 
the clothing. Some fresh scalps had just been brought in and 
the Indians were having a dance, so I thought I need not fear. 
I found Hazatome and asked her for the articles, fully per- 
suaded that they would be forthcoming. Imagine my surprise 
when she would not titter a word. She neither affirmed nor 
denied having promised them, but simply ignored me alto- 
gether. I could not help crying with disappointment, but left 
her, thinking I would never believe or trust an Indian again. 
On our way up we came upon the body of George Gleason. who 
had been killed on the 18th as he was coming down fi-om Yel- 
low Medicine. I had known him before coming to the reserva- 
tion. All that day we were hoping that the whites would come, 
as the Indians seemed in great haste, urging on the captives 



V 



MKS. DE CAMP SWf:ET'S CAPTIVITY. 3G9 

with frequent threats if they did not hurry faster. My elder 
boy would carry the younger one on his back until exhausted, 
and then I would carry both him and the baby together. In 
contrast to what I have related of Indian character I tvill re- 
late here a little incident of that day's journey. We had 
stopped to rest for a few moments, something having hap- 
pened to the train, when I saw an old man, who had been a 
constant visitor at our house during the winter. I had felt 
great \nt\ for him, as he was very old and feeble, and he said 
his wife was ill. lie came three times a weelc to get his din- 
ner, and I always sent food to his wife. He seemed very much 
surprised to see me and the children, asked where Chan-ba- 
su-da-su-da-cha was; if he had been massacred, etc, and dart- 
ing away, came back leading an old squaw to where we were 
standing. He was telling her who we were and how good we 
had been to them, saying that then. I had everything and now I 
was a poor captive, without food or clothes. The old man's 
eloquence touched me dee])ly as I contrasted my situation with 
what it had been, and we were all bathed in tears. He 
brought up his pony, with poles fastened behind, and reaching 
a bundle brought out some pieces of bread and gave to the chil- 
dren, who were almost famished. He then fixed the bundles 
so that my little boy could ride, but no persuasion on our parts 
could induce him to leave me a moment. The poor old man 
had tried to comfort us the best he could, and I did not soon 
forget his attempted kindness in my forlorn state. The follow- 
ing morning we were roused early and the camp was soon in 
motion. The Indians were constantly on the lookout as they 
feared pursuit. That day we reached Rice creek, having made 
a wide detour from the main road; consequently Ave traveled 
much farther than if we had gone direct. Here they stayed 
several, days. The encampment was very large, about one 
thousand tents, I should think. It was like a city. The tents 
were upon the outside, facing inward, and the cattle and 
horses and wagons were in tlie centre. There I first saw Mrs. 
Hunter, whose husband had been killed near the fort, and 
many other captives. Mrs. Hunter was in John Moore's tent, 
a,ud I think Mrs. A. Robertson and her son Frank. We were 
not far ai)art, and Mat tie and myself often visited ;Mrs. flunter. 

oo 



370 



MINNESOTA HISTORICAL SOCIETY COLLECTIONS. 



and we read the Litany in the prayer book together, as Mrs. 
Hunter was the only one who had one. Mr. Moore was very 
kind to us, and said he wanted very much to help us get away 
to the'fort. AVhiJe we were at Kice creek they held a council, 
erecting a large tent and displacing the United States flag 
from the centre. Frank Roy, a half-breed, and John Moore felt 
certain that we would be sent to Fort Ridgely, but after the 
council was ended told us not to go if they did send us, 
for some of the parties w^ho advocated our going meant to lie 
in wait and murder us on the way. It was while here I first 
learned that my husband was living and that he was at Fort 
Kidgely. Some messengers had been sent down to see what 
the whites were going to do about the captives and when they 
returned told us that the agent, Dr. Wakefield, Mr. De Camp 
and others were there. From that moment I resolved that I 
would escape in some manner. Scouting parties were out the 
most of the time, and it was here I first met Wabasha after 
his leaving us on the first day. A large war party were as- 
sembling to go below, and Wabasha came to shake hands and 
bid me good-bye. I was surprised to see him and asked him 
where he was going. He pointed to his face, which was 
painted black with white lines running through it. I asked 
him if he were going to kill his white brothers and told him 
that I thought he was a friend of the whites. He said he was 
obliged to go, but that he would not kill any one — he "would 
shoot up." I told him how sorry I was to see him go to war, 
but he only said. ''I shake hands/' meaning good-bye, and was 
gone. This was the party we afterwards learned that fought 
at ]Mrch Coulie. In a short time we were again on the march 
and camped above the upper agency next time. The second 
or third day after the war party left, runners came into camp 
in great haste and ordered the squaws to run bullets as fast as 
they could, and all was consternation and uproar. I could not 
find out what had happened, but knew afterward that there 
had been a battle. I here met Lucy for the first time. She 
had heard that I was somewhere in camp and sought me out. 
I told her that I intended to try to escape; that we were almost 
starving and we might as well end the matter at once. She 
said that if I dare try she would help me that night to go to 



MRS. DE CAMP S^\'EET's CAPTIVITY. 



371 



her uncle's, an upper Indian, and I could there get luore to eat. 
In the confusion of the camp we could easily slip away, as all 
the warrioi*s had gone and only a few old men remained in 
camp. We had three miles to go that night, and I found I was 
growing very weak. Lucy carried the baby a while and tlien 
the other one, as we w^ere in great haste to get there. That 
night I found real friends. The grandmotlier (Lorenzo's 
mother) was one of Dr. Williamson's first converts to Chris- 
tianity. Having been a renowned medicine woman, she had 
great influence among the bands and she was a very superior 
squaw. She and her daughter cooked a nice supper of beef 
and bread and placed it on the table, and we ate with such 
appetites as hunger alone can give. It was the first real food 
in many weeks. That night we rested quietly away from the 
pandemonium of the camp. In the morning some one brought 
the news that the Indians would move up to Dr. Riggs' mission 
at once, and as soon as we could eat our breakfast we started 
on foot to get there before them. I knew that I would be 
safer there, as there were many Christian Indians there. John 
RenviUe was in charge after the escape of Dr. Kiggs' and Dr. 
Williamson's families. The Indians had sent them word that 
they were coming to burn the mission and wanted them all to 
put on Indian dress and go into tents. Paul Lorenzo and 
Simon were elders in Dr. Riggs' church and they at once took 
down the bell and buried it, and taking the books from the 
library, scooped out a large hole, and, lining it with blankets, 
placed them in it and covered it up carefully. The Indians 
came on Thursday afternoon and began to burn the buildings, 
the other Indians having gone into tents. They encamped on 
the other side of a small coulie, as they said they could kill the 
Christians better if they were by themselves. It was another 
dreadful time for us all, and I had given up all hope of our 
friends ever coming. We knew there had been a battle, but 
could learn nothing about it, only they claimed they had killed 
all the whites. On Saturday a large party returned from 
somewhere and Sunday the rest came in, bringing more cap- 
tives. All this time I had kept hidden from them, and I after- 
ward learned that they were out hunting for us. Late Sunday 
evening, Lorenzo, the son of the medicine woman, returned with 



372 



MINNESOTA HISTORICAL SOCIETY COLLECTIONS. 



his iJioUier to cniiip from which tliey liad started in the early 
part of the day, briiigiii<j; in some hirp:e turtles which they pro- 
ceeded to dress for the evening meal. Not a word was said by 
any one imtil after we had eaten and the children were asleep. 
The messengers of Little Crow had returned from the fort, tell- 
ing him that Gen. Sibley would not treat with them until they 
delivered the captives, and he said: -'Let them come; we will 
put the captives before the guns, then he can shoot." An old 
man went round that evening crying the news and saving that 
all must be ready to start for Red I'iver in the morning, and all 
the captives who could not walk would be killed. I knew then 
that the time had come to try to escape. Lorenzo and Simon 
sat smoking by the fire in the tent, but neither said a word. I 
felt sure they meant to try to help us escape, but Lorenzo's 
wife did not want to leave her people, and she was much afraid 
of the whites. I knew that we could never walk to British 
America, that we were even then unable to walk any distance, 
and that it would only end our troubles the sooner if we were 
killed while trying to escape. About 3 o'clock in the morning 
Lorenzo's mother came to us and said: "If you Avant to get 
away, now is the time." I arose very quickly, and, gathering 
my children together, found Lorenzo and his family ready to 
start. We crept out of the tent on our hands and knees, I with 
my baby clasped close to my breast. The children showed re- 
markable presence of mind, and no noise Avas made in any way. 
1 expected every moment to hear the shot tired that would end 
our lives, but I knew that death was behind if we stayed. We 
reached the cliapparel without being discovered, and there we 
met the mother of Lorenzo with a few handfuls of flour tied up 
in a rag for our provision on the way. vShe said it was all she 
could give us and seemed greatly troubled lest we should be 
missed and a search made for us. But Lorenzo knew that in 
the hurry of their departure they would scarcely miss us, there 
would be so much confusion. The old squaw^ seemed much 
affected at parting with her son, but refused all his entreaties 
to go with us, saying "she was an aged tree and the branches 
were all cut olT," and that she would die among her people. 
She embraced us all, and, commending us to the care of Him 
whom she tried to serve, left us and returned to camp. Lor- 



MRS. DE CAMP SAVfCET's CAPTIVITY. 



373 



enzo led the way toward tlie river, and we waJked in Indian 
file, he returning: every lirtle way to cover np onr trades and 
straigliten the vines whieli covered the ground. lie wonld not 
nllow ns to step on a lo«r. but step carefully over, and in this 
way we reached a marshy lake, which we entered, wading in 
some distance, whc^re he broke doAvn the tall reeds growing 
there and made a i>lace for us to sit, although in the water. It 
was just dawn when we entered the marsh. In a short time 
we heard the camp astir, with its usual noise, and we fully ex- 
pected pursuit. Soon the usual sounds of breaking camp were 
heard. Guns were fired, drums beaten, dogs barked and un- 
earthly shoutings filled the air. Being on lower ground the 
noises seemed close at hand. After they had started upward 
Lorenzo said he must go back to the camp to see if anything 
had been left that we might need and find out if they had 
missed us. The squaw (his wife) seemed terribly frightened 
at his determination, and we all tried to urge him not to do so. 
But he said he would come back safe, and started off. He said 
that he crept Indian fashion, with grass and weeds bound 
about him, until he got safely where ihey had been. He found 
a warning left for himself and Simon, saying they Avould shoot 
as many holes in them when found as they had shot into their 
tents which were left standing. He found two chickens in the 
bushes, which he killed and brought back with him. Just at 
dark he came in unobserved by us till in our midst, when he 
told the day's story and said we would go out of the lake on to 
higher ground and wait till morning to go to the river. I 
urged him to go on that night, but he would not. We were 
almost famished for water, as the place where we were, al- 
though filled with water, was unfit to drink. He wotdd not 
go, however, and we waded out to diyer ground, where we lay 
down m the tall grass in which the mosquitoes were so thick 
that we breathed them with every inhalation. But we were 
free, and, if wet, hungry and cold and naked, we had escaped 
from our dreadful captors. Just as day was dawning, we arose 
and started for the river, where the Indian and his mother had 
hidden the boats the Sunday before. When we got to the river 
we were so overjoyed that we could not wait, but rushed into 
it, drinking to our hearts' content. My baby, who had seemed 



374 



MINNESOTA HISTORICAT. SOCIETY COLLECTIONS. 



in a stupor for so many days, now grew more like himself and 
said he was. hungry. The squaw made preparations for cook- 
ing the flour and chickens, but the Indian said she nnisr not, as 
the smoke would show where we were. Hunger at last pre- 
vailed, and he said she might make the bread while he built tlx? 
fire. We were surrounded by thick woods, and there was little 
danger of our being detected. It seemed a meal fit for a king 
so hungry were we; the only trouble was there was not enough 
of it. We lay hidden all that day, and when night came we 
embarked in our frail boats. Mine was an Indian dug-out but 
very leaky. \\'e gathered boughs and leaves to put in the bot- 
tom and the Indian gave me a cup to bail it out. There was 
no paddle, only a piece of split board, which T\'as whittled so 
that I could grasp it. The Indians had taken a great deal of 
pains to break up and destroy every boat on the river so that 
the whites could not escape. The Indian's boat was a skiff 
with oars. He took his family and my eldest boy with him and 
I put my four-year-old boy behind me in the boat and carried 
the baby in my lap. We intended traveling only at night, but 
found that we could not get over the rapids, as it was dark and 
raining nearly all the way. The rain began just as we came 
where the Yellow Medicine empties into the Minnesota, and 
there I lost my paddle, which nuide the Indian very angry. 
The current was so swift, and I was unaccustomed to managing 
a boat, so I went drifting round and round, expecting every 
moment to be upset, till he rowed back and gave me one of his. 
I did not mind his anger so long as we were not drowned. The 
rain came on so heavily that we could not proceed, and at last 
got out of our boats, and, climbing up the river bank, laid down 
in the rain to await another day. While we were preparing to 
get into our boats the next morning the Indian saw across the 
river on tlie prairie a woman with five children running as fast 
as she could. He immediately got into the boat and crossed 
over and in about an hour he brotight her and the children 
to w^here we were. She had run away in the night and had 
secreted a few handfuls of crusts, which she had done up in a 
handkerchief. We had yet a little bread, which the squaw 
had saved, and that was all our provisions for the journey to 
the fort. The Indian said he had seen a canoe when we 



i 

r 



MKS. DE CAMP SWEET'S CAPTIVITY. 



375 



passed down in the night and he went back and brought it 
for the woman and her children. She was a Mrs. Kobideaux, 
whose husband was an enlisted soldier at tlie fort (Renville 
Rangers, Company I, Tenth Minnesota). The rain did not 
cease, but we started on. How vigorously I plied the paddle 
when I knew each stroke brought me nearer liberty and 
friends! Hunger, fatigue and pain were alike forgotten, or 
only remembered, as I thought of the possibilities lying before 
me. On the afternoon of Thursday we came to a crossing 
where we thought to remain all night. Suddenly we heard ilie 
distant sound of a cow bell; the Indian was alert in an instant. 
Grasping his gun, he ran into the woods in the direction of the 
sound and soon we heard one shot and then another, until we 
counted nine shots. Thinking he had met Indians and was be- 
ing fired upon, we hid ourselves as quickly as we could 
and waited. He finally came in with a huge piece 
of meat over his shoulder which he had cut from the 
cow he had killed without waiting to skin her. I 
leave any one to judge how that beef tasted to us 
after our long fast, as we ate it scarcely waiting for it to be 
cooked by holding it on sticks close to the blaze. After a 
hearty meal we laid down for the night and felt so thankful 
that it did not rain. The next day we made fires and cut and 
jerked portions of the beef for the rest of our journey. Late 
in the afternoon we again started, putting the meat into a 
separate canoe which the Indian had picked up the day before 
and in which he put my eldest boy and his own boy, who could 
paddle the boat. We then had four boats and meat enough 
to last the journey. About 9 o'clock in the evening it began to 
rain, and as we were nearing the site of the agency the In- 
dian had told us to be very quiet, as he feared there might be 
Indians around. We had heard the barking of dogs and other 
signs- of Indians. We were going along very silently when I 
heard a splash and gurgle behind me and knew something had 
happened to the boys' boat. The Indian had taken the lead, 
the woman and her children next, then my boat and the others 
came after. I knew that the boat holding the boys was over- 
turned, and that my boy could not swim. At once I shouted to 
the Indian, who was considerably in advance, that my boy was 



376 



MINNESOTA HISTORICAL SOCIETY COLLECTIONS. 



drowning. I pive no tliouglit to Indians and our safety, but 
•continued to shout until he came back and began to, hunt for 
the boy. We found liis son sitting far out on the roots of th»' 
tree that had upset the boat, but he did not utter a soumt. 
Wlien asked where the boat sank he would not reply. It was 
very dark and raining awfully, but in the continued search the 
squaw caught niy son by the hair as he came to the surface. It 
seemed an age that he had been in the water and he was un- 
conscious, but we landed at once and succeeded in restoring 
him. Again we were without food: but that seemed the least 
of onr evils when I thought of the past night's experience. We 
tried to sleep, but every one Avas too excited, the Indian fear- 
ing we would be attacked before morning. We started as 
usual in the early morning, and about 9 o'clock reached the 
place w^here the ferry had been opposite the agency. Seeing 
the mill and the house still standing I told the Indian that I 
meant to stop and see if I could recover anything. I knew 
where my husband kept his papers, and knew also that they 
would probably not be destroyed unless the house was burned. 
Feeling something would be needed in setting up business, I 
resolved to stop. The Indian was very angry, and said every- 
thing he could to hinder me. But I was obdurate, and for once 
had my own way. Seeing that I was determined he also 
landed and all went up to the house which I had once called 
home. It was a sad sight which was there presented. Every- 
thing which could not be taken away was torn up and thrown 
about, feather beds emptied, furniture hacked to pieces and 
otherwise destroyed. But I found the books and accounts 
which I was after, and. taking an old satchel, I packed them in 
it, together with a Bible, which I greatly prized, and we quicldy 
returned to the boats. This visit proved most advantageous 
to the .settlement of my business matters, and the Bible I still 
keep as a treasured memento of past happy days, the only 
article which remains to me of all my former possessions. We 
passed what we thought the body of Capt. Marsh a short dis- 
tance below the mill, lying in an eddy among the brush wood, 
and paddled hastily on, still fearing we would be overtaken. 
The tortuous river seemed endless, and I often begged the In- 
dian to leave the boats and go on foot the rest of the way. But 



MRS. DE CAMP SWEET^S CAI'TIVIl V. 377 

he would grow angry wli(*never ^^ o broached the subject, 
always telling how much he had done for us and ending by 
saying that now, when we were so near our liberties we did not 
care for his safety. "We did not realize, as he did, the danger 
to which he would be exposed from our troops had we gone in 
unannounced, for we all looked more or less like aboriginals. 
The days went by, however, until Sunday evening came, when 
suddenly there broke upon our ears a bugle note, followed by 
the quick tattoo of drums, which told us our long jo\irney was 
nearly ended and we would again be among friends. From 
that moment I felt assured of our safety, a feeling to which 1 
had been a stranger for so many dreadful days it seemed that 
I could not compute them. As we turned a bend in the river 
the Indian espied a wild goose, which he shot, and we landed, 
now I besought him to go on! The rain had commenced fall- 
ing heavily and how could we endure another night lying on 
the wet ground with our friends so near? But the indomitable 
will of the Indian prevailed, and we Avere treated to another 
lecture on ingratitude, which I made haste to deny, and sub- 
mitted as cheerfully as possible to the inevitable. The storm 
raged furiously all that night, which seemed almost an eternity 
to me, waiting for I knew not what. Hope and fear alter- 
nately seized me. Would I find my husband and we be once 
more united? Or would my children, whom I had brought so 
far and through such terrible dangers, be fatherless? The 
storm at last drove the Indian to our boats, which nearly cap- 
sized with the wind and rain, and when we reached the f(M'ry 
he landed. Leaving his wife and the French woman with their 
children in the boats, he took my little boy in his arms and wc 
started for the fort. It was situated on a hill some distance 
from the river, and the rain was running in torrents down tli^^ 
hill. 1 felt that I could never reach the top so exhausted had [ 
become. My clothing was in rags, an old piece of gingham en- 
veloped my head; my feet were bare and bleeding, as were my 
childrens'; but, oh, joy! we were at last free! Reaching the 
top of the hill I saw a gentleman come out of the garrison to- 
ward us, who proved to be Kev. Joshua Sweet, the chaplain of 
the post. He advanced to* meet us. I asked him if my hus- 
band were there. Tears choked his utterance as he said: "t 



378 MINNESOTA HISTORICAL SOCIETY COLLECTIONS. 



buried him ten days ago.'' No words can describe the awful 
desohxtion of that hour. Every hoi)e seemed blotted out from 
the horizon of ray existence, and life and liberty boug:ht at such 
a price seemed worthless as I loolced at the future of my father- 
less children, without a home and many hundred miles from 
my people. Every one in the garrison showed us the greatest 
kindness and means were speedily raised and given me to go 
to my friends. An escort was also provided to take us to St. 
Peter, Lieut. Sheehan commanding. It is needless to state 
that his gentlemanly kindness to us was most gratefully re- 
ceived, as well as that of the other officers who were of the 
escort, but whose names I do not now remember. From St. 
Peter I was sent in the stage coach to Shakopee, where we had 
formerly lived and where we were welcomed back as if raised 
from the dead, so great was the enthusiasm of our reception. 
Homes were offered by generous friends, clothing was prepared 
for us, and in a short time my father, an old man of seventy, 
came as fast as steam could bring him to take me to his South- 
ern home. There, amid the conflict and din of battle, my 
mother had been laid to rest just one month before the death of 
my husband. In a few weeks after our arrival I again became 
a mother, my family now numbering four sons, and we re- 
mained in the South until after the war was over and peace 
restored to the nation as well as families and friends of whom 
mine were about equally divided. 

In 1SG6 I again returned to Fort Ridgcly as the wife of Kev. 
J. Sweet, the chaplain of the garrison. 

I have omitted many tilings which would be of interest to 
the reader, and one which I cannot let go unmentioned. Of 
the many heroic deeds which history has recorded there is one 
which should be preserved and told to children and their chil- 
dren's children for generations. It is of the heroic ferryman, 
Manley, who refused time after time to escape, saying "that as 
long as he knew there was one white person to be ferried over 
the river, so long would he be there to cross them over." Every 
heart thrills at deeds of valor done, and eA'ery schoolboy has 
read of Leonidas and his brave men at the pass of Thermopylae 
who said to his men "that they were a small number to tight, 
but enough to die." But Manley knew that he alone must 



1 



MRS. DE CAMP SAVEET'S CArTIVITY. 



379 



endure the raj;e of those infuriated saviiges. His name should 
be inscribed amonpj those whom their country deli^^'hts to honor, 
for, though an obscure man, he was a hero of the grandest ty])e 
amidst tlie many heroes of that dreadful time. Time would 
almost fail to record the deeds of h(?roism and bravery of both 
men and women during the period of wliich I am writing. In 
the tent, on the battle-field, at home praying for the loved ones, 
five awful years were passing, years which now recorded seem 
like a passing tale, but to the participants so awfully real that 
memory cannot even now dwell upon them without a pity so 
vast as to be unexplainable. 

This narrative would not be complete without an account of 
the particii)ation of my husband in the battle of Birch Coulie, 
where he fell mortally wounded. Being almost distracted in 
mind at the probable fate of his family, he and others used 
every exertion to prevail on the commander to send out a party 
to bury the dead or seek the living. Accordingly, he with 
others started on that ill-fated expedition from which he was 
destined to return with no knowledge of his loved ones and 
only death awaiting him. Of his bravery he gave ample proof, 
as is recorded by those who were with him and saw him shot 
down. Maj. Galbraith told me the story afterward, how his old 
Sharp's rifle did rapid work as soon as they were attacked, and 
that while he was standing at his side holding up something 
to shield my husband from the enemy's firing he saw an Indian 
aim directly at him. He fell down and evaded the bullet, 
rising again to shoot before the other could load, but the Indian 
had a double-barrel and shot just as he raised up, the ball en- 
Xering his head on the left side of the forehead. For thirty 
hours the carnage lasted, and all that time the wounded lay 
without a drop of water to quench their awful thirst. Then 
when deliverance came they were carried back to the fort, 
many of them to die. I know not whether his name is en- 
graved on any monument which commemorates the deeds 
wrought by those brave men, but it will live in the hearts of 
those who knew him and loved him best. I would also add 
that the Indian, Ton-wan-I-ton, or Lorenzo Lawrence, who 
brought us to the fort, was taken into Gen. Sibley's employ as 
scout and returned with him, guiding and directing them to 
•the enemy. The General came to see me in regard to their 



380 



MINNESOTA HISTORICAL SOCIETY COLLECTIONS. 



numbers and position and the probability of getting the cap- 
tives. I referred liim to Lorenzo as i)erfeclly reliable and trust- 
worthy, and he did not fail to fill the recommendation. The 
poor fellow was sadly wounded at the battle of Wood Lake, but 
never got a pension so far as I know, lie and his wife came 
to visit us at Fort Ridgely after I returned there and he made 
us several visits afterward. Whether he is now living I do not 
know, but for his faithful kindness to me and mine I shall never 
cease to remember him as a true friend, albeit an Indian, and 
one who did not fear to sacrifice all he had for the safety of 
his white friends. There were many others I could mention as 
deserving the highest praise for their devotion to the whites 
and but for whom many who were afterward restored to 
friends would have been of the number whose bones may even 
now be bleaching in some lonely spot. To such as those I owed 
my safety from dishonor and death. 

I leave this imperfectly written sketch to the mercy of my 
kind friends, who, I trust, will understand how hard a task it 
has been for me to live over those unhappy days which are here 
recorded and which for many years I have striven to forget; 
and to all those who are now living that befriended me in those 
days of adversity I tender my heartfelt thanks, and, in the 
language of Wabasha, ^1 shake hands." 

J. E. De C. SWEET. 

Centreville, March 14, 1S93. 



382 MINNESOTA HISTORICAL SOCIETY COLLECTIONS. 



A SIOUX STORY OF THE WAR. 



The Indians' Side of the Stoky, Told by One of Tiieie Leaders — 
The Story from Outhkeak to Surrender — Why and How the 
Sioux Fought— Causes of the War, Comments on the Campaigns, 
AND Battle Memories of Fort Kidgely, New Ulm, Birch Coulie, 
Wood Lake, Etc., Etc. 



CHIEF BIG EAGLE'S STORY OF THE SIOUX OUTBREAK 

OF 18G2. 

The stories of the great Sioux war in Minnesota in 1S62 never 
grow old. They are always new to many and never dull to any- 
body. Although thirty-two years, nearly a third of a centuiy, 
have passed since that eventful episode, yet to many it seems 
but a few months since barbarism rode rampant over a great 
part of the state, and civilization, gashed and bleeding, was 
prone on the prairies, with none to bind up the wounds. All 
over the state are survivors of that terrible contest who remem- 
ber its incidents and relate them as if the crack of the rifle and 
the din of the war-whoop yet rang in their ears. The story is 
always of interest to them. 

Tliere are two sides to tliis as to every other story. The ver- 
sion of the white people ought to be well enough known. But 
the Indian side, strangely enough, has not been recorded. The 
soldiers of the Union read no stories of the great Rebellion with 
more interest than the naiTatives of the ex-Confederates, and we 
never got the full and true story of the war until they began to 
write. So we can never fully understand the Sioux war of 1S62 
until the Indians tell their story. 



In June, 1S94, Mr. Robert I. Ilolcombo of St. Paul (who had become familiar 
with the history of Gen. Sibley's campaigns against the Sioux In 1SC.2 and 
1SG3, from having been employed several months in examining and classifying 
the letters and papers of Gen. Sibley for the Minnesota ITistorical society), made 
a trip to riandrau, S. D., to get from :Nrrs. lluggan and others the Indians* 
side of the story of the great outbreak of 1S02. He there met Big Eag'e, a 
chief, who had taken part with Little Crow in the battles, but had not been 
engaged In the massacre of whites. ITIs narrative was taken down from his 
own lips, through Mrs. lluggan, Rev. ^fr. Eastman and other competent Inter- 
pretors. (This story was first published in the St. Paul Pioneer Press, July 
1. 1S94.) 



A SIOUX STORY OF THE WAR. 



383 



Perhaps the most notable survivor of the old Sioux hostiles 
is Mr. Jerome Big Eagle, now residing near Granite Falls, in 
this state. His true Christian name, however, is Elijah. His 
Indian name is "AVamdetonka," which literally means Great 
War Eagle, but he was commonlv called Big Eagle. The Sioux 
for the common bald eagle is ''hu-ya" and "wamde" means war 
eagle, "tonka" meaning great or big. He was a sub-chief, and 
may be termed one of the Sioux generals, since he had a band 
or division of his own. A representative of the Pioneer Press, 
wdio for some time has been engaged in the work referred to, 
recently interviewed Mr. Big Eagle at Flandrau, S. D., where he 
was temi>orarily on a visit, upon the subject of the war of 1SG2. 
He cannot speak English, and Bev. John Eastman of Flandrau, 
an educated and intelligent gentleman, and Mrs. Xancy Huggan, 
a sketch of whose adventurous life appears in this volume, 
kindly acted as interpreters during the "talk," which lasted sev- 
eral hours. 

Mr. Big Eagle was first informed that his statements were 
wanted solely in order that a correct knowledge of the military 
movements of the Indians during the wai' might be learned. It 
was suggested to him that no harm therefrom could come to him 
or any of his people ; that neither the war banner nor the "bloody 
shirt" waved any longer in Minnesota; that it was well known 
that he was a prominent character in the war, but that he was 
now and had been for many years a quiet, industrious Chris- 
tian citizen, respected by all who knew him, and he was as- 
sured that he would be correctly reported. He readily con- 
sented to tell his story, and gave full permission to use his name. 
Other Indians interviewed on the same subject gave certain 
information, but requested that their names be not printed. 
Big Eagle's story is here given substantially as related to the 
reporter by the two intelligent interpreters, or at least as it was 
understood. 

The old man was very frank and unreserved. He did not 
seem to wish to avoid or evade an answer to a single question. 
He is of more than ordinary intelligence, and spoke candidly, 
deliberately and impassively, and with the air and manner of 
one striving to tell -the whole truth and nothing but the truth." 
He proved a mine of information, and his story contains many 
items of history never before published. 

(The portraits of Big Eagle, Ee<l Legs and Blue Earth, shown 
on page 3S1, are from photographs taken in 1858, when on 



381 



MINNESOTA HISTORICAL SOCIETY COLLECTIONS. 



tbcir way to Washington, and which are now in the possession 
of the Historical society.) 

"1 was born in the Indian village of niy father near ^lendota, 
in 1S27, and am now sixty-seven years old. ^ly father was Gn-y 
Iron, a sub-chief of the Midawa-xantoii Sioux. When he died I 
succeeded liim as chief of tlie l)and and adopted the name of 
his father, Wambde-tonka, which, as is commonly called, means 
the Big Eagle. When I was a young man I often went witli 
war parties against the Chippewas and other enemies of my 
nation, and the six featliers shown in the head-dress of my 
picture in tlie Historical society at St. Paul stand for six Chip- 
pewa scalps that I took when on the warpath. l>y the terms 
of the treaties of Traverse des Sioux and Mendota in 1S51, the 
Sioux sold all of their lands in Minnesota, except a strip ten 
miles wide on each side of the Minnesota river from near Fort 
Eidgely to the Big Stone lake. The Medawakantons and Wa- 
coutas had their reservation up to the Yellow Medicine. In 
1S5S the ten miles of this strip belonging to the Medawakanton 
and Wacouta bands, and lying north of the river were sold, 
mainly through the influence of Little Crow. That year, with 
some other chiefs, I went to Washington on business conn(^cted 
with the treaty. The selling of that strip north of the ^limie- 
sota caused great dissatisfaction among the Sioux, and Little 
Crow was always blamed for the part he took in the sale. It 
caused us all to move to the south side of the river, where 
there was but very little game, and many of our people, under 
the treaty, were induced to give up the old life and go to work 
like white men, which was very distasteful to many. 

"Of the causes that led to the outbreak of August, 1SG2, much 
has been said. Of course it was wrong, as we all know now, but 
there were not many Christians among the Indians tlien, and 
they did not understand things as they should. There was 
great dissatisfaction among the Indians over many things the 
whites did. The whites would not let them go to war against 
their enemies. This was right, but the Indians did not then 
know it. Then the whites were always trying to make the 
Indians give up their life and live like white men — go to farm- 
ing, work hard and do as they did — and the Indians did not 
know how to do that, and did not want to anyway. It seemed 
too sudden to make such a change. If the Indians had tried 
to make the whites live like them, the whites would have re- 
sisted, and it was the same way witli many Indians. The Indi- 



A SIOUX STOKV OF THE WAR. 



aiis wniited to live as they did licfoie tlie Ircaty of Tia verse des 
8ioux — ;;o where they pleased and wlieii they pleased; hunt 
game wherever tlioy coidd liiid ii, sl-II Iheii- furs to the traders 
and live as tliey coidd. 

''Then the Indians did not think I lie tt adcrs liad done right. 
The Indians boiiglit goods of ilicni on credit, and wlien (he gov- 
ernment payments came tlie ti-aders were on liand with tlieir 
books, which sliowed that the Indians owed so much and so 
much, and as the Indians kejit no books they could not deny 
their accounts, but had to pay them, and sometimes the traders 
got all their money. I do not say that the traders always 
cheated and lied about these accounts. I know many of them 
were honest men and kind and accommodating, but since I have 
been a citizen I know that nnniy white men, when they go to 
pay their accounts, often thiidc tliem too large and refuse to pay 
them, and they go to law about them and there is much bad 
feeling. The Indians could not go to law, but there was always 
trouble over their credits. L'nder the treaty of Traverse des 
J^ioux the Indians had to pay a \eiy large sum of money to the 
traders for old debts, some of which ran back fifteen years, and 
many of those who had got the goods were dead and others 
>yere not present, and the traders' books had to be received as 
to the amounts, and the money a\ as taken from the tribe to ])ay 
them. Of course the traders often were of great sernce to the 
Indians in letting them have goods on credit, but the Indians 
seemed to think the traders ought not to be too hard on them 
about tlie payments, but do as the Indians did among one 
another, and put off the payment until they were better able to 
make it. 

*'Tlien many of the white men often abused the Indians and 
treated them unkindly. Perhaps they had excuse, but the Indi-- 
aus did not think so. Many of the whites ah\ ays seem<Ml to say 
by their manner when they saw an Indian, 'I am much better 
thaayou,' and the Indians did not like this. There was excuse 
for this,' but the Dakotas did not beli(n-e there were better men 
in the world than they. Then some of the white men abused the 
Indian women in a certain way and disgraced them, and surely 
there was no excuse for that. 

"All these things made numy Indians dislike the whites, 
llien a little while before the outbreak there was trouble 
among the Indians themselves. Some of the Indians took a sen- 
—2.-? 



386 MINNESOTA IIISTOKICAL SOCIETY COLLECTIONS. 



sible courfie and l)0<iaii to live like while men. Tlie ^ovcrnmonl 
built them houses, furnished tlu'iu tools, seed, clc. and laii.uhi 
them to farm. At the two aj^cneies, Yellow M»'di( iiic and K.-d 
wood, there were several hundred aeres of land in cult i\ai ion 
that summer. Others staid in theii- tepei's. There was a wliiic 
man's party and an Indian party. We had politics anion;; us 
and there was much feeling-. A new chief speaker for the trib(* 
was to be eleeled. There were three candidates — l.iiile (.'row, 
myself and Wa-sui-hi ya-ye-dan ('Traveling llaiT). Afier an ex- 
citing contest Ti-aveling JIail was elected. laille Crow felt 
sore over his defeat, ^lany of our tribe believed him respon- 
sible for the sale of tlie ]iortli ten-mile strip, and I thiid; this was 
why he was defeated. I did not care much about ir. ^lany 
whites think that Little Crow was the principal chief of the 
Bakotas at this time, but he was not. Wabasha was the ])rinci- 
pal chief, and he was of the white man's party; so was 1; so 
was old Shakopee, whose band ^yas very large, ^lany think if 
old Shakopee had lived there A^•ould have been no war, f(M' In? 
was for the white nuui and liad great intiiience. J'»ut he died 
that suntnu'r, and was succeeded by his son, whose real name 
was Ea-to-ka ('Another Language'), but when he became chief 
he took his father's name, and was afterwards called 'Little 
Shakopee,' or 'Little Six,' for in the Sioux language 'Shakopee' 
means six. This Shakopee was against the wliiti^ men. He 
took part in the outbreak, murdering women and children, but 
I never saw him in a battle, and he was caught in Manitoba and 
hanged in 1SG4. My brother, Medicine Bottle, was hanged with 
him. 

''As the summer advanced, there was gr(\at trouble among the 
Sioux — troubles among themsehes. troubles with the whites, 
and one thing and another. The war v> ith the South was going 
on then, and a great many men had left the state and gone down 
there to fight. A few W(x4;s befcu-e the outbreak the ]>resident 
called foi* many more nu'U, and a great many of the white men 
of [Minnesota and some half-breeds enlisted and went to Fort 
Snelling to be sent South. We understood that the Smith was 
getting the best of the light, and it was said that the North 
wouhrbe whipped. The year before the new president had 
turned out :>raj. Brown and Maj. Cullen. the Indian agenis, and 
put in their places :^raj. Galbraith and Mr. Clark T]iom]>s(Ui. and 
they had turned out the men under them and put in oihi-rs of 



A SIOUX STOKY OF THE WAR. 



387 



their own pai'ty. Thoro wen* a great many chanf^es. An 
Indian named Slionka-sha rXMiiic Dog'), who had been liired to 
teack the Indians tu farm, was removed and another Indian 
iiamed Tii-oi)i (*The AA'ounded Man'), a son of old Betsy, of St. 
Tanl, jHii in his plaee. Nearly all of the men who were turned 
out were dissatisfied, and the most of llie Indians did not like 
the neAV men. At last .AJaj. (lalhraitli went to work about the 
agencies and recruited a comi)any of soldiers to go KSouth. His 
men were nearly all half-breeds. This was the company called 
the Kenville Rangers, for they were mostly from Kenville county. 
The Indians now thought the whites must be pretty hard up for 
men to light the South, or they would not come so far out on the 
frontier and take half-breeds or anything to help them. 

''it began to be whis])ered about that now would be a good 
time to go to war witli the whites and get back the lands. It 
was believed that the men who had enlisted last had all 
left the state, and that before help could be sent the Indians 
could clean out the country, and that the Winnebagoes, and 
even the Chippewas, would assist the Sioux. It was also 
thought that a war with the whites would cause the Sioux to 
forget the troubles among themselves and enable many of them 
to pay olf some old scores. Though I took part in the war, I was 
against it. I knew there was no good cause for it, and I had 
been to Washington and knew the power of the whites and that 
they -svould finally conquer us. We might succeed for a time, 
but we would be overpowered and defeated at last. I said aU 
this and many moi^e things to my people, but many of my own 
bands Avere against me, and some of the other chiefs put words 
in their mouths to say to me. When the outbreak came Little 
Crow told some of my band that if I refused to lead them to 
shoot me as a traitor who would not stand up for his nation, 
and then select another leader in my place. 

"But after the first talk of war the counsels of the peace 
Indians prevailed, and many of us thought the danger had all 
blown over. The time of the government payment was near at 
hand, and this may have had something to do with it. There 
was another thing that helped to stop the war talk. The crops 
that had been put in by the 'farmer- Indians were looking well, 
and there seemed to be a good ])rospect for a plentiful supply of 
provisions for them the coming winter witliout having to depend 
on the game of the country or without going far out to the west 



388 



MINNf:SOTA HISTOUICAL SCJCIKTV COLLKCTIONt>. 



OIJ the }>laiiis for biilValo. Ji srrintHl as if the wliiic* men's wav 
was certainly the best. ^lany of the Indians had been slntrt of 
provisions thai summer and liad cxhausrcd tht-ir rrt-dits and 
Avere in bad condition. "Xow,' said the farmer Indians, 'if you 
had worked hist season you would not be starving now and 
begging for food.' The 'farmers' were favored by the govern- 
ment in e^ery way. Tliey had houses built for Them, some of 
tliem even had brick houses, and they were not allowed to suff<'r. 
The other Indians did not like this. They were envious of ilu in 
and jealous, and disliked them because they had gone ba< k on 
the customs of the tribe and because they were favored. Tliey 
called them 'farmers,' as if it was disgraceful to be a farm»*r. 
They called them 'cut-hairs,' because they had given up the 
Indian fashion of wearing the hair, and 'breeches men,' because 
they wore j)a]Ualoons, aiid 'Dutchmen,' because so many of the 
settlers on the north side of the river and elsewhere in the 
country were Germans. I have. heard that there was a slh ivi 
organization of the Indians called the 'Soldiers' Lodge,' whose 
object was to declare war against the wliites, but I knew noth- 
ing of it. 

"At last the time for tlie payment came and the Indians 
came in to tlie agencies to get their money. But the paymaster 
did not come, and week after week went by and still he did not 
come. The payment was to be in gold. Somebody told the 
Indians that the payment would never be made. The govern- 
ment was in a great war, and gold was scarce, and paper money 
had taken its place, and it was said the gold could not be had to 
pay us. Then the trouble began again and the war talk started 
lip. ^lany of the Indians wlio had gathered about the agencies 
were out of provisions and were easily made angry. Still, most 
of us thought the trouble would pass, and we said nothing about 
it. I thought there might be trouble, but I had no idea there 
would be such a war. Little Crow and other chiefs did not 
thii^k so. lUit it seems some of the tribe were getting ready 
for it. 

^^"ou know how the war started — by the killing of some 
white people near Acton, in Meeker county. I will tell you 
how this was done, as it was told me by all of the four young 
men who did the killing. These young fellows all belonged to 
Shakopee's band. Their names were Sungigidan (T»rown 
Wing'), Ka om-de-i-ye-ye-dan cnreaking Up'), Nagi-wi-cak-te 



A SIOUX STOKV OF THE WAK. 



389 



('Killing- Ghost'), and Pa-zo-i-yo-pa cliuiis a^iainst Somcihirig 
when rrawling'i I do not tliink tlioir iianics liavc over before 
been printed. One of them is yet living. They told me they did 
not go out to kill ^vhite jx-ople. They said they wt-ni over into 
the Big Woods to hunt : that on Sunday, Aug. IT, they came to 
a settler's fence, and here they fonnd a Iumi's m*st Avith some 
eggs in it. One of them took the eggs, when another said: 
*Don't take them, for they belong to a white man and we may 
get into trouble.' The other was angry, for lu' an as very hungry 
and wanted to eat the eggs, and he dashed them to the ground 
iind replied: 'You are a coward. You are afraid of the white 
man. You are afniid to take even an egg from him, though you 
are half-starved. Yes. you are a coward, and I will tell every- 
body so.' The other replied: 'I am not a coward. I am not 
afraid of the white man, and to show you thai I am not I will 
go to the house and shoot him. Are you brave enough to go 
with me?' The one had called him a coward said: 'Yes, I 
w ill go with you, and we will see who is the braver of us two.' 
Their two companions then said: 'We will go with you, and we 
will be brave, too.' They all went to the house of the white 
man (Mr. Eobinson Jones), but he got alarmed and went to an- 
other house (that of his son-in-law, Howard Baker), where were 
some other white men and women. The four Indians followed 
them and killed thrw men and two women (Jones, Baker, a Mr. 
Webster, Mrs. Jones and a girl of fourteen). Then they hitched 
up a team belonging to another settler and drove to Shakopee's 
camp six miles above Bedwood agency), which tliey reached 
late that night and told what they had done, as I have related. 

"The tale told by the young men created the greatest excite- 
ment. Everybody was waked up and heard it. Shakopee took 
the young men to Little Crow's house (two miles above the 
agency), and he sat up in bed and listened to their story. He 
said war was now declared. Blood had been shed, the payment 
would be stopped, and the whites would take a dreadful ven- 
geance because women had been killed. AVabasha, Wacouta, 
myself and others still talked for peace, but nobody would listen 
to us, and soon the cry was 'Kill the whites and kill all tliese cut- 
hairs who will not join us.' A council was In^ld and war was 
declared. Parties fonned and dashed away in the darkness to 
kill settlers. The women l)egan to run bullets and the men to 
clean their guns. Little Crow gave orders to attack the agency 



390 MINNESOTA HISTOKICAL SOCIETY COLLECTIONS. 

early next luoniin*!: and to kill all the hjuUts. AVhcn the Indi- 
ans first came to him for counsel and advice he said to th<-m, 
taiintin<;ly: 'Why do you come to me for advice? Go to the 
man you elected si)caker (Traveling llailj and let him tell you 
what to do'; but he soon came around all right and somehow 
took the lead in everything, though he was not head chief, as 1 
have said. 

"At this time my village was up on Crow creek, near Little 
Crow's. I did not have a very large baud — not more than thirty 
or forty fighting men. 3Iost of them were not for the war at 
first, but nearly all got into it at last. A great many m-mbcis 
of the other bands were like my men; they took no part in the 
first movements, but afterward did. The next morniug, when 
the force started down to attack the agency, I went along. I 
did not lead my band, and I took no part in the killing. 1 went 
to save the lives of two particular friends if I could. 1 think 
others went for the same reason, for nearly e^ery Indian had a 
friend that he did not want killed: of course he did not rare 
about anybody's else friend. The Jdlling was nearly all done 
when I got there. Little Crow was on the ground directing 
operations. The day before, he had attended church there and 
listened closely to the sermon and had shaken hands with every- 
body. So many Indians have lied about their saving the lives 
of white people that I dislike to speak of what I did. But I 
did save the life of George II. Spencer at the time of the mas- 
sacre. I know that his friend. Chaska, has always had the 
credit of that, but Spencer would have been a dead man in spite 
of Chaska if it had not been for me. I asked Spencer about 
this once, but he said he was wounded at the time- and so ex- 
cited that he could not remember \yhat I did. Once after that 
I kept a half-breed family from being murdered; these are all 
the peo])le whose lives I claim to have saved. I was never pres- 
ent when the white people were willfully murdered. I saw all 
the dead bodies at the agency. Mr. Andrew ;Myrick, a trader, 
with an Indian wife, had refused some hungry Indians credit a 
short time befiue when they asked him for some provisions. 
He said to them : 'Go and eat grass.' Now he was lying on the 
ground dead, with his mouth stuffed full of grass, and the In- 
dians were saying tauntingly: *^lyrick is eating grass himself.' 

"When I returned to my village that day I found that many 
of my band had changed their minds about the war, and wanted 



A SIOUX STORY OF THK WAK. 



391 



to <;o into it. .All tlu* other villa<;('S were the same way. 1 was 
still of tin' belief thai it was not best, but I llioughl I nmst «;o 
with my band and u\y naiion, and I said to niy men that I 
would lead them into the war, and we would all aet like brave 
Dakotas and do the best \\v could. .Vll my men were with me; 
none liad j;one olT on raids, but we did not lia\e ^uns for all at 
first. 

**That afternoon word came to my villa^^c thai soldiers were 
comin<;- to the a«:ency from Foi't Snellin;;-. (These were ('apt. 
Marsh and liis men.) At once I mounted the best horse I had, 
and, with some of my men, rode as fast as I could to meet them 
at the ferry. Jbit when I j-ot there the li^ht was over, and I 
well renieniber that a cloud of i»owder smoke was risin;^^ shjwly 
from the low, wet j^round ^^•here the liriui;- had been. I heard a 
few scattering" shots down the river, where the Indians were 
still })ursuing the soldiers, but I took no part. I crossed the 
river and saw the bodies of the soldiers that had been killed. 
I think ^Ir. Quinn, the interj)reter. was shot several tinn's after 
he had been killed. The Indians told me that the most of them 
who fired on Cai)t. Marsh and his men w ere on the same side of 
the river; that only a few sliots came from the ojjposite or 
south side. They said that White l)oj>- did not tell ^Ir. Quinn 
to come over, but told him to ^o back. Of course I do not know 
what the truth is about this. White Do;^ was the Indian head 
farmer who had been replaced by Taopi and who was hanged at 
Mankato. 

"I was not in the first fight at >>'ew Ulm nor the lirsr attack 
on Fort Kidgely. Here let me say that the Indian names of 
these and other places in ^Minnesota are dilferent from the Kng- 
lish names. St. l*aul is the 'White Kock;' Minneapolis is 'the 
riace Where the Water Falls;' Xew Vim is 'the Place Where 
There Is a Cottonwood drove on the Kiver;" Fort Kidg^'ly was 
'the Soldiers' House;' lUrch Coulie was called 'liirch Creek,' 
etc. 'I was in the second tight at X(?w Ulm and in the >ei-ond 
attack on Fort Kidgely. At New Flm T had but a few of my 
band with me. We h)st none of them. AVe had but few. if any, 
of the Indians killed; at h'ast I did not hear of but a few. A 
half-breed named (Jeorge Le F.lanc, who was with us, was killed. 
There was no one in v hief command of the Indians at New Flm. 
A few sub-chiefs, like myself, and the head soldiers le 1 them, 
and the leaders agrcM'd among themselves what was to be done. 



302 



MINVKSOTA IIISTORICAI. SOCIKTV COI-LIXTIONS. 



I do iKit tliiiik ihciv was n clncf pi-cscnl at tlx' lirst iv/ni. I 
Ihiiik tliat attack was made by marauding- Indians from srvcral 
bands, evciy man for liimsclf. bnt when we heard tln'v were 
fightinj; we went down ro h(dp Iheni. I think it probabh' that 
the first attack on Fovi Ivid-dy was made in the same way; at 
any i-ate. I do not remend)er that theri^ was a ehief there. 

''The second li-lit at Fort liid^t'ly was made a <;rand alTair. 
Little Crow was witli us. ^Ir. Good Tluindor, now at liirch 
Coiilie aj^ency. was witli ns. He counted the Indians as ihey 
filed past him on ihe march to the attack, and reported tliat 
there were S()() of us. He a< tcd very bravely in the ti.uht. and 
distin«;uished liimsidf by running close up to the fort and bring- 
iug away a horse. He is now married to the former widow of 
AVhiie l>og, and l)oih he and his wife are good Christian ciii- 
zeus. We went do^^n determined to take the fort, for we knew 
it was of the greatest importance to us to have it. If we could 
take it we would soon have the whole Minnesota valley. lUit 
we failed, and of course it was best that we did fail. 

**Tlioiigh Little Crow was ])resent, he did nor take a very 
active part in the tight. As I n.Muember. the chief leaders in 
the fight were 'The Thief/ who was the head soldier of .Man- 
kalo's band, and Mankato ciJlue Earth*) himself. This Mankato 
was not the old chief for whom the town was named, but a sub- 
chief, the son of old Good Load. He was a very brave man and 
a good leader. He was killed at the battle of Wood lake by a 
cannon ball. We went down to the attack on both sides of the 
river. I went down (ui the south side v/ith my men, and we 
crossed the river in front of the fort and Avent up through the 
timber and fought on that side next the river. The light com- 
menced about noon on Friday after the outbreak. We had a 
few 8issetons and AVakpatons with us, and some Winnebagoes, 
under the 'Little I'riest.' were in this tight and at New Clm. I 
saw them mysi'lf. Ihit for the cannon 1 think we would have 
taken the fori. The soldiers fought tis so bravely we thought 
there were more of them tlutn there were. The cannons dis- 
turbed us greatly, but did not liurt many. We did not have 
many Indians kibed. 1 think the whites put the number too 
large, and I think they overestimated the nund)er killed in every 
battle. We seldom carried oil" our dead. We usually buried 
them in a secluded place on the battle-lield when we could- 
We always tried to carry away the wounded. AMumi we re- 



A SIOUX STOIiY OF TIIK WAR. 



393 



treated from Eidgt-ly I rosscil ilic river c)pi)()siie the fort and 
went up on the soiirh side. All our army ]>iit the scouts fell 
back up the river lo our \ illa^vs near TIedwood agency, and tlien 
on up to the YeHow Medicine and tlie mouth of llie Chijjpewa. 

"Our scouts brought Avord that our old friend AVapetonhonska 
('The Tx)n.£r Trader' i. as we called ( leu. Sibh.-y, was coming up 
against us. and in a few days we learned that he had come to 
Fort Eidgely with a large number of soldiers. Little Crow, with 
a strong party, went over into the r>ig Woods, towards Forest 
City and Hutchinson. After he had gone, I and the other sub- 
chiefs concluded to go down and attack Xew IJlm again and 
take the town and cross the river to the east, or in the rear of 
Fort IMdgely. where Sibley was. and then our movements were 
to be governed by circumstances. We had left our village n. ar 
the Redwood in some haste and alarm, expecting to be followed 
after the defeat at Ridgely, and had not taken all our property 
away. So we tonk juany of our women wiih us lo gather u|> 
the property and some other things, and we brought along some 
wagons to haul them off. 

*We came down the main road on the south side of the river, 
and were several hundred strong. We left our camps in the 
morning and got to our old villages in the afternoon. Wlien 
the men in advance reached Little Crow's village — which was on 
the high bluff on the south side of the Minnesota, below the 
mouth of the Redwood — they looked to the north across the val- 
ley, and up on the high bluff' on the north side, and out on the 
prairie some miles away, they saw a column of mounted men 
and some wagons coming out of the Beaver creek timber on the 
prairie and going eastward. We also saw signs in Little Crow's 
tillage that white men had been there only a few hours before, 
and judging from the trail they had made when they left, these 
were the men wc now saw to the nortliward. There was, of 
cotirse, a little ex( itement. and the column halted. Four or five 
of our best seouts were sent across the valley to "follow the 
movements of tlie soldiers. cree])ing across the prairie like so 
many ants. It was near sundown, and we knew they wotild 
soon go into camp, and we thought the camping ground would 
be somewhere on the Birch Coulie, where there was wood and 
water. The women went to work to load the wagons. The 
scotits followed the soldiers carefully, and a little after sun- 
down, returned with the information that they had gone into 



394 



MINNESOTA HISTORICAL SOCIETY COLLECTIONS. 



camp near (lie licad of llircli Coiilio. At ihis tinu* we did not 
know tliovf were two (•(Hiipaiiies tlieiv. We tli<)ii.^lit the com- 
pany of mounted men (r';ipt. Anderson's) was all, and tliat there 
were not more than seventy-live nn^n. 

"It was concluded to surround the ranij* tiiat ni.ulii and at- 
tack it at daylijiht. We felt sure we coidd (•ai)ture it, and that 
200 men would be enou,i;li for tlu' und<M takin^-. So al»out that 
number was selected. Tliere were four bands — niy own, ITu- 
slia-sha's ('Ked Legs'), Gray JJird s and ]\[ankatoV. 1 liad about 
thirty men. Nearly all the Indians had double barreh'd shot- 
guns, and we loaded them with buckshot and large bullets 
called 'traders' balls.' After dark we started, crossed the river 
and A'alley, went up the bluffs and on the prairie, and soon we 
saw the white tents and the wagons of the camp. We had no 
ditlficulty in surrounding the camp. The pickets were only a 
little way from it. I led my men up from the west through the 
grass and took up a position 200 yards from the cam}), behind 
a small knoll or elevation. Eed Legs took his men into the 
coulie east of the camp. ^Nfankato rBlue Earth') had some of 
his men in the coulie and some on the tn'airie. (h'ay liird and 
his men were mostly on the prairie. 

"Just at dawn the fight began. It continued all day and the 
following night until late the next morning. Both sides fought 
well. Owing to the white men's way of lighting they lost many^ 
men. Owing to the Indians' way of fighting they lost but few. 
The white men stood up and exposed themselves at first, but at 
last they learned to keep quiet. The Indians always took care 
of themselves. We liad an easy time of it. AVe could crawl 
through the grass and into the coulie and get water wlnm we 
wanted it, and after a few hours our women crossed the river 
and came up near the bluff and cooked for us, and we cotdd go 
back and eat and then return to the tight. We did not lose 
many men. Indeed, I only saw two dead Indians, and I never 
heard that any more were killed. Tlie two I saw were in the 
coulie and belonged to Bed Legs' band. One was a Wakpaton 
named Ilo-ton-na ('Animal's Voice') aiid the other was a Sisse- 
ton. Their bodies were taken dow n the coulie and buried during 
the fight. I did not see a man killed on the prairie. We had 
several men wounded, but none ^■ery badly. I did not see the 
incident which is related of an TndiaiL a brother of Little Crow, 
who, it is said, rode uj) on a white horse near the cam]> with a 



A SIOUX STORY OF THE ^VAll. 



395 



white flag and held a jjai lcy and liad liis horse killrd as he rode 
away. That must have happened wliilo I was absent from the 
fiekl eating- my dinner. Lirtk* ( 'row had no brother there. The 
White Spi(k*r was not tlierc. I ihink Lilth* ('row's brothers 
were with him in the IMg Woods at tins tiiiK-. The only Indian 
horse I saw killed that I remember was a bay. lUiffah) Ghost 
succeeded in caj)! tiring a horse from the cam}), i^ate in the day 
some of the men who had been left in the villages came over on 
their horses to see ^yh^\t the trouble was that the camp had not 
been taken, and they rode about the prairie for a time, but 1 
don't think many of them got into the tight. J do not remem- 
ber that we got nmny r( -enforcements that day. If we got any, 
they must have come up the coulie and I did not see them. Per- 
haps some horsemen came up on the east side of the coulie, but I 
knew nothing about it. I am sure no i-e-enforcements came to 
me. I did not need any. Our circle about the camp was rather 
small and we could only use a certain number of men. 

"About the middle of the afternoon our men became much 
dissatisfied at the slowness of the fight, and the stubbornness 
of the whites, and the word was passed around the lines to get 
ready to charge the camp. The brave Mankato wanted to 
charge after the first hour. There were some half-breeds with 
the whites who could speak Sioux welk and they heard us ar- 
ranging to assault them. Jack Frazer told me afterward that 
ho heard us talking about it very plainly. Alex Faribault was 
there and heard the talk and called out to us: 'You do very 
wrong to fire on us. We did not come out to fight; we only 
came out to bury the bodies of the white people you killed.' I 
have heard that Faribault, Frazer and another half-breed dug a 
rifle pit for themselves with bayonets, and that Faribault 
worked so hard with his bayonet in digging that he wore the 
flesh from the inside of his hand. One half-breed named Louis 
Bourier attempted to desert to us. but as he was running to- 
wards us some of our men shot and killed him. We could have 
taken the camp, I think. During the fight the whites had 
thrown up breastworks, but they were not veiy high and we 
could easily have jumped over them. W> did not know that 
Maj. Joe Brown Avas there; if we had, I think some of our men 
would have charged anyhow, for they wanted him out of the 
way. Some years ago I saw Capt. Grant in St. Baul and he told 
me he was in connnand of the camp at Birch Coulie. 



39G MINNESOTA HISTOKICAL SOCIETY COLLECTIONS. 



"Just as we Avere about to charge word came that a large 
number of mouiiU-d soldiers were coming up from the east 
toward Fort KidgL'ly. This stoj>ped the charge and created 
some excitement. Mankato at once took some men from the 
coulie and went out to meet them. He told me he did not take 
moi-e than fifty, but he scattered them out and they all yelled 
and made such a noise that tlie whites must have thouglit there 
were a great many more, and they stopped on the prairie and 
began lighting. They had a cannon and used it, but it did no 
harm. If the Indians had any men killed in the tight 1 never 
heard of it. ^lankato flourished his men around so, and all the 
Indians in the cotilie kept up a noise, and at last the whites be- 
gan to fall back, and they retreated about two miles and began 
to dig breastworks. ^Mankato followed them and left about 
thirty men to watch them, and returned to the light at the coulie 
with the rest. The Indians were langhing when they came 
back at the way they had deceived the white men, and we were 
all glad that the whites had not pushed forward and driven us 
away. If any more Indians went against this force than the 
fifty or possibly seventy-five that I have told you of I never 
heard of it. I was not with them and cannot say positively, 
but I do not think there were. I went out to near the fortified 
camp during the night, and there was no large force of Indians 
over there, and I know there were not more than thirty 
of our men watching the camp. AMien the men of this force 
began to fall back, the Avhites in the camp hallooed and made a 
great commotion, as if they were begging them to return and re- 
lieve them, and seemed mtich distressed that they did not. 

"The next morning Gen. Sibley came with a very large force 
and drove us away from the field. We took our time about get- 
ting away. Some of our men said they remained till Sibley got 
up and that they fired at some of his men as they were shaking 
hands with some of the men of the camp. Those of us who were 
on the prairie went back to the westward and on down the val- 
ley. Those in the coulie went down back southward to where 
their horses were, and then mounted and rode westward across 
the pi'airie about a mile south of the battle-field. There was 
no pursuit. The whites fired their cannons at us as we were 
leaving the field, but they might as well have beaten a big drum 
for all the harm they did. They only made a noise. We went 
back across the river to our camps in the old villages, and then 



A SIOUX STORY OF TUK WAR. 



397 



Oil up tlie river to the Yellow .Medicine aiul the mouth of the 
Cliippewa, where Little Crow joined us. 

^'For some time after tlie fi.i;ht at lUrch Coulie the i^reaier 
part of the Indians remained in the camps about the Yellow 
^fedicine and the mouth of the Chii)pewa. At last the word 
came that Sibley with his army was a^ain on the move against 
us. Our scouts were very active and vigilant, and \vv heard 
from him nearly every hour. ' He had left a letter for Lin !(? Crow 
in a split stick on the battle-field of Birch Coulie, and some of 
our men found it and brought it in, and correspondence had been 
going on between us ever since. Tom Eobinson and Joe Camp- 
bell, half-breed prisoners, wrote the letters for Little Crow. It 
seems that some letters were written to Gen. Sibley by the half- 
breeds which Little Crow never saw. I and others understood 
from the half-breeds that Gen. Sibley would treat with all of us 
who had only been soldiers and Avould surrender as prisoners 
of war, and that only those who had murdered people in cold 
blood, the settlers and others, would be punished in any ^^ ay. 
There was great dissatisfaction among us at our condition. 
Many Avanted to surrender; others left us for the West. But 
Sibley came on and on, and at last came the battle of AYood 
lake. 

^'AYhen we learned that Sibley had gone into camp at the 
Wood lake, a council of the sub-chiefs and others was held 
and it was determined to give him a battle near there. I think 
the lake now called Battle lake was the old-time AA'ood lake. 
As I understand it, there once Avere some cotton woods about it, 
and the Indians called it ^M'da-chan' — Wood lake. The larger 
lake, two miles west, now called Wood lake, was always known 
to me by the Indian name of 'Hinta hauk-pay-an wo-ju,' mean- 
ing literally, ^the Planting Place of the Man who ties his Moc- 
casins with Basswood Bark.' We soon learned that Sibley had 
thrown up breastworks and it was not deemed safe to attack 
him a,t the lake. We concluded that the fight should be about 
a mile or more to the northwest of the lake, on the road along 
which the troops would march. This was the road leading to 
the upper country, and of course Sibley would travel it. At the 
point determined on we jAanned to hide a large number of men 
on the side of the road. Near the lake, in a ravine formed by 
the outlet, we were to place another strong body. Behind a 
hill to the west were to be some more men. We thought that 



398 



MINNESOTA HISTORICAL SOCIETY COLLECTIONS. 



whoii Sibley man lied out alon^^ the road and when the head of 
his column had roaehed the farthef end of the line of our first 
division, our men Nvould open lire. Tlie men in the ravine wouhl 
then be in tlie rear of the whites and would be^^iii tirinii- on tlint 
Olid of the column. 1'he men from behind the hill wouhl rush 
out and attack the Hank, and th<Mi we had horsemen far out on 
the right and left who Avotild come up. T\'e expected to throw 
the whole white force into confusion by the sudden and unex- 
pected attack and defeat them before they could rally. 

"I think this was a jj;ood jdan of battle. Our concealed men 
wonld not have been discovered. The grass was tall and the 
place by the road and the ravine were good hiding places. We 
had learned that Sibley was not ])articular about sending out 
scouts and examining the country before he passed it. He had 
a number of mounted men, but they always rode together, at the 
head of the column, when on a march, and did not examine the 
ground at the sides of the road. The night he lay at Wood lake 
his pickets were oidy a short distance from cam};) — less than half 
a mile. When we were putting our men into position that night 
we often saw them plainly. I worked hard that night iixing the 
men. Little Crow w^as on the tield, too. Mankato was there. 
Indeed, all our fighting chiefs were i)resent and all our best 
fighting Indians. We felt that this would be the deciding tight 
of the war. The whites were unconscious. We could hear them 
laughing and singing. When all our preparations were made 
Little Crow and I and some other chiefs went to the mound or 
hill to the west so as to watch the light better when it should 
♦commence. There were ntimbers of other Indians there. 

"The morning came and an accident spoiled all our plans. 
For some reason Sibley did not move early as we expected he 
would. Our men were lying hidden wailing ])atiently. Some 
were very near the camp lines in the ravine, but the whites did 
not see a man of all our men. I do not think they would have 
discoveied our ambuscade. It seemed a considerable time after 
sun-ui') when some four or five wagons ^^ ilh a number of soldiers 
started out from the camj) in the direction of The old Yellow- 
Medicine agency. We learned afterwards that they were going 
without orders to dig potatoes over at the agency, five miles 
away. They came on over the prairie, right where part of our 
line was. Some of the wagons were not in the road, and if 
they had kept straight on wotild have driM-n right over our men 



A SIOUX STORY OF THE WAR. 



399 



as they lay in the ^rass. At last they eaiiie so lIosl* that (Uir 
men had to i:ise up and tiic This brought on the- fight, of 
course, but not according to the way we had planned it. Little 
Crow saw it and felt very badly. 

"Of cour^ie you know how the battle was fought. The Indi- 
ans that were in the tight did well, but hundreds of our men did 
not get into it and did not lire a shot. They .were out too far. 
The meu in the lavine and the line connecting them with those 
on the road did the most of the lighting. Those of us on the 
hill did our best, but we were soon driven ott'. Mankato was 
killed here, and we lost a very good and brave war chief. He 
was killed by a cannon ball that was so nearly spent that he was 
not afraid of it, and it struck him in the back, as he lay on the 
ground, and killed him. The whites drove our men out of the 
ravine by a charge and that ended the battle. AVe retreated in 
some disorder, though the whites did not offer to pursue us. 
We crossed a wide prairie, but their horsemen did not follow us. 
We lost fourteen or fifteen men killed and quite a number 
wounded. Some of the wounded died afterwards, but I do not 
know how maiiy. AA'e carried oil my dead bodies, but took away 
all our wounded. The whites scalped all our dead men — so I 
have heard. 

"Soon after the battle 1. Avith many others who had taken 
part in the war, surrendered to Gen. wSibley. Kobinson and the 
other half-breeds assured us that if we would do this we would 
only be held as prisoners of war a short time, but as soon as I 
surrendered I was thrown into prison. Afterward I was tried 
and served three years in the prison at Davenport and the ])eni- 
tentiary at Eock Island for taking part in the war. On my 
trial a great numl)er of the white prisoners, women and others, 
were called up, but not one of them could testify that I had 
murdered any one or had done anything to deserve death, or else 
1 would have been Imnged. If I had known that I would be 
sent to the [K*niteni iary 1 would not have surrendered, but when 
I ha(l been in the ])enitentiary three years and they were about 
to turn me out, I told them they might keep me another year 
if they wished, and 1 meant what J said. I did not like the way 
1 had l>een treated. 1 suriendered in good faith, knowing that 
many of the whites were acquaintiHl with me and that I had not 
been a murd(^nn*. or present when a murder had been commit- 
ted, and if 1 had kiUed or wountled a man it had been in fair. 



400 MINNESOTA HISTORICAL SOCIETY COLLECTIONS. 

opoii figlit. But all feeliii;^- on niy part about tkis has \ou<^ since 
passed away. For years I have been a Cliristian and I hope to 
die one. 'My Avhile nei«;hbors and friends know niy character 
as a citizen and a man. 1 am at i)cace with every one, whites 
and Indians. I am getting to be an old man, but 1 am still able 
to work. I am poor, l>ut 1 numage to get along. This is my 
second wife, and this little girl is our adopted daughter. I will 
come and see you A\ hen I come to St. Paul. Good-bye." 



INCIDENTS or THE THREATENED OUTBREAK. 



401 



IXC^IDKXTS OF THk' TlIKKATKXKl) Ol'TI^REAK OF 
HOLK-IX-TIIKDAV AXJ) OTIIKU ( KJlliWA VS AT TIME 

OF SIOUX ?.iassa<;kk of is<;2. 

Bv Gfx»R';e W. Svvkkt. 

( 

(^niisidci iii^ ii \\\^ duly of each of the old settlers of the state, 
and es])e('ially mt-niht'is of rhe Minnesota llisioiical society, to 
contribute facts wirliin their personal knowledge rehitiug to 
the principal e\'enrs in rhe early settlement of our state, in order 
that a record thereof may he preserved. I beg leave to offer the 
following accounr of rlu- parr takt^i by the undersigned in the 
snp])]'ession and senh-nicin of the ti-oubles with the Cliippewas, 
in August. at ihe outbieak of the Sioux massacre. 

On the 20th day of August. 1802, a messenger came to me at 
Sauk Kajuds. requesting me without delay to call upon the com- 
missioner of Iiulian atiairs. Wm. P. Dole, at the Stearns House 
in St. Cloud. Having just heard of the outbreaks at Acton and 
Tvcdwood, and the slaughter of Capt. Mai sh's company, I lost no 
time in complying with the requesr. I found on reaching there, 
^laj. L. C. Wallcer. Chip]u/wa agent, who had just arrived from 
the Chippewa agvncy. above Crow Wing, l)ringing startling ac- 
counts of the hostile attitude of Holc-in-the-Day and the Indians 
under him. He was greatly excited, and expressed the opinion 
that Hole-in-the-l)ay and IJttle Crow,* of the Sioux, had been 
ill communication wiili each other and had agreed to begin. a 
simultaneous atia- k u]..>n the whites, with the belief that, as 
most of the able-lM.di«>d men of ^linnesoia had gone South, they 
would be able to drive all others out of the country and recover 
their lands. He feared that the juisoners in the hands of the 
Indians had already b.-rn massacred, in retaliation for the un- 
successful altem])t madr by him to capture Hole-in-the-Day, in 

Geor^ro W. Sweet '^nmo Mi:ni.-sota in lS4n. FTo was a carpenter, but 
studied law later. Ho married a dauirhter of Charlos H. Cakes, the long-tiiie 
trader among the Ojibways of L-.ike Superior. Mr. Sweet has been a member 
of the lejiislature. and has iived on the frontier, at Sauk Ilapid.s and elsewhere, 
for forty-five years. >I. 

*It was every way imp-o-iild.* t hat there was any concert of action between 
rattle Crow and H.)!e-in-th— T»ay. The like eauses of unrest existed among ilx- 
Ojibways :is amon? tlie Si -ix. but n.>t to the same extent. Dinkulties in reccard 
to treaties, (lis;satisfae[i.»n with iralers and agents, were comomn to both nn- 

—24 



402 



MINNESOTA HISTORICAL SOCIETY COLLECTIONS. 



which case ho thought the massacre would become general and 
indiscviininate. lie urp:cd uw to attempt to open communica- 
tion witli tlie hostilcs. who wen? camped near (hill lake, wiih a 
vie^V to their pacilicaiion, if possible. After considerabh* par- 
ley, and upon the urj^ent soli(ritations of Commissioner Dole, I 
reluctantly consented to attempt the mission. 

Under instructions to report to Commissioner Dole at St. Paul, 
I started with privaie team, and on my route met scores of 
settlers lleeinji;' from their homes, some bound for St. Taul, some 
for tlie states below and others for liie torts. Their countenances 
blanched with fear, they imagined (hat every clumj) of timl)er 
and ravine along the line of their tlight had hostile Indians lying 
in wait to slaughter them. 

On reaching Little Falls I made inquiry as to who were then 
at I^ng Prairie, and Avas informed that a ^Irs. Weeks was 
there with her children, without a man in the settlement, her 
husband being then absent on business in Cincinnati. I sent a 
team after them, with instructions to lose no time in getting 
them away from there. ^Irs. W. was almost forced into the 
wagon, as she had heaid nothing of any Indian troubles and was 
daily looking for the return of her husband. Their departure 
was none too soon, for they were but a short distance from their 
house, Avhen, looking back, they saw the Sioux in the act of fir- 
ing the buildings. On meeting Mr. Weeks two days after in St. 
Paul, and informing liim of their safety, his happiness was so 
great that he threw his arms around me and fairly overwhelmed 
me with expressions of his thankfulness. Between Fort Ripley 
and Crow Wing I met IVner Roy, United States interpreter, ac- 
companied by Pad Poy, one of the chiefs, both of whom urged 
me to turn around and not expose myself to danger by attempt- 
ing to open negotiations with the hostiles at Gull lake, as they 
had both done their best to avert a general war and massacre, 
but had failed, and were now fleeing to save their own lives. 
At Crow Wing I sought out Clement H. Beaulieu, Sr., who had 
been formerly the foremost trad(n* among the Chip])ewas. but 
who had been refused a renewal of his license to trade in the 
Indian country on the ground, as stated to me by Clark W. 
Thompson, superintendent of Indian alfairs, that in politics 
Beaulieu was not in accord with the administration, and what- 
ever good things there were, they pro]>osed to have. 

I informed Mr. Beaulieu of the mission I had undertaken, and 
requested him to accompany me to the hostile camp. He con- 



INCIDENTS OF THE THREATENED OrTHUEAK. 



t03 



seiited, thou^li lie expressed liis fe.ns that we were too late to 
save the lives of the prisoners in the hands of tlie Indians, and 
sn«^gested that we nii^ht ])Ossibly share tlieir fate. Taking a 
team with George Fairbanks as driver, we reached within a 
half mile of the Indian eani]>, wliere we left our tfaiii, aii<l i»ro- 
ceeded on foot to the creek between Gnll and Jv(mnd lak<'S, 
where we were stopped by an armed Indian, a picket gnaid, but 
pushing by him, he gave the alarm by a loud cry of "A white 
man in camp," and insiantly, with a terrific A^ ar-who(>i>. the 
whole force of Indians sprang to arms, and like Koderick Dhu's 
force, they seemed to come out of the ground, and we were sur- 
rounded by more than three hundred warriors armed, some with, 
rifles, some with "Xor'west" guns, others with war clubs, tom- 
ahawks; scal}»ing Icnives, and a few had scythes to which they 

• liad fitted handles like corn cutters. Crowding our way througb 
the excited mass towards the headquarters of Ilole-in-the-day, 
Avhich was distinguished from the other Avigwams by a flagstaff 
in front flying a small flag, not the stars and stripes, however, 
but one of their own make, we here met the renowned chief, 
whose face looked ])aler than usual, but in which we could dis- 
cover no sign of welcome, sucli as I had bben accustomed to re- 
ceive on meeting him. 

At my request, he ordered the warriors to move back and give 
us room, whereupon they formed themselves into a semicircle 
of about thirty feet in diameter. In spite of ITole-in-the-day's 
motions to the contrary, Big Dog, a brave old chief, a personal 
fi iend of mine, forced his way up to me, and, grasping my hand, 
pressed it three times distinctly, which he afterAvards explained 
to me as meaning that he Avould sacrifice his own life before I 
should be harmed. Two or three others attempted the hand 
shaking, but were ordered back. 

All being seated on the grass, I informed Ilole-in-the-day that: 
I had come to him from the commissioner of Indian affairs, to 
learn from his own mouth, what his complaints Avere, and what 
Avere his intejitions; that is, Avhether he wanfed Avar or p-are 
with the white people. He replied that he did not Avant Avar, 
but only his rights; that he could not get his rights by peace- 
able means; that the goA-ernment agents had been stealing 
from them; that.they had brought new traders info the country 
Avith Avliom the agent Avas in ]>artnership, and with Avhom the 

agent insisted they should do all their trading. That the agent 



404 MINNESOTA HISTORICAL SOCIETY COLLECTIONS 



had ])nl annuity ^ioods into llicst' tradrr.s' stores to be sold to 
the Indians. 1 ivplicd to him that if his object was to liave 
their wrongs redressed they could never accomplish it by force, 
but their only >vay to succeed would be to have a commission 
ap])ointed to investi<;ate these charges, and that I was autho- 
rized by the commissioner to say that he would ])e ^h\d to lis- 
ten to their complaints, and if well founded, they should have 
redress, lb' then said that was satisfactory, and he would meet 
the commissionei* and settle all ditlicnlties peaceably. 

I insisted upon the release of the prisoners in his hands, as 
a proof of his peaceful intentions, to which he consenterl. and 
Mrs. Arthur Garden and her children were broujiht in and de- 
livered up. As it was then nine at nij^ht, and I had no means 
of transporting- the balance of the prisoners. 1 requested him 
to release them the next morning-, which was done. It was fur- 
ther agreed between us that a truce of four days should be kept, 
in which the Indians should remain wliere tliey were, and not 
disturb anything at the agency or go near the white settle- 
ments; and on the part of the government, I agreed that there 
should be no further attempts by the soldiers to capture him, 
and in the meantime I Avould report to Commissioner Dole at 
St. Paul and return to the Indians. 

Ilole-in-the-day sent a guard to accom])any us about three 
miles so as to pass us beyond their picket line. We reached 
Crow Wing about midnight, where I learned that during my 
absence at (lull lake the commandant at Foi l liidgely, in order 
to strengthen the force at the post, which had been reduced to 
twenty-six effective men, had impressed into the service tem- 
porarily all the able-bodied men found at Crow Wing, and 
among these my diiver, who had taken with him my team. 
After a little delay, I found among the half-breeds a team to 
carry me to a point opposite the fort. When about a mile 
from the fort, I heard in the direction of the post a single shot, 
followed by a volley. It ap]tears that a tlalboat or A\angan 
Imd got lo<^s(^ and tloaling down the channel, the sentinel hailed 
and receiving no reply, he fired at it, which brought out the 
guard, who delivered a volley into it, suspecting it contained 
a force of Indians intending to make a lodgement u])on the 
bank of the river w here there was no stockad^\ 

Crossing the river in a small boat a few minutes after this 
alarm, I came near being shot by a picket in the darkness, but. 



INCIDENTS OF THE THREATENED OUTBREAK. 



405 



healing' the click of his ^Min as he cocked it, 1 ^ot as near to 
tho jiroiiiid as possible, from which position I hailed the picket, 
and remained there until lie could .i;et the *iuard out. and satisfy 
them that I did not intend to storm the fort. 

After informini: the commandin,u- otlicer as to ih(^ state of 
affairs, and recpi^^siin;:: the military to resi)cct the terms of the 
truce ajiii'ed upon. I was infoimed that the ladies of the post 
were at Chaplain < Peer's (piarters, where tliey desired my pres- 
ence. It was now about two a. m., but I found the ladies, with 
some from Crow Win.ii\ j'ersjjirin;^- over a red-hot stove, castinjx 
bullets, of whicli they had already about a half bu>liel on a ta- 
ble, Avhich they wt^ie trimminjj: ready for use. 

Assurinj^" the ladies that there were no Indians within tiftren 
miles of them and no dan.uer of an attack for at h^ast four 
days, I left at three o'clock and reached Little Falls at sunrise, 
where I met ('apt. Hall on his way to Fort Kij)ley to assume 
command, accompanied by Cai)t. (,'has. H. licaulieu. Capt. 
Hall assured me that the terms of The truce nmde with the In- 
dians should be scrujnilously ke})t by him. 

On reachinii- Sauk Ea]>ids I found the people who had not 
already left were on the j)oint of abandoning; their homes, to 
seek protection within some fortitled i)lac(\ I here brought 
into play my authority in the state militia, by orderin;;- Capt. E. 
O. Hamlin to })Ut tht^ alarmed men at work throwin.ii up rifle- 
pits around the town, and especially near the Hy])erborean ho- 
tel, with directions to cease work as soon as he deemed it ad- 
visable. Two or three hours' work in the hot sun convinced 
them that tluM-e was no danger, and conse(iuently no need of 
rifle-pits. 

Keachinjj: St. Paul, T rei)()rted to the commissioner, inform- 
ing him of the reh^ise of the ])risoners. of the truce and the 
anxiety of the Indians to meet him and settle all the troubles, 
rerpiestin^- him to accom])any me on my return to the In- 
dians and make a settlement with them before any new com- 
plications sliould aiise: but he stated that he would only .uo 
there with sutlicient troops as an esccut to be able to protect 
liim from them, and for this ptH*])ose he must have at least 
two fidl companies. His recpiest for the troops was taken by 
me to (jrov. Kamst*y at his house, who informed me that Fort 
Snellinj^ had scarcely enough men for <^uard mount, as he had 
ordered every available man to join (len. SibU'y's exju'dition 
against the Sioux. 



MINNESOTA IILSTOIMCAL SOCIETY COEIJX'TK )NS. 



I iiifoniied tlic (loNcriHH- that I had passed ('apl. Lil)l)y's and 
ariothor coni])aiiy on tlifir way lo J'ori SiicHii!;^^ m Ix- nunicu'd 
in, and i-cqucstcd liini to issue (lie order lo Col. Smiiii. iheii in 
command at Fort Siiellinic, for two companies, so iliat I could 
return to the Indians and assure them That tin.' commissioner 
woidd meet them in coinicil. The (lovernor seemed to think 
there was no i-eal necessity for tlie trooi»s, nnd ev-^n if tlier(^ was, 
it was imi)i-oper to issue the oider Ijefoi-e they liad lh<' nn-n. I 
found the commaiuler-in-chief firm in his refusnl, until I was 
warndy seconded by Mrs. Ixamsey, who had been a silent listener 
to our discussion. 

About 1 /a. ni. 1 was able to exhibit to the commissioner the 
order for the troops, and early the next morning- 1 delivered 
it in person to Col. Smith at Fort Snellin.ij, who informed me 
that lie had no transportation for the troops. To make sure 
of transportation I went on and met Capt. Libby near Min- 
neapolis, and, calling- him aside, refpiested him lo detain all of 
the teams on reaching the fort, as he would have need of them 
to move his men as soon as they were mustered in, clothed and 
equipped. 

1 reached the Indian camp again l)efore the expiraii<m of the 
four days, and foun;l Them all ready for a council, having in tln^ 
meanwhile erected a large council wigwam with a capacity for 
a hundi'ed nn^i or more. A quarter- of an hour after my ar- 
rival the chiefs and head men were all here assembled, and, 
after the ordinai-y preliminaries, and a smoke of the pipe of 
peace, Ilole-in-t he-day < am<^ foi'ward and. shaking hands with 
me, said, ''We have faithfully kept our agreement made wiTh 
you and are glad you have kept your promise and conu' back 
to us. Xow what message and reply do you bring to us from 
our father in AA'ashingtonf ' (Commissioner.) I arose and re- 
plied that Their father in Washington was i)leased To hear That 
they had released the pi-isoners. and thaT they wanted peace 
rather' than war. and That lu^ would come to Tin n\ and listen to 
their complaints, and if he found they had beiMi wronged, they 
slioidd have all their wrongs righted. The (pieslion then put 
to me was, "How soon will he be here?" 1 could not i-e])ly. " as 
soon as he g<'ts sullicient tr()o])s to guaixl him," but ga\e an 
answer that from the "how, hows" seemed to satisfy them in 
these words: "I have l)een to St. Paul and back almost as 
quick as a bird woidd lly, as I am not a big chief but a small 



INCIDENTS OF THE THREATENED OUTBREAK. 



407 



man: you know yon can throw a small stone more swifily than 
a one.'' 

The council ended many of the Indians f;atln*red around me 
and warmly shook my hand, stating; Ihey were filad the troubles 
wei-c about to be all settled. I desire here to sav that in all 
these negotiations at Gull lake I had Clement II. Jieaulieu, Sr., 
wUh me, and it was largely owijig to his tact and intimate 
knowledge of the Indians that 1 was enabled to succeed in this 
ditlicult and dangerous undertaking. I feel that he has never 
had justice done him for the magnanimous part he took during 
those few' momentous days. He had been debarred from col- 
lecting the just demands against the Indians for goods sold to 
individuals on credit while he was a licensed trader, refused 
a renewal of his license, thus reducing him from affluence to 
comparative i)enury. and still, smarting under all these wrongs, 
he was ready and willing to risk his life to save the lives and 
property of those who were trying to. ruin him. 

Having reported again to Commissioner Dole as to the result 
of my second visit to Hole-in- the-day's camp, and not agreeing 
with him as to the propriety of making a show of military force 
at the council to be held with the Indians. I left him at Fort 
Kipley, desiring a little rest, not having slept an average of two 
hours in the twenty-four for a week or more. In his attempt 
to get the Indians under Hole-in-the-day into a cul de sac, at 
Crow Wing on the 10th of September. Gen. Dole found himself 
outgeneraled by tlie wily Indian, and was completely surrounded 
and at the mercy of the Indians. 

Eealizing his perilous situation after an ineffectual attempt 
to send to Fort Kipley for reinforcements, he essayed concilia- 
tion in a harangue contrasting strongly with the terrible 
threats made a few hours before at Fort Kipley. In trembling 
accents he commenced, ''^fy dear red brethren," and by these 
means a conflict was avoided. Had a single shot been tired 
by some- hot headed, reckless scamp, nothing could have saved 
a slaughter of these raw troops together with the commissioner 
and attendants. Among these was A. S. H. White, chief clerk 
of the interior department, and a number of other civilians. 

Hole-in-the-day afterwards stated to me that he only wanted 
to show Gen. Dole that he was not so easily to be outgeneraled. 

In his annual report for 1802, ]). 17, Commissioner Dole says 
that ''the prisoners after being taken to the camp at Gull lake 



408 



MINNESOTA HISTORICAL SOCIETY COLLECTIONS. 



had been liberated thicni^ili ilie inlhu'iice of the chiefs of the* 
nihigers." Jle knew tliaT xlwy lib«'ratod upon niy r<- 

quest. Janu'S AVliitchcad, afterwards a^cnt for these sanic 
Indians, can sta1<' liow \w canu" to be ndc^ased. Only for some 
onipliatic ex}>ressions of mine in relation to a \\ant of conra^e 
on the part of thr eommissioner. a very diff(n*oni aeconnt of the 
part taken l)y uw would have been ;::iv('n, and I should hiwc re- 
ceived ])ay for my services. As it was I received nothinu, t-iilier 
in per diem or credit for time and risk of life. 

Apologizinjr to th«^ society for the length of this communicji- 
tion, and especially for what may appear egotistical in relating 
so much of my own doings. 1 can only say that it has seemed 
to me the better way for each one to record the ])art taken by 
him personally, and then ir can be sifted by the compiler of 
future histories. 

Sauk Rapids, Minn., :\rr. rch 1, 1S8T. 



DAKOTA SCALP DANCES. 



409 



DAKOTA SCALP DANCES. 

Bv Kev. T. S. Williamson. 

Thirty to fifty years a<;o scalp dMiices were cuininoii ainoii^' 
the Dakotas, or as they were tlieii more coininonly called, 
"Sioux" of Minnesota. They were never a pleasant or interest- 
ing sight to nie; but I have frequently passed near them and 
sometimes stopped and looked on for some minutes. It was 
customary to have such a dance whenever a scalp was brought 
to a village, and the same scalp was taken to several villages 
and danced around at each, and might be danced around many 
times at the same village. In all the scalp dances I ever saw 
men and women danced together, not mingled, but the men on 
one side of the circle and the women on the other, facing them; 
and though the women were close to each other, and the men 
were also, the men did not come very near the women. A woman, 
generally quite old, held the pole to Avhich the scalp was at- 
tached, and shook it as they danced. I think these things were 
all customary in scalp dances, and that men and women, or 
boys and girls both, were necessai-y 1o a scalp dance, and aside 
from the sight of the scalp, these were the pleasantest of all 
their dances. 

If a scalp was taken after the trees were green it might be 
danced to till the leaves fell; if taken after the leaves fell, till 
new ones grew; but they were not infrequently l>tiried sooner. 

St. Peter, :Minn., :\rarch, ISTS. 

This description of Sioux scalp (Inncfs was written by tlie venerable Dr. 
Williamson at the request of Mr. Fr.iuk T.. lliUKlnli, ^larch, ISrS 



410 MINNESOTA HI.STOKICAL SOCIETY COLLECTIONS. 



EAriLIE>iT SCHOOLS IX MINNESOTA VALLEY. 

By Kkv. T. S. Wir.LiAMsoN. 

The first school over taught in the .Miinicsolu valley, and I 
sui)pose the lirst in what is now Minnesota, outside of Eurt 
Snelling, was begun at Lac qui Parle in tlie latter part of July, 
1835, and was taught by Miss Sarah Poage, younger sister of 
my M'ife, who subsequently became the wife of Mr. Gideon XL 
Pond, recently deceased. The teaching was in English and 
was for several years in our dwelling house, which, for the first 
year, consisted of a single room. The pupils were L)ahotas and 
metis females and small boys. The full Dakota females had 
too many other things to do to profit much by learning to read 
English. Of the mixed bloods, four of the first who attended 
are still living and have families of children grown up and 
some of them married, namely: Mrs. Hypolite Depuis and Mrs. 
Duncan Campbell of Mendota; Mrs. Henry Belland of West St. 
Paul (mother-in-law of Francis Baasen, Esq., of this countyi, 
and Mrs. Magdalen Cam])bell of the Sisseton reservation. 
These and some others learned to read English, but I never 
heard any of them speaking it much. Three of the boys who 
attended this school, and are living, learned to speak as well 
as to read English. These are Antoine Le Clerc, who is inter- 
preter for some of the Indian agents on the Missouri, (I think 
at Crow creek), and Lorenzo Lawrence, ^y]lO got some fame in 
the time of the Indian war by rescuing Mrs. J. W. De Camp 
and her children and bringing them to Fort Eidgely. She 
afterward became the wife of Rev. Mr. SAveet. Last summer he, 
Lorenzo, was at the Braru. or Yellow Earth river, not far east 
of the Two Woods in Dakota territory. The other, Ejioch 
Mahpiyaliohinape, is now chief of a small band at Fort Ellice, 
west of Manitoba. He, with his relatives, assisted in rescuing 
the white prisoners and delivering them to Gen. Sibley at 
Camp Release, but soon after, fearing treachery, he and his 
father and brothers and their families fied to the British and 
have not returned. He and Lorenzo Lawrence are full Indians, 
and I think they did not attend ]Miss Poage's school much the 
first year. 



EARLIEST SCHOOLS IN MINNESOTA VALLEY. 



Ul 



The fii-st school for icacliiiig to rend Dalvoia 1 bugaii at Lac 
qui Parle in l)('( (Miil></r. 18^35. I taii;^lii in a hir;^e Dakota tent 
beion<;ing- to .Mr. RenviUe, then tra(h'r ihcrr. My pni^ils were 
men, most of them his relatives, and miglu have been ai>pro- 
priately called his bodyguard. lie called them his soldiers. 
They were about twenty in numlxM'. Some of thorn wer<> tot) 
old to see without i^lasses and so too old to loarn to read. 
Others took no interest in learninj^", and som<' of those who 
were most inten^sted in learning had tlu-ir families to support 
by hunting'. The average attendance did not much exceed half 
a dozen. I had no boo1<s from which to leach, as the tirst 
printing in the language was not done till three years later; 
yet, at the end of three months, three of my pupils had learned 
to read and write their own langnage and some half a dozen 
others got sneli a start that they afterward learned to read 
and write with very little schooling. And in the whole Sioux 
nation there cannot be named twenty other men avIio have done 
so mnch in helping the whites, and in civilizing their own 
peoj^le, as the members of that school. Some of them were the 
first Dakota men to dress as white men and work as white 
men. They and their children, and other near relatives, were 
the leading farmers on the reservation till 1802. The services 
they rendered to our people in the war of that year were worth 
far more than all the money which has been expended in mis- 
sions and schools for the Dakotas. One of them. John Other- 
day, led more than sixty employes of the government, including 
the family of the agent, Galbi*aith, from the Upper or Yellow 
Medicine agency safely across the trackless prairie to the white 
settlements. Two others. Simon Angwangmani and I'aul ^Ta- 
zokutirnani, who are still living, together with Rev. J. B. Reu- 
ville, who received the rudiments of his education in ^liss 
Poage^s school, of which I haA'e made mention above, were the 
chief agents in rescuing and delivering to Gen. Sibley the 
nearly 280 prisoners at Camp Release. In 1S40, or about that 
time, we built at Lac qui l*arle a house, 24x3G feet, for a meet- 
ing house and schools. It was built of unburnt brick, with a 
good shingle roof, plastered inside on the walls with lime, and 
ceiled with boards over head, and a folding i)artition: and, with 



412 MINNESOTA HISTORICAL SOCIETY COLLfXTIONS. 



some repairs, was in pxxl condition till llie mission was moved 
from the nei;;hborhood in iSoi. This was the first Ituildin^^ for 
a clnircli or school honsc in the valh-v of ihc Minnrsota. 

In llie Slimmer of ls(i:i Kev. S. H. lii'i^s and familv came to 
Traverse, and ;Mr. Robert Hopkins and wife joined th(,Mn tlie 
next spring?, and, in llu* auinmn of that v<'ar, a school was be- 
f^un for the I)akotas in the nciiihborhood ; but as most of them 
strongly opposed it, not mncli was aci'om])lish(Ml in tcachin;^ 
them to read. The second school honse in the valley was 
erected in Traverse in iNJo or 1S4(>. (I have no record of the 
date.) After the Indians left, it was sold, and for several years 
was occupied as a store by Ihiice J*ierce. 

In the autnnin of I took my family to Pajntazizi. and in 
the spring- of 3 853 we began a school there, and during the 
summer built a good frame school house, the third in the valley. 

In March, 1S54, the dwellings of the missionaries at Lac qui 
I-arle took fire and were c()nsum(Hl, in consequence of which Kev. 
S. R. Riggs moved to the neighborhood of I'ajutazizi. or Yellow 
Medicine, during the summer, and in a few years erected more 
and better buildings than were built at any other mission sta- 
tion among the Dakotas in ^linnesota. 

About this time a school was opened for white children in 
Traverse, but there are many in the neighborhood better in- 
formed about this than T am. 



TKADITIONS OF SlOUX INDIANS. 413 ' 



THADITIONS OF SIOUX INDIANS. 

By M a.). Wm. H. Forhes. 

The Sioux Indian, or rather The Dalcola Indian, is a Deist. 
He believes in ont- Mieat Sin'rit— Walikon-ispiiiij-Tonkah 
{great)— the creator of all things, wlio made the earth and all 
that belongs to it. He is God. He always was. What is now 
the world was at lirst one vast lake or sea. Wahkon-Tonkah 
cast thereon two black balls. The tirsi became this earth, and 
with the other he created two of each, male and female. ()f every 
kind of living thing — beasts, biids. tishes. insects, re])liles — 
all of every moving or stirring object ; and the same with the 
vegetable w(»rld. Lastly, he made man from three kinds 
of clay, white, red and black: the first white man and woman 
from the white clay, the Indian from the red, and the negro 
from the l)lack. The white man was the most i)rndeut. He 
immediately turned his intelligence toward Ihe cidtivation of 
the earth, and from the Hint rock he made himself tools where- 
with he erected a dwelling for protection from the cold, and 
caused the black, who a])})(^ai'ed not to be able to plan any- 
thing, to assist him in his labor, and therby making him de- 
pendent, he became the white man's servant. He tried the 
same with the Indian, but he woidd not submit. The Indian 
did not like the toiling lif(^ of the others. He turned his at- 
tention to the different kinds of animals, etc. He devised the 
bow and arrows, pointing the arrows with the flint, which he 
saw the others use to make their tools, and made himself a 
knife. He killed his game, which served him for food, cloth- 



Maj. 'Forbes wnsi born on tlu^ isUiid of Montreal. His father was a native 
of Scotland and member of Huilson r.ay company as early as 17So. ^laj, F. 
came to ^Unnosora in IS:'.". lie was clerk and friend and Intimate a.ssoclate 
of ir. IT. Sibley many years. In 1S47 he took charge of a branch of the fur 
trade at St. I'anl: was postmaster <»f St. Paid In 1 S.'».*{-.'G : was partner of 
N. W. Kittson in St. I'anl for supplying the Indian traders; had a trading post 
nt Rt'dwiK^d agi-ncy, Au!j;nst. 1S»V2. at tlie time of the outbreak. He served on 
Gen. Sibley's stalY durinir the canipalirn of 1S()2-."1; was appointed commis- 
sary of subsistence and captain of T'nited States volunteers, servinu to the 
close of the war. After the war w.is Iridian air»nt \t Fort Totten. Devils lake. 
He died .Tuly 20. 1S7.'. (See vol. 4, Minnesota Historical Collection, page 54.) 



MIXXK.SOTA HISTORICAL SOCIETY COhLKCTJONt<. 



ing and shelter. He followed the Avild bensts, in his cliaso, 
into the forests and ^^radually wnndered afar otT, and thus| 
with his descendants, lost si-lit of the other two races. At 
last, after the white man lind built up his couniry with cities, 
and had cultivaifd all tiie land, and had so multiplied iluit 
they encroaclied upon "one and another's" ri^ilits, they made 
war upon each other until some were compelled to seek for 
other lands, Avh(n'e they thou<iht they might rec:ain peace, when 
tliey discovered where dwelt tlie Jndiaus, who were then happy, 
living by the chase, with i>lenty of <j:ame and bnt few wants. 
They took them by the hand; they welcomed them warmly; 
told them their medicine men had foretold their coming, and 
that they would come in big canoes, for they (the Indians) 
claim to have come in small canoes away far south; gave their 
visitors lands to till, and they soon went back and again le- 
turned with a great many more, bringing the black man to 
labor for them. But they soon took possession of all they 
saw and dispossessed the Indian of his most desirable and 
sacred locations. The Indian, feeling his Avrongs, resisted. 
Wars ensued; but the white man, with his guns and other 
formidable implements of war, soon had the advantage, and 
other Avhite men crossed the ''waters" to assist, and the Indian 
was soon driven far away from his home and left all he once 
owned and had offered to share, in the hands of his visitors. 

There are also among these Indians those who adore minor, 
or evil, spirits. These are embodied in rocks and such like. 
Such as believe thus are the ^'pow-wow'' doctors, jugglers and 
"partisans," or war leaders. The Great Spirit has nothing to 
do with such, but can protect tlie good man if he asks for it. 
and the most certain protection is to join the medicine dance, 
a secret and religious society in its intention, although often- 
times perverted by the leaders or high priests to 
gratify some unholy act. r)Ut they are not singu- 
lar in this respect. Their principal prayer and cry during 
an initiation to these rites is, ''Wahkon-Tonkah, Oh-shee-mon- 
dah-yea!'' Great Spirit, have pity on me. They sacrifice to the 
Great Spirit only objc^cts of some value. These wild fellows 
would, for instance, sacrifice a dress<'d bulTalo robe, dressed 
with tail, head and hoofs attached; or others, a valuable i^to 
them) piece of scarlet cloth, etc. 



TRADITIONS OF SIOUX INDIANS. 



415 



The jugglers sacrifice small objects of no great value to their 
demons — an arrow, or a pipe of Idnnikinic and tobacco, Ver- 
million, etc., upon a stone X)ainted red, as an altar, and sup- 
posed to embody their spirit. 

They believe in a future existence; but, like 'Olahumet's" 
heaven, its joys are sensual and such as please the taste and 
appetite of them v/hile living in the body. My "relator' told 
me, that tradition said: "One man died and his spirit traveled 
away south, through a beautiful region and over an elegant 
road until he came to an immense ])lace, the residence of many 
people, among whom he recognized some Avliom he had known 
in the body. lie was kindly welcomed; he saw all kinds of 
game, fish, etc.; deer and bulYalo seemed to predominate. He 
was invited to visit in several habitations, ^nd his appetite 
was tempted with the most delicious lood, all of which lie re- 
fused to partake of, and was allowed to return to his body, and 
lived again." Others have told that they believed in the trans- 
migration of spirits, the soul or spirit not always returning as 
a human being, but sometimes as a grizzly bear, wolf-dog, etc. 
This is about as near to the ''totem" as I could learn, except, in 
the "medicine dance." The sacred sacks used by its members 
are all different; when a member dies the sack is handed down 
to his nearest relative, who, in turn, becomes initiated, and so 
great is his respect for that animal from which the skin has 
been taken for the sacred sack that, even if starving, he would 
not eat of its flesh. But I noticed that, generally, the sacks 
are made from such animals or birds as are not deemed, 
even among themselves, table luxuries. They have loon skins 
instead of ducks', turkey buzzard, otter, mink, and such like. 
These animals or birds, I think, answer to the families by 
w^hom they are used, to what is termed "totem." 

Upon the subject of future punishments, they have no very 
distinct theory; but there is evidently a practical belief, 
for, if a woman commits suicide (men, they think, do no such 
foolish and cowardly act) the cord by which she hangs herst^lf 
tthe mode of "suiciding") is left suspended, for the spirit of the 
deceased will remain there hanging. When a murderer is 
buried, he is placed face downward and something tied across 
the mouth, seemingly to keep the spirit there confined; but if 
forever, or for a time, I could never learn. It is the same with 
the soul of any very bad man — it does not leave the place where 



41G 



:\nNNESOTA HISTORICAL SOCIETY COLLECTIONS. 



is placed the ^TeinaiDS," but hovers const an I ly around ilicni, 
and of a dark, still ni«;ht is heard to whistle the notes of a 
death son^^ detained from entering; thai pleasant "southern 
country/' 

The "sj)irilualists" who deal ^^ith the minor, or evil, si)irits, 
have in their war-spear covers, "medicine," so termed, which 
is eaten or drunk just as they go into a battle, and of which 
they never otherwise partake. Our lower Sioux, about St. 
Paul, generally used whisky, and but very little in a snuill 
vial, which was drunk on going into the fight, and the vial 
thrown away. ]\Iany such vials have I furnished, with the 
liquor, to those who had returned from their (.'hippewa forays; 
and that is the way I account for th(.^ so few drunkards ihere 
were among those Indians, com])ared with other tiibes or 
bands, T have been informed by those who have thus drunk 
the sacred whisky, on the eve of battle, that the effect was in- 
stantaneous, making the drinker frenzied and like a "madman" 
— ^'Dulch courage." 

These last spiritualists iia\e the most followers among the 
masses, owing to their reputation as doctors, although all who 
believe thus never deny the existence of the one and only all- 
powerful God. 

I haA'e thrown together these few traditions and cus- 
toms of the Sioux, relating to their supernatural belief, in 
a' hurry and without much care, putting them down as I 
have heard them: and I hoi)e that even thus they may be useful 
in compiling a history of this strange ])eo])le befoi-e the hisr dis- 
appears from his "hunting ground." But when he does, he will 
go to a better home, where justice will be done to him and to 
those who have wronged him, 
, Fort Totten Indian Agency, D. T., Jan. 22, 1S72. 




Gabriel Franchere. 
(From a photograph, taken fr(>m a portrait.) 



DEATH OF A KEMARKABLE MAN. 



417 



DEATH OF A REMARKABLE MAX. 

Bv Hon. Bknjamin 1 . Avkkv. 

Gabriel Franchore, the last survivor of the little band of 
fifty-seven men who made the first American settlement on the 
Pacific coast, died at St. Fauh Minn., on the 12th of April, 1SG3, 
in the seventy-seventh year of his age. Mr. Franchere was 
born in Montreal, Canada, in 17S^>, of highly respectable par- 
ents, who gave him an excellent French and Englisli education. 
In 1810, when in his twenty-fourth year, he joined the expedi- 
tion fitted out by John Jacob Astor and others, to establish a 
fur-trading station on the Columbia river, in Oregon, which 
territory had then first come into notice through the reports of 
those energetic travelers, Lewis and Clarke, who had lately re- 
turned from an overland trip to the mouth of the Columbia, 
which they undertook under government auspices. Astor and 
his associates, constituting the American Fur company, con- 
ceived the idea of sending a party of Canadian boatmen up the 
Missouri river to its source, whence they were to strike across 
the country for the mouth of the Columbia to form a junction 
with another party ^^ilo were to go i-ound by way of Cape 
Horn. By both these routes, within the last fifteen years, have 
mainly poured those great currents of emigration which have 
peopled this coast with more than half a million Americans, 
and given to the Union two states, and three territories that 
soon will be states. Mr. Franchere sailed from Xcav York with 
the Cape Horn expedition in KSeptember, 1811, acting as one of 
the clerks of the expedition. The little party that accompanied 
them from Montreal made the trip to New York city in a birch 
bark canoe by the St. Lawi'ence and St. John rivers. Lake 
Champlain and Hudson river, transporting their frail bai^k on 

Sopt. 27. IS^^O. 

"Witli the plioto^'niph of Cabru'l rraiichoro. M hidi. at my ihmhu st. is Iu>rou itli 
jn'osontfcl to the J listorical sotioty by my frionds. his son. K. riMii'lie; e. anil 
grandsons. G. W. and F. Francht^ro. of Lake Crystal, thi.^ state. I wish to present 
the followin;.; from the pen of lU-njamin I*. Av(>ry. late United States minister to 
ridna. and editor ot the Overlan.l Monthly. It is of real historieal valne beyond 
the biography of the man it honors. 

Very trnly. 

T. H. KIUK. 



418 



MINNESOTA HISTOKICAL SOCIETY COLLECTIONS. 



wheels over the land intervening between these water courses. 
He has left a lively picture of their arrival at New York, a city 
which then contained only i)0,()00 inhabitants, while Brooklyn 
was a small village. 

He says in his journal: "We had landed at the north end of 
the city, and the next day, being Sunday, we re-embarked, and 
were obliged to make a course round the city in order to arrive 
at our lodgings on Long Island. We sang as we rowed, which, 
joined to the unusual sight of a birch-bark canoe impelled by 
nine stout Canadians, dark as Indians and as gayly adorned, 
attracted a crowd upon the wharves to gaze at us as we glided 
along." 

The whole expedition consisted of four of Aster's partners, 
eleven clerks, (of whom Mr. Franchere was one), thirteen Cana- 
dian boatmen, five mechanics and a crew of twenty-four. The 
vessel in which they sailed was called the Tonquin, of about 
300 tons burden, commanded by Capt. Thorn, a first lieutenant 
of the United States navy. Most of the men claimed to be 
British subjects, but the expedition sailed under the American 
flag, and was commanded, as we have seen, by an American 
naval ofhcer. The voyage was a long and perilous one. Touch- 
ing at the Sandwich islands, several natives joined the expedi- 
tion and shared its subsequent fortunes. After landing all but 
the officers and crew at the mouth of the Columbia, the T(m- 
quin was under orders to open a trade with the Indians at 
Nootka sound. It was attacked by the savages shortly after 
arrival at its destination, every man aboard killed and tlie ship 
destroyed. This was a severe blow to the colonists, but they 
proceeded vigorously to build and fortify the settlement, which 
was called Astoria, after the proprietor of the enterprise. A 
thrifty trade for furs was begun with the Indians, and several 
exploring parties were sent into the interior, one of which Mr. 
Franchere accompanied, encountering great dangers and hard- 
ships. Astor sent another expedition around Cape Iloi'n to 
re-enforce the little colony, which was further strengthened by 
the arrival of a portion of the party of boatmen who had ])re- 
viously sailed up tlu? Missouri. At the breaking out of the 
War of 1812, the English sent a man-of-war brig, the Raccoon, 
to break up the settlenuMit at Astoria. The post was neci'S- 
sarily surrendered, and its inhabitants made their way back 



DEATH OF A KEMAEKABLE MAN. 419 

to the United States, overland, as best they coidd, by way of 
the Columbia and Saskatchewan rivers and the j^reat lakes. 
Mr. Franchere arrived at ^lontreal in An^nst, 1814, and. Ihe 
writer of this, who was so fortunate as to know him intimately 
within the last twenty years, ha« heard him describe, with 
great animation, the particulars of his ])erilous trip across the 
continent, and how he was hailed by his friends, and not least 
by the true girl who was still waiting for him, as one returned 
from the dead. 

Mr. Franchere wrote and i)ublislied in the French language 
a beautiful narrative of the expedition to Astoria and its 
varied fortunes and those of the persons composing it up to the 
time of his return to Montreal. Nearly forty years afterward 
— that is, in 1854 — when he had long been a resident of New 
York City, he published an English translation of his work, 
which, as its editor says, possesses a Defoe-lilce simplicity of 
style, gives a remarkable description of travel and adventure 
in the Northwestern wilderness of fifty years ago, is a valuable 
fragment of our history snatched from oblivion, ''and is, in fact, 
the only account by an eye-Avitness and a participator in the en- 
terprise, of this first attempt to form a settlement on the 
Pacific under the stars and stripes.'' In 184G, when the Oregon 
boundary question was agitating the country and threatening 
to involve us in a war with CJreat Britain, a coi)y of the French 
edition of this little work furnished conclusive evidence of the 
priority of an American occupation and settlement in Oregon, 
and established the rightfulness of our claim to that territory. 
Thomas H. Benton quoted and praised ''Franchere's Narrative'' 
in a decisive speech on that question in the United States sen- 
ate. Washington Irving had previously made it, to some ex- 
tent, the basis of his charming ''Astoria,'' borrowing from it 
largely. The English translation was published by Redfield 
of New. York. It has gone through scvi'ral editions, and is not 
yet out of print. 

Mr. Franchere, subsequent to his return from Oregon, was 
connected with the American Fur company down to the time 
of its failure, and, in an extremely honorable manner, sacrificed 
his own personal fortune to assist in meeting its liabilities. 
He v.as afterward associated with the well-known hous(^ of 
Pierre Clioteau, Jr., & Co. in their extensive operations in 



420 



MIXNEvSOTA HISTORICAL SOCIETY COLLECTIONS. 



the Nortliwest. Latterly lie has been en<;aged in the fur busi- 
ness at New York in his own name. At the time of his death 
he was on a visit to his siei)son, J. S. Prince, mayor of St. Paul, 
Minn. lie was a man below the medium stature, of very sim- 
ple and correct habits, which insured him j;ood health and 
cheei-ful spirits. He possessed a blithe disposition, veined 
with a kindly humor; was very active and intelligent, exceed- 
ingly kind-hearted, true to his adopted country, and had a firm 
faith in the Christian religion. He left a wife (his second), sev- 
eral married daughters, and one son, who has been a resident 
of California since 1849, and is now in business in Nevada 
county. We believe he was the very last survivor of the 
Astoria expedition. He lived to see on the Pacific coast, which 
he found a complete wilderness, a young empire, growing to 
greatness under the most remarkable conditions known in 
iiuman annals. 



FIBST SETTLEMENT ON RED KIVPiK. 



421 



FffiST SETTLEME^'T OX KEl) RIV^ER OF THE NOKTU, 
1812. COXDITIOX IN 1847. 

By Mrs. Elizabeth T. Ayers. 

This rej^on of countiy was explored and first occupied by 
fur traders about the middle of the 17th century. Prince Ru- 
pert and other British lords undertook, at their own expense, 
an expedition to Hudson bay for the discovery of a passage 
into the South seas, or to China, and for finding trade for furs, 
minerals and other commodities.. They made some discover- 
ies, and were in 1G70 incorporated under the title of Hudson 
Bay company. They received a charter from Charles XL, grant- 
ing to them and their successors exclusive right and juris- 
diction over a territory larger than all Europe, which they 
called Rupert's Land. The charter has long since expired, but 
they continue to receive license from the British government 
for trading, and still enjoy superior rights and privileges. 

But the first permanent settlement (put down on many of our 
school maps "Selkirk's Settlement") was made by a company 
of Scotch Highlanders in the years 1812 and 1815. They were 
driven from farms which they had rented in the north of Scot- 



Mrs. Elizabeth T. Ayer, the widow of Frcderioli: Ayer, sent this manuscript to 
the Minnesota Historical Society with the following note written in a clear, firm 
hand.— W\ K. M. 

"Soon after missionaries went among the Indians of Ked lake, which was in 
1843, friendly relations sprang up between them and the settlers of lied river. 
The missionaries were hungry, and two of their number went to Fort Garry for 
food. They Avere triven much more th:in the worth of their money. This was 
done repeatedly. After awhile tlie niis-^ionarles had an opportunity of securing 
and returning .S;i.8(HX which had been stolen from the bank of the Hudson Bay 
company. This little circumstance was much in their favor. 

"In 1847 I went with our two children, eleven and thirteen years of age. to 
spend a winter with the Ilighhmders. AVhile the boys were In school the mother 
spent some of her leisure time in writing 'The First Setilement of the Pla^-e.* 

Yours ti uly. 

"Belle Prairie. Minn., April 7, 1S02. E. T. AYFK " 

August. 1804— Mi-s. Ayer, nged ninety-two. is still living where her husband 
located in 1840.— W. K. M. 



422 MINNI':SOTA HISTORICAL SOCIETY COLLECl^IONS. 



land, because tlu^ P>ritish <,^overiiineiit tlioiight it more prolita- 
ble to stock the land with sheep. 

Bein^; in distin ssed circumstances, tliey forwarded a petition 
to the British parliament for relief. This petition fell into tlic 
hands of Lord Selkirk, and he went in person to see the Iligh- 
hmders. He owned a share in the profits of Hudson Bay com- 
pany, and had purchased a lar^^e tract of land in that region, 
though he had never seen it. 

He told the Scotch Highlanders that if they would leave their 
native country he would be at the expense of removing them 
to America, and would give them a free settlement on his pos- 
sessions at Red river. He suggested that two from each family 
should first go and make preparation for the parents and chil- 
dren who might follow. 

Accordingly in the summer of. 1812 about sixty young men 
and women, mostly relatives, left Scotland to find a home in 
the American wilderness. They had a rough passage, and 
many of them died of typhoid fever after they entered Hudson 
bay. The remainder were obliged to winter at Fort Churchill 
and they did not arrive at the place of their destination on 
Ked river till the next summer. While at Fort Churchill they 
were short of provisions, and those who were trading with the 
Indians at that place took advantage of their destitute circum- 
stances and greatly oppressed them. They even took the locks 
from their fowling pieces to prevent their killing game, and 
then sold them stale provisions at a great price. The winter 
to them was a long one. They all left Fort Churchill in starch 
on snowshoes, and, after encountering many difiiculties, ar- 
rived near the mouth of the Assinaboine on Red river — not 
to find their appointed home, but to meet a continuation of 
troubles. 

A company of fur traders, known by the name of "Nor'west 
company," after the cession of Canada to Great Britain, had 
spread themselves rapidly over the interior of North Amerira 
to the Arctic circle and Pacific ocean— and finally extended 
their establishnuMits to Hudson bay. A contest between this 
company and the Hudson l*»ay company, marked with great bit- 
terness and animosity, was carried on for many years, and 
ended only in the coalition of the parties in 1821. 

It was during these quarrels that the first company of Scotch 
Highlanders sent out by Lord Douglas, Earl of Selkirk, arrived 



FIRST SETTLEMENT ON RED RIVER. 



423 



at Red river. The Hudson J>ay company, of course, favored 
their settling there, while the Xor'west sternly opposed it. 
They feared that it minht strengthen the Hudson Bay 
company against them. They treated the emigrants kindly 
in other respects. While they told them that they 
must expect trouble if they attempted to settle at Red river, 
they offered them a free passage to Canada and promised 
to see them comfortably settled there. Remembering the ill- 
treatment from some of the Hudson Bay company the pre- 
vious winter, they more readily acceded to the proposal of the 
Nor west company, and they went to Canada that same sum- 
mer and settled on the north of Lake Erie. (Judge Ross in his 
corrections says, "A few of them went over the line into the 
United States.") 

According to the original plan a second and larger party 
came over in 1S15. The first party had written from Canada 
to their parents, giving an account of their troubles, but their 
letters were intercepted and never reached Scotland. 

TMien this company of fathers and mothers arrived at Hud- 
son bay they found at Fort York two of the children who were 
sent out in 1S12 to make them a home in America. These two 
had refused to go with the rest to Canada, but were determined, 
if possible, to find their way back to Scotland. These two told 
the whole story. It was the first that tlie parents had heard 
from their children in three long years. Tlieir hearts fainted. 
In bitter anguish they cried, "Wimt shall we do?— what can we 
do?" They were refused a return passage to Scotland, and 
could they go back, not one of them had a home in the land of 
his birth. For them there was no alternative. They were 
obliged to go forward, well aware that trouble was before 
them. 

Their fears were realized. It was seven long years before 
they were comfortably and peacefully settled. Alex. Ross says 
it w^as twelve years. Both parties are right, allowing them to 
reckon from their different standpoints. 

This second ]>arty arrived at Red river in October, 1S15, but 
not being able to get provision for the winter they went out on 
the plains to hunt buffalo. In the spring they returned to Red 
river; and notwithstanding the opposition of the Xor'west 
company, who wished them to follow their children to Canada, 
their lands were measured off a« cording to the directions of 



424 MINNESOTA HTSroiUrAT. SOCTKTY COLLECTIONS. 



Lord Selkirk, and they put in tlieir seed; but the tlireats 
against them were so dreadful that they could not be happy. 
Some of these threats were soon executed. 

On the 19th of June, ISKJ, the Nor' west company, havin^; 
come from their hunting grounds, presented themselves at tlie 
Hudson Bay company's fort on Ued river. AYith them were a 
company of men, mostly half-breeds — in all they numbered TO 
men, well prepared for slaughter. Their plan was, first, to take 
the fort, and thus to make themselves masters of the place; 
next to kill all the Scotchmen to prevent their settling at Ked 
river, and should this be accomplished each one of these half- 
breeds was to have a wife or daughter of the slain for his 
services. 

The Hudson Bay company, fearing an attack, had all gath- 
ered into their fort, which was, at that time, a poor securiiy 
against such a company as stood, all mounted, before them. 
Gov. Semple and two of the Hudson Bay company went out to 
meet them — others gathered around to see what would follow. 
Twenty-two were slaughtered and six were taken prisoners. 
The massacre exhibited a scene of savage cruelty. The gov- 
ernor fell first, and though helpless, was not mortally wounded. 
He gave his gold watch to his antagonist to spare his life, but 
he was soon after shot through the head by Ma-ji-ga-ba-ne, a 
well-known conjurer and medicine man at Leech lake. The 
governor's faithful servant, who held his master clasped in his 
arms, shared a similar fate. Others pleaded for their lives, 
declaring that they would go immediately to England and 
never show themselve:, in this country again. But pleading 
and promising were vain. The Scotch settlers, however, were 
saved by a young Scotcl- half-breed who had been educated in 
England — he interposed in their behalf. But they were saved 
only on condition that they should all leave the place. 

Tlie dead, twenty-four in number, lay on the field, strip])ed 
and mangled, till the evening of the next day. The fort was 
then surrounded, and the C(Hiquered were allowed to bury tlu'ir 
dead. The conquerors furnished them a guard while doinci- it, 
but still they fear(Hl that the more savage and bloodthirsty 
among them miglit disob(\v orders; and their slain were buried 
superficially. 

Early the next morning, June 21, the Scotch Highlanders 
all started off according to promise and went with the Hudson 



FTRBT BETTLFMENT ON RED RIVER. 



425 



Bay conii)aiiy to Foi't York. Kail Selkirk, boiu^^ in Canada, 
heard of this outbreak, and sent sokliers to retake the fort 
This Mas done, and the subdued i)arties who iiad wintered at 
Fori York, Hudson bay, returned to Kcd river in the sunnner 
of 1817, but too kite to cultivate their lields and lay up a sup- 
ply for winter. In this distressed and unhappy condition Karl 
Selkirk found his colony. This was the only time he ever saw 
his possessions on Ked river. Thc^ si*iht aflected his health, 
and is supposed to have shortened his life. He had expended 
£80,000 on his colony, and it seemed to bring only trouble and 
sorrow. The lands he had purchased of the Indians, excepting 
what were occu])ied by the Highlanders, he made over to the 
Hudson Bay company and returned to Kurope. 

ysiien the party returned from Fort York, after Earl Sel- 
kirk had retaken their fort, they met a horrible sight. The 
wolves and dogs had taken from their shallow graves the bodies 
of those they had buried in haste after the massacre and had 
strewn them over the ground to a great distance. After re- 
burying the dead, nearly the whole settlement, which at this 
time had some additions from Europe, were driven by hunger 
to winter again on the plains — a mixed company, as may be 
seen from the fact that in their camp that Avinter thev spoke 
nine different languages. In the spring they returned and did 
what they could to make themselves comfortable. They put in 
what seed they had, but for three years their crops were 
partly or entirely cut off by locusts. The first appearance of 
tlie locusts was on a Sabbath. People going from church met a 
cloud of them so dense that they with difficulty made their way 
through it. The barley, then in the ear. was in two hours com- 
pletely cut off. The wheat that year was saved. Tlie locusts 
deposited their eggs, and were soon gone. Afterwards they 
were seen by voyagers on the shores of Lake Winnipeg, heaped 
up in drifts as high as a mans head. The next year locusts 
sprung up from the soil and destroyed everything. The year 
following there were fewer locusts, but enough to destroy the 
crops. 

In 18-1 the contending companies united under the name of 
Hudson Bay company. Since that time all parties have been 
wonderfully careful to make no allusion to past troubles, and 
they are a happy community. The older children know but 



426 



MINNESOTA HISTORICAL SOCIETY COLLECTIONS. 



little of former quarrels, and the younger children almost 
nothing. The ditTerent parties, including the Scotch, are now 
(184:7) intermarrying with the full consent and approbation of 
parents. 

The present number of inhabitants is five thousand five hun- 
dred, including the Indian settlement, which contains six hun- 
dred. These Indians have always been under the care of Rev. 
Mr. Cochrane. He is styled "Father of the Settlement." They 
are in a good state of civilization, and are tlu-iving. 

When the two fur companies were united in 1821, a small lot 
of land was given to each of their discharged servants. They 
are settled between Fort Garry and Pembina. The Scotch and 
English are farther down the river, between upper and lower 
Fort Garry, occupying a distance along the river of eighteen 
or twenty miles. 

The Scotch are partial to the Presbyterian form of worship. 
When they left Scotland they had promise of a preacher who 
could speak Gaelic, and it was a grievous disappointment to 
them that he did not come. At present (1848) nearly all un- 
derstand English, but the few who cannot understand still 
motirn, and still hope to see him before they die. 

There are six Episcopal churches in the settlement, a Catho- 
lic cathedral, one or two chapels and a nunnery. Tlie Scotch 
Highlanders worship with Episcopalians. There are seven 
schools in the settlement. There is also an academy near Fort 
Garry patronized by Hudson Pay company. Most of its pupils 
have been children of the chief fur traders throughout Rupert's 
land. It is a boarding school — they live in good style. Order 
and neatness are visible throughout the whole establishment. 
The boys are trained for business and the girls for wives and 
mothers. Rev. J. Macallum, ^Ir. Jones' successor, has been 
superintendent fifteen years. 

The training of the children in the settlement is strictly re- 
ligious. When children eat by themselves they always "say 
grace." At the bearing school the pupils take turn in express- 
ing thanks, even when the master is present at the table. 

In the Scotch and English settlements, between upper and 
lower Fort Garry, their houses, parks and cultivated fields are 
between the river and the "king road" (carriage road). West 
of this carriage road is an extensive prairie, where all their 



FIRST SETTLEMENT ON EED RIVER. 



427 



cattle tiH'd in cuiiinion. and just bt'foie? sunset they may be seen, 
as far as the eye can reach, every man's herd taking a straight 
course to its owner's pite. Their liay field, also, is in common 
— far out on the plains — and that every man may have an 
equal chance, it is the law of the place that no one shall com- 
mence making: hay till the 2()th of July. They are a generous 
people, but hard on trespassers. 

Very liberal premiums are given from the public treasury 
to those who excel in the manufacture of any useful article. 
A hidy of the writer's acquaintance just received about -SS for 
a small skiMu of very fine, nice yarn. So small was the skein 
that she cotild easily pass it through her tiuger ring. 

The people are industrious and economical. They card and 
spin their own wool, and full their own cloth. This they do by 
kicking it. When a web of cloth that they want fulled is 
brought from the weavers a party of yoimg men are invited in. 
The cloth is wet in strong soapsuds and thrown on the tioor. 
The operators sit do^^"n, facing each other, with a support at 
their backs, and commence their work. The time they kick de- 
pends on how thick tliey want the cloth. The steam from the 
cloth, added to the labor of kicking, gives them a good bath. 
They retire to change their clothes for dry ones. In the mean- 
time the women and girls are loading the tables, and a pleasant 
pastime ends the scene. 

The general hospitality of the Selkirkers is so great ihat it 
must be both natural and acquired. They are not forgetful in 
entertaining strangers. Travelers have only time to introduce 
themselves before attention is paid to their wants. If tired 
and foot-sore, a small tub of water is brought, and even the 
matron, in her snowy-white, broad-ruflled ca]), does not think 
it beneath her dignity to kneel, and, with her own hands, dress 
the f<'et of the weary stranger. They manifest the same kind 
heart with folks at home. It seems a pleasure rather than a 
hardship to the Scotch woman and girls when a father, hus- 
band or brother, returned from a long tri]) on a cold, stormy 
day, to take the whij) from his hand and care for the leam, 
while he warms himself and partakes of refreshments that are 
waiting for him. The women help in the harvest lield. They 
kuow as well as the uwn when grain is n^dy for the sickle, 
and they do their share in harvesting the crops. Their tields 



V 



428 i MINNESOTA HISTORICAL SOCIKTY COLLECTIONS. 

are not lai'j;e, and llicy are near the liouses. They liavc not 
mnch market for i>ro(lnce. There is nnich work to be (h)nL* in 
which women cannot lielp. The principal jobs are ^ettin^- hay 
and wood, for whicli they «;o ten or fifteen miles. N'ery, very 
few do that at present — 1847-8. 



FREDERICK AYER. 



429 



FREDERICK AYER, TEACHER AND MISSIONARY TO 
THE OJH3WAY INDIANS 1829 TO ISoO. 

(TV'ritteu at request of Rev. Mr. Boutwell.) 

Frederick Aver was born in Stockbridgo, ^Nlass., in 1803. 
When he was two years old the family moved to Central New 
Y'ork. His father was a I'resbyterian minister, and he in- 
tended that his son should follow the same profession; but 
before he was prepared his health failed and he turned his 
attention to other business. 

He commenced his labors for the Indians in 1829 by teach- 
ing the mission school at Mackinaw under the superintend- 
ence of Rev. Wm. M. Ferry. The pupils of this school were 
not all Ojibways, but were from many different tribes and 
spoke different languages. 

Mackinaw was then a general depot of the North Ameri- 
can fur traders. They brought not only their own children 
to the school, but such others as parents among whom they 
were trading wished to send. They were gathered from Lake 
Winnipeg, B. A., north, to Prairie du Chien and the head of 
Lake Michigan south. They were taught in English only. 

In the summer of 1830 Mr. Ayer went to La Pointe, Lake 
Superior, with Mr. Warren, opened a school and commenced 
the study of the OjibAvay language. In 1831 he met at Macki- 
naw Rev. Messrs. Hall and Boutwell, who were sent out by 
the A. B. C. F. M. to the Indians, and he returned with Mr. 
and Mrs. Hall and their interpreter to spend another winter 
at La Pointe. 

The next year, 1832, ^Mr. Ayer wintered with another trader 
at Sandy Lake. He opened a school there and completed a 
little Ojibway spelling book, which was commenced at La 
Pointe. In the spring of 1833 he left Sandy Lake for Utica, 
N. Y., to get the book printed. Mr. Aitkin, with whom he had 
wintered, gave him ^80, and, with a pack on his back and an 
experienced guide, he started on his journey. Before they 
reached Snult Ste. ^farie the ice in Lake Superior was so weak 
that Mr. Ayer broke through and was saved only by carrying 
horizontally in his hands a long pole to prevent his sinking. 



430 MINNESOTA HISTORICAL SOCIETY COLLECTIONS. 



(Before arriving at any settlement they were out of provisions; 
but fortunately, providentially, I should say, they came to a 
sugar camp. Here they got iish of the Indians and a quart 
of corn, which they crushed between two stones, and this 
sufficed till they reached Fort Brady.) 

Mr. Ayer hastened on to complete the object of his journey 
that he might return to Mackinaw in time to go up Lake Su- 
perior with the traders. 

Hitherto Mr. Ayer had been an independent worker. He 
now put himself under the direction of the "American Board"' 
(he married a teacher of the Mackinaw school) and was sent 
to Yellow Lake, Wis., within the present bounds of Burnett 
county. Miss Delia Cook, whose name should never be for- 
gotten among the early missionaries, of the American Board 
to the Indians, and Miss Hester Crooks, daughter of Eamsey 
Crooks, a girl educated at Mackinaw^ and who had some ex- 
perience in teaching, were among the number who coasted up 
Lake Superior in a mackinaw boat; the former to La Pointe 
mission, the latter to Yellow Lake, * with Mr. and Mrs. Ayer. 
They wintered in Dr. Borup's family at La Pointe. Mrs. Borup 
also had for some years been a pupil at Mackinaw. The next 
year Miss Crooks married Rev. Mr. Boutwell and went to 
Leech Lake; and John L. Seymour and Miss Sabrina Stevens, 
sister of J. D. Stevens, also Henry Blatchford, an interpreter 
from Mackinaw, were added to Yellow Lake mission. When 
Mr. Ayer told the Indians his object in coming among them 
they gave him a welcome. But six months later, seeing tavo 
or three log houses in process of building, they were much 
troubled, and met in a body to request him to go away. A 
Menomonee, from the region of Green Bay, had stirred them 
up, not against the missionaries, but against the general gov- 
ernment. The sfjeaker said: '^It makes the Indians sad to 
see the white man's house go up on their land. We don't 
want you to stay; you must go." And further on he said: 
"You shall go." Mr. Ayer answered him. The party left at 
midnight, and the missionaries went to bed with heavy hearts, 
thinking that they might be thrust out almost itnmediately. 
But before sunrise the next morning about two-thirds of the 



♦YeUow Lake river, which flows into the St. Croix from the Wisconsin 
side half way between Lake Superior and the Mississippi, is the outlet of 
Yellow lake. 



FREDERICK AVER. 



431 



Bame party returned and said they had come to take back 
what they had said the ni*,Oit before. The war chief was 
speaker, but his words were mild. ''^Yhy,'' said he, "should 
we turn these teachers away before they have done us any 
harm?" They would lik(,' to have us stay, he said, but added 
that they did not want any more to come, for the result mi<^^ht 
be the loss of their lands. We mi^ht use whatever their 
couutr}' alforded, but they would not give us any land nor sell 
us any. "For," said the speaker, "if we should sell our kind 
where would our children play?" 

Mr. Ayer finished his school house and went on with his 
work as though nothing had happened. But evidently things 
were not as they should be. The old chief seemed to **sit on 
the fence" ready to jump either way. The war chief was 
always friendly, but he had not so much control over what con- 
cerned us. He did what he could without giving oflense and 

• was anxious that his daughter of fourteen years should be 
taken into the mission family. Mr. Ayer remained two years 
longer at Yellow Lake. In the meantime the chief of Snake 
Kiver band sent messages inviting the teachers to come and 
live among them. Accordingly in the spring of 183G the 
mission was removed to Pokaguma lake, eighteen miles up 
the river. The chief did all he had promised, and showed 
himself a man. Nothing was said here to I'emind the mis- 
sionaries that they were using the Indians' wood, water and 
fish. On the contrary, when they sold their land it was urged 
that the teacher's children should be enrolled for annual 
payment the same as their own. The chief said that as they 
were born on the land it was no more than right, and he 
wished it might be done. Franklin Steele was the first white 
man who came to visit the missionaries at Yellow Lake. For 
sufficient reasons, Mr. and Mrs. Seymour had gone to Quincy, 
111., to pursue their studies, and I\e^ . Mr. Bout well and Mr. 
Ely had been added to the mission. A school had been 
opened, some Indian houses built, gardens enlarged, a church 

.organized, and the future looked hopeful. "But tilings have 
an end." 

In 1840 the Sioux selected this settlement as the place to 
avenge the wrongs of the Ojibways — some of recent date; the 
principal of which was the killing of two sons of Little Crow, 
done in self-defense, between Pokaguma and the Falls of the 
St. Croix. 



432 MINNESOTA HISTORICAL SOCIETY COLLECTIONS. 



The Sioux arrived at Pokaj^nma in the night and stopped 
on the opposite side of ttie hike, two niik'S from the mission. 
The main body went to the other side, and, after examin- 
ing the ground wliere they intended to operate, hid among 
the trees and brush back of the Indian gardens, with orders 
that all keep quiet on both sides of the lake till the given 
signal, when the Indians ^^ere busy in their gardens, and 
then make quick work. lUit their })lans failed. ^lost of the 
Ojibwa^'s of the settienient had, from fear of the Sioux, slept 
that night on an island half a mile out in the lake (I mean 
the women and children), and were late to their gardens. In 
the meantime a loaded canoe was nearing the opposite shore, 
and the few Sioux who had remained there to dispatch any 
who, in time of battle, might attempt to escape by crossing 
over, fired prematurely. This gave the alarm and saved the 
Ojibways. The chief ran to Mr. Ayer's door and said ex- 
pressively, "The Sioux are upon us," and was olf. They seemed 
at once to understand that the main body of the enemy was 
close at hand. The missionaries stepped out of the door and 
had just time to see a great splashing of water across the 
lake, when bullets came whizzing about their ears, and they 
went in. The Sioux had left their hiding place, and the bat- 
tle commenced in earnest. Most of the women and children 
of the settlement were yet on the island. The house of the 
war chief was well barricaded, and most of the men gathered 
in there. The remainder took refuge in a house more ex- 
posed at the end of the village. The enemy drew up very 
near and fired in at the window. One gun was made useless, 
being indented by a ball. The owner retired to a corner and 
spent the time in prayer. The mother of the house, with her 
small children, was on her way to the island under a shower 
of bullets, calling aloud on God for h(^lp. 

The missionaries, seeing from their window quantities of 
bloody fiesh thrown u])on stumT)s in the battlefield, thought 
surely that several of their friends had fallen. It proved to 
be only a cow and a calf of an Ojibway. The mission children , 
w^ere much frightened, and asked many questions, and for 
apparent safety went up stairs, and were put behind some 
well-filled barrels. In the heat of the battle two Ojibways 
came from the island and landed in front of 'S\v. Ayer's house. 
Thev dnnv their canoe ashore and secreted themselves as 



FKEDEBICK AVER. 



433 



well as ^>iu'i'ouiulin«j:s would ])oniiii. Not long after three 
Sioiix ran down the hill and toward the canoe. They were 
fired upon and one fell dead. Tlie other two ran for help, 
but before they could return the Ojibways were on the way 
back to the island. Not haA'in.u' time to take the scalp of 
th(4r enemy, they hastily cut the ])Owder lioru strap. drii)ping 
with blood, from his breast as a tro])hy of victory. The i^ioux 
drew the dead body up the hill and back to the ])lace of lij^ht- 
ing. The noise ceased. The battle was over. The mission- 
aries soon heard the joyful words, quietly spoken, "AVe still 
live." Not a warrior had fallen. The two school girls who 
were in the canoe at the first firing in the morning were the 
only persons killed, though half of the men and boys in the tight 
were wounded. 

The Sioux women and boys who had come with their war- 
riors to carry away the spoil had the chagrin of returning as 
empty as tliey came. 

The Ojibways were careful that no canoes should be left with- 
in reach of the Sioux. The Sioux marauders found a log canoe, 
made by Mi\ Ely, and removed their dead two miles up the 
river, dressed them (seemingly) in the best the party could 
furnish, with each a double-barreled gun, a tomahawk and 
scalping-knife, set them against some large trees and went 
on their way. (Some of these articles, also their elegant (?) 
head-dresses were sent to the museum of the American Board 
in Boston.) 

In the closing scene the missionaries had the oi)portunity 
of seeing the difference between those Indians who had list- 
ened to instructions and those who had not. The second 
day after the battle the pagan party brought back to the island 
the dead bodies of their enemies, cut in pieces, and distributed 
parts to such Ojibways as had at any time lost friends by the 
hands of the Sioux. One woman, whose daughttM- was killed 
and mutilated on that memorable morning, when she saw the 
canoes coming with a head raised in the air on a long })ole, 
waded out into the water, grabbed it like a hungry dog and 
dashed it re])eatedly on the stones with savege fierceness. 
Others of the pagans conducted themselves in a similar man- 
ner. Tiiey even cooked some of the flesh that night in their 
kettles of rice. Eunice (as she was named at her ba])tism) was 
offered an arm. At first she hesitated; but for reasons, suftl- 
— -20 



43t 



MINNESOTA IIISTOKICAL SOCIETY COLLECTIONS. 



cient in her own mind, tlionght best to take it. lU^v (huijrhicr- 
iu-law, widow of the son who had recently been killed and 
chopped in piee(\s by the Sionx, took another, and they ^\\'^lt 
into their lod<^e. Ennice said, "My dau;;hter, we must not do 
as some of our friends are doing. We have been tan«;ht bet- 
ter." And, taking some white cloths from her sack, tliey 
wrapped the arms in them, otfered a prayer and gave them a 
decent burial. 

.About this time a Mr. Kirkland was sent from Quincy, 111., 
by a party who wished to plant a colony not far from 
the mission station. He arrived at Pokagnma very soon after 
the battle. Notwithstanding what had ha])pened he sele('ted 
a location on Cross lake, just where a railroad has now bi'en 
in operation for some years (Pine City). He worked vigorously 
for two or three weeks and then went to consult the Indian 
agent and the military at Fort Snelling. They gave him no en- 
couragement that the two tribes would ever live in peace and 
he Avent home. 

The Ojibways lived in constant fear, and the place was soon 
deserted. This was a great trial to the missionaries, but ihey 
did not urge them to stay. They separated into small parties 
and went where they could get a living for the present and be 
out of danger. The teachers remained at their post, occasion- 
ally visiting the Indians in their retreat, hoping th(\v might 
soon think it safe to return to their homes. In this they were 
disappointed. These visits were not always very safe. On 
one of these trips Mr. Ayer was lost, and from cold and hunger 
came near perishing. Not finding the party he sought, he wan- 
dered about for a day or two. In the meantime the weather 
became much colder. Xot expecting to camp out he took only 
one blanket and food enough for one meal. In crossing Kettle 
river on a self-made conveyance, and there being ice on the op- 
posite shore, he got wet. The Indians, anticipating his visit, 
had sent a young man to the mission station to guide him to 
their new locality. He returned in haste, f(^ll on Mr. Ayer's 
track, and a light sprinkle of snow enabled him to follow it till 
he was found. 

In 1842 Mr. Ayer went with his family to the States, and in 
Oberlin was ordained preached to the Ojibways. He soon re- 
turned to the Indian country, and David P»rainerd Spencer, an 
Oberlin student went witli him. They spent the winter of 



FREDERICK AVER. 



435 



1842-3 in traveling- from one* trading post to another, selecting 
locations for missionary labor. For their own field they chose 
Ked Lake. AVhen Mrs. Ayer, with her two little boys, six and 
eight years old, went to join her husband iii the new station, 
Alonzo Barnard and wife and S. (}. Wright, nil of Oberlin col- 
lege, w^ent with her. Other missionaries soon followed, and 
that station was for many years supplied with etlicient labor- 
ers. More recently the work there was assigned to Bishop 
Whipple, and is still carried on. The Red Lake Indians were 
a noble band — they had a noljle chief. In civilization he led 
the way, in religion he did not oppose. He shouldered a hea\'y 
ax, and could be seen chopjnug on one side of a large tree in 
profuse perspiration, while his wife was on the other side help- 
ing what she could wdth her hatchet. This chief was also an 
advocate of temperance. Not that he did not love whisky, but 
he hated the effect of it on his band. He dictated a letter to 
the president, begging him not to let the white-faces bring any 
more fire-water to his people, giving as one reason that they 
had teachers among them who must be protected, and if they 
had whisky he did not know what might happen. 

In the church there was nuich childish simplicity. Once, 
Avhen Mr. Ayer Avas lecturing on the eighth commandment, he 
paused, and, without expecting an answer, said: "Now who is 
there among you who has not stolen?'' One woman began to 
confess, another followed, then another. One thought she had 
stolen abotit seven times. Another entered more into particu- 
lars, mentioning the things she had stolen, till the scene was 
quite amusing. Another rose to confess, but was cut short by 
her husband, who said: "Who knows how many times she has 
stolen? We are a nation of thieves." And with a few re- 
marks the meeting closed. 

Mr. Ayer's health required more out-door exercise, and early 
in 1840 he left Red Lake, taking with him his eldest son, and 
went to the frontier of the newly ]»urchased territory, locating 
on the east bank of the Mississip])i l iver about twenty miles be- 
low the Crow Wing river (now TU-lle rrairi(\ 1804). His plan 
was to open an independent school there for the more advanced 
and promising children in dilTerent parts of tlie Ojibwa coun- 
try. His wife and other son joined them in July, but in three 
weeks after the son passed away like a tlower, to the great 
grief of the lonely little family. But Mr. Ayer was prospered 



436 MINNESOTA HISTORICAL SOCIETY COLLP:CTIONS. 



in his uiidertakiii';. That t<aiiie yeai* lie raised a crop of pota- 
toes and oats, for all of which those who were buildiiii^ Fort 
Iill)k\v gave him >>1 a biisliol, takiii<;- them from the tiold. 

J. C. Diirbaiik (afterwards ])rominont in business in Sr. Paul) 
was hired to hew the frame of a school house, and while Mr. 
Ayer was putting it u\> his wife went to the Eastern states and 
got money to foot the bill and at the same time engaged teach- 
ers. Mr. E. D. Xeill said it was the best school house in the 
territory at that time. 

Several of the fur traders and others gave him some aid, and 
when the school was opened sent their children. At hrst all 
the pupils had more or less Ojibway blood flowing in their veins. 
Over twenty were taken into the family, but in process of time, 
as the country settled, the school became more white than In- 
dian. Mr. Ayer was particular to have good help. During the 
progress of the school one gentleman and two ladies from Ver- 
mont, two ladies from Mount Holyoke seminary, two from the 
college in Galesburg, IlL, a Mrs. Mahan of Oberlin and two or 
three others were for a longer or shorter time assistants in the 
work. They had a varying number of pupils till the commence- 
ment of the civil war and the Indian outbreak. When a dis- 
trict school was first organized it was joined with ^Ir. Ayer's 
school and remained so for some years. 

Mr. Ayer's health improved, and when, after the war, men 
and women were called to go among the freedmen, he had 
his wife offered their services. In ISGo they were sent to Gal- 
latin, Tenn., but finding the place occupied by earnest Quakers, 
they went to open a school in Atlanta, Ga. He stopped at 
Chattanooga and shipped a soldiers' chapel for a school house. 
Ten days after his wife joined him, and they immediately com- 
menced school in the African church. On the first day they 
had seventy-five pupils — on the next day over one hundred. In 
less than a week the cha])el was ready for use, more teachers 
had arrived, and both houses were filled. The work increased 
rapidly, and Mr. Ayer was obliged to leave the schools to at- 
tend to other matters. But his place was filled in the person 
of the late Mr. Ware, president of Atlanta university. The 
American Missionary association built two large houses under 
his supervision and remodi'led another. His varied duties led ^ 
to an acquaintance with different classes of men. and all 
seemed to resi)ect him. He looked on most of them with favor, 



fredp:kick ayek. 437 

and tlie fet'lin;j: was reciprocated. His first year in Atlanta 
was a peculiarly tryin?:; one. ^lenibers of families who luid 
been lou^ separated were in seai'ch of each other. They were 
cold and luingry. ^fr. Ayei', by little and little, from his own 
private pnrse, saved many from star\alion. He i^ave them no 
money, bnt for some time he had qnite a bill to ])ay monthly at 
a grocer's. lie <;ave tickets of small value for something'- eata- 
ble, just enonjih to keep them from starvation. Many did 
starve — both whites and nei^roes. ^[any others fed themselves 
by digging bullets from embankments in and around the city. 
There were others who lived by gathering bones, which were 
stacked in the heart of the city till they were shipped and 
ground to fertilize the surrounding country. It was whispered 
by anatomists that there was a large spi-inkle of human bones 
among them. At the same time the smallpox was raging in 
the city. 

^Ir. Ayer organized a Congregational church and had a bap- 
tistry connected with the house of worship (Storrs school) 
that he might baptize by immersion, or otherwise, according to 
the wishes of the candidate. Tie also formed a temperance 
society, which, some months before his death, numbered more 
than six hundred members. 

He was sick only three weeks, and in that time he was car- 
ried out two or three days to attend to important business 
which no other could as well do. To facilitate laboi', his son, 
wiio, with his wife, had remained South after the war, had 
giA'en his horse to his father and the latter bought himself a 
buggy. This enabled him to accomplish twice the work he 
could otherwise have done. In that hot climate he was indus- 
trious to a fault. He worked in summer as well as in winter, 
and seemed to enjoy it. ''The spirit of a man sustaineth his 
infirmity.'' But his work was done. 

At his death there was great lamentation. One aged rebel, 
who had lost a small foi-tune by the war, embraced the corpse, 
and, with sobs, said: "If he had not holpcn me I should have 
gone before him." Many others, in word or action, expressed 
a similar feeling. All classes of ])eo])le were represented at his 
funeral to the number (as was estimated) of three thousand. 
His remains were buried in Atlanta cemetery, Oct. 1, LSOT. 

Thus passed away one who had s])ent a life for the benetit of 
others. 



THE STORY OF NANCY M'CLUKE. 



439 



THE STORY OF NANCY McCLUKE. 

CAPTIVITY AMONG THE SIOUX. 

1 was born at Mendota, then called St. Peters, in 1S3G. My 
father was Lieut. James McClure, an officer in the re^^ular army 
stationed at Fort Snellinjj: for several years. He was a native 
of Pennsylvania and graduated from the West Point ^lilitary 
academy in 18*>3, and was sent to Fort Snelling to join his regi- 
ment soon after. In the fall of 1837 he was ordered to Florida, 
and died at Fort Brooke, near Tampa Bay, in the month of 
April following, at the early age of twenty-six. Of course I 
cannot remember him, but from what my mother and others 
have told me, I feel very proud that I had such a father. He 
was a brave, gallant and noble man, and had he lived he prob- 
ably would have made a good record, and my life would have 
been far different from what it has been. He married my 
mother at Fort Snelling, and she always cherished his memory. 
Not long ago some letters of his were found among the papers 
of Gen. Sibley at St. Paul, and they show that he loved dearlv 
my mother and me, his only child. I know very little of my rel- 
atives on my father's side. It is only lately, through the help 
of Gov. Marshall and another gentleman in St. Paul, that I 
have been able to hear directly from any of them, though I 
have tried for many years often and over again; but I am now 
in communication with them, and it gives me much happiness. 

On my mother's side I know my family history pretty well. 
My great-great-grandfather was named Ta-te-mannee, or the 
Walking Wind. He was one of the principal chiefs of the 
great Sioux or Dakota Indian nation of Minnesota. My great- 



Thls narrative was written for the Minnesota Historical society, but. by per- 
mission, appeared in tho St. Paul Picneer Press June 3, 1S94, as one of Its 
Bcrles of "Pioneer" historical sketches. W. R. M. 

Mrs. McClure-Hn?gan's father was Lieut. .Tames McClure, of the United Stated 
army. She was boru in Mendota in is.'^.G. Her mother was daughter of a Da- 
kota chief. Her father died in Florida in IS-'iS. His letters tamong Gon. Sib- 
ley's papers In iwsses.siuu of the Hist-u-ical socie'^y) sliow srieal afl'* ctlua and 
soUci'.iide for hi.-, daughter, for whose care and education he provided. 

W. R. M. 



440 



MINNESOTA niSTORlCAL SOCIETY COLLECTIONS. 



{rrandfathor's iiainc was ^Ma-^^a-iyali-lie, or the Ali^^litiiiL^ Ooose. 
Ho was a sub-chief and a noted man. Of liim Xeills History of 
Minnesota (pa^re f)0:{), ^;ivin<; an arcoiint of happenin;;s at Fort 
Snellin<»- in 1828. says: 

"One day this month (February) an ohl Sioux named Ma-^M- 
iyah-he visited the fort and jjrodnced a Sj)anish commission, 
dated A. 1). 1781, and si«;ii(Ml by Col. Francisco Cruzat, military 
governor of Louisiana, th(* valley of the Minnesota at that time 
having been a portion of the Spanish domain, subsequently 
ceded to France." 

I think it probable this commission had been f;iven to my 
great-great-grandfather, the Walking Wind, and that he jour- 
neyed away down to St. Louis to receive it from his Spanish 
"Father.'' I do not, of course, know the circumstances, but 
would like to. . The Indians greatly prize i)apers of this kind, 
and take good care of them, sometimes preserving ilu^m for 
many years. I have in my possession a paper given th(^ Walk- 
ing Wind in ISOG, by Gov. William Clark, Indian commis- 
sioner. I am now trying to find the Sjjanish commission, and 
think I have discovered a trace of it. I know that some of my 
Indian relatives have some old papers, and I hope it is among 
them. But when I was a little girl my mother told me that 
once on a time, fifty years ago, some of my great-grandfather's 
brothers were drowned in a flood on the Missouri river. They 
were encamped on the river bottom, and during the night the 
water suddenly rose and swept them and nearly all the village 
away. It may be that they had this paper, and that it was lost 
with them. 

The name of my mother's father was Manza-ku-te-mannee, or 
the Walking Shooting Iron — or gun. Another Indian of the 
same name, though commonly called l*aul, was known to many 
of the old settlers and noted for his many services to the 
whites: My grandfather died when mother was about six 
years old, and she was raised by my grandmother. My 
mother's name was Winona, and my Indian name is also 
Winona, which, among the Sioux, means the lirst-born f(Muale 
child, and is as common a name among the Indians as Mary 
is among the white ])eople. She was born at Kedwood Falls. 
When she was young she was a very pretty woman, and very 
nice always. Before she met my father she was courted by 



THE STORY OF NANCY M'CLUKE 441 

two respectable mixed-blood {^eiiih'iiieii, Joseph Moiitreille and 
Antoino Kenville, aud Mr. Montieille wanted very badly to 
n)aii*y her; but tlie yonnt; while ollicer, niy father, won her 
heart. Two years after niy father's death, though, she niarrii'd 
Antoino Renville, and removed to Big Stone lake. His father, 
Joseph Renville, was a very prominent trader in early days. 
There were three children by her second marriage — Sophia, 
now living at the Sisseton agency, South Dakota; Isaac, now 
a ]*resbyterian minister at that agency, and William, now dead. 
My stepfather, Mr. Renville, always treated me very kindly, 
and 1 have nothing but respect for his memory. My dear 
mother died at Lac qui Parle in 1850. after a long illness. I 
was with her and cared for her a long time, and her death 
nearly broke my heart. My stepfather died a true Christian 
death in 1SS4. 

Until I was about two years old I lived with my mother at 
Mendota, where I was born. Then my grandmother took me 
to live with her at Traverse des Sioux, and cared for me two 
yeai's. Then, as mother was married again, and wished it so 
much, I went to live with her and my stepfather at Lac qui 
Parle, and my home was with them for ten yeai-s, or until my 
mothers death. 

I had a pretty good start in the world for a poor little half- 
blood "chincha," if all the good intentions toward me had been 
carried out. By a treaty made with the Indians in 1837 the 
mixed-blood children were each to receive a considerable sum 
of money — f 500, I think. My money, with that of some other 
children, was put into the hands of a man named B. F. Baker. — 
the Indians called him "Blue Beard," — a trader at Fort Snell- 
iug, to be held by him in trust for us. But in 1841 he went 
down the river and died at St. Louis, and that was the last of 
the money. I never got a cent of it. There is a record of all 
this matter, but there might as well not be. My father, when 
he was in Florida, wrote to Gen. Sibley, who was then at Men- 
dota — but he was not a general then, only the head trader — 
and sent him money to provide for mother and me. Then, 
when I was about eight years old, Mr. Martin McLeod — I think 
all the old settlers of Minnesota know who he was — began to 
give me clothing, one or two suits every year, out of his store. 
He said my father had loaned him some money, and when he 



44-2 



MINNESOTA HISTORICAL SOCIETY COLLECTIONS. 



was sent away, lie (Mr. McLeod) could not pay liiiii, and that 
my father told him to pay when he could, but to see that my 
mother and I were cared for, and if anything- happened to my 
father the money was to be mine. I have forgotten the 
amount; I think it was §700, and yet that seems too large a 
sum. 1 do not pretend to know how much I got of it. After 
I was married ^Ir. McLeod came to see me and gave ine what 
he said was the last of it, I think it was §15, but I am not cer- 
tain. Of one thing I am certain — he gave me a good scolding 
for getting nuirried. 

When I was a very little girl, perhaps about eight years old, 
I was put to school. My mother was very anxious that I 
should be educated, and that I should become a good Christian. 
It was lucky that those noble men and women, the mission- 
aries, had established schools among us at that early day, and 
were willing to make such sacrifices of their own comfort to 
instruct the Indians in the true way of life. I try to be grate- 
ful to those dear souls for what they did for me and others, 
and yet I feel that I can never be sufficiently so. The first 
school I attended was the Rev. Dr. Thomas Williamson's at Lac 
qui Parle. While here I was the only girl that boarded in the 
Doctor's household, and was treated as one of the family. 
Quite a number of the other Indian children attended the 
school during the day, but they went home to their parents at 
night. Some of them lived in lodges or "tepees." Dr. William- 
son's sister taught us. I do not remember her full name; we 
always called her '*Aunt Jane." They were most excellent peo- 
ple and true Christians. I attended this school for two years, 
when Dr. Williamson removed to another Indian village at 
Traverse des Sioux. Kev. Adams took Dr. Williamson's place 
as missionary at Lac qui Parle. When the Doctor and his 
family were about to leave Lac qui Vavh) they were very anx- 
ious to have me go with them, and I was just as anxious to 
go; but my mother was not willing I should leave her to go 
so far away. I stayed with them to the last minute, and when 
they were ready to start "Aunt Jane" said she would go i)art 
of the way home with me, for I had two miles to walk to my 
stepfather's house. She Avent about half the way, and then 
came the time for us to part. I was only a little girl, but I 
was in great distress and sorrow at losing my friend. She 



tup: stoky of nan'cy m'ci.ure. 443 

look my liands in liors and talked to mo a lonj^ time. Tlu*u 
wo knoolod down and slio prayed \ou^ and earnestly; then we 
j)artod, and I ran homo crying, and was the most misorablt 
girl in the world, and I never saw dear ''Aunt Jane" any more. 

While at Dr. Williamson's school I had my first ''Indian 
scar(\-' How w<'ll I remember it! It was some time in the 
summer. The Doctor had some pretty young calves in a little 
yard near the house. He had three or four young children at this 
time, and we used to water these calves and care for them in 
other v»ays, and each of us claimed one. One day we heard 
an Indian coming toward the house, singing in a wild s(.rt of 
way, and when we looked out we saw that he was drunk. 
He came up, jumped into the yard where the calves were, 
sprang at them like a panther, and killed every one of the little 
innocent creatures with his cruel knife. We were all terrified 
at the sickening sight, and screamed at the top of our voices. 
My stepfather's house was not very far away, and I ran to it 
as fast as I could and told him. He came at once and stopped 
the wicked wretch from doing any further damage and drove 
him away. When the mother cows came home that evening 
and smelled the blood of their murdered offspring they filled 
the air with their wailings, and we children all had a good 
cry. I felt very wretched that night, but b'ttle did I think 
then that I was destined in after years to witness far more 
♦ireadful scenes. 

After Dr. Williamson moved away I was sent to Jonas Pet- 
tijohn's school at Lac qui Parle. Here four of us mixed-blood 
girls boarded in the house. Rose Kenville was one of them, 
and she was my roommate. The other two were named Caro- 
line and Julia. I do not remember their family names; in- 
deed I do not think they had any, except, perhaps, their Indian 
names. I attended this school for two years. Mrs. Riggs was 
our teacher. At these mission schools we girls were given re- 
ligious instruction and taught reading, writing and something 
of the other lower branches, and to sew, knit, and, as we grew 
older, to spin, weave, cook and do all kinds of housework. We 
were taught first in Indian, th(^n in English. I was not much 
of a little numskull, and I learned pretty fast and without 
much difficulty. My teachers were very kind to nu^ — praised 
me and encouraged me, and 1 hope I did not give them very 
much trouble. 



444 MINNESOTA HISTORICAL SOCIETY COLLECTIONS. 



I remember another trouble we liad while 1 was at Tetli- 
john's school. About this time the work of the missionaries 
amon<; the Indians was be^^iuning to show. A }j:reat many 
were joining the church and becoming good Christians. Tlie 
Indians, who were still in heathenism — or belonged to the 
"medicine dance," as w(- called them — did not like this. One 
Sunday when we went to clnnch, twenty or thirty "medicine'' 
Indians, all armed, were at the building and calling out that 
they would take away the blankets from all who entered and 
destroy them. In those days every Indian who could get one 
wore a blanket. We girls had one apiece, and on Sundays, 
when we went to church, we took care to have a nice clean 
one to wrap our little brown forms in, and we were as proud 
of it as the grandest lady in the land can be to-day of her seal- 
skin. I can tell you, too. that it was not an easy matter for 
an Indian to get a blanket, either. A good one cost .?o, and 
that was a big sum then. But the threats of the "medicine 
men*' did not stop the Christian Indians from entering the 
church. They very readily gave up their blankets and went 
in to worship God. and to pray to him that he would soften the 
hearts of their wicked brethren outside and make them his 
servants, too. After we all got in and the services began, the 
men outside began to shoot at the church bell as at a target. 
They shot it several times, and actually cracked it so that it 
would not 'ring. Kev. S. R. Riggs was the preacher that day, 
and he was so affected that he cried before us all. 

Mr. Kiggs suffered many other insults from those Indians. 
He lived in the next house to Mr. Pettijohn's, only a few steps 
away. One day in winter he was hauling wood with an ox 
team, and some Indians came and shot the oxen while they 
were hitched to the load. I think this was all the team Mr. 
Riggs had at the time. The Indians acted very badly, and I 
thought they would kill the people next, but after they had 
cut up the meat so that they could carry it they took it and 
went away. It was in the winter, as I haA'e said, and meat was 
scarce and could not well be had without going out on the 
plains where the buffalo were, and it was easier to kill the 
missionary's oxen than to do that. 

When I left Mr. Pettijohn's school I went home to take care 
of my mother, who was sick. As she was confined to her bed 
so long, I did not get to return to school for some time. Her 



THE STOKV OF NANCY M^CLURE. 



445 



dentil was a great blow to me, for we were miuh at tjichcd to 
tach other, and now 1 was left alone in the world, an oiplian 
girl of fourteen, with no one to care for me but my Indian rela- 
tives, and though they were kind enough, I did not wish to 
live with them. How much I longed to be witli some of my 
father's i)eoi)le then, I cannot tell you. I was always more 
white than Indian in my tastes and symjiathies, though 1 never 
had cause to blush foi* my Indian blood on account of the char- 
acter of my family. My mother knew my disposition and 
hopes and ambitions, and, on her death bed, she told me to 
either stay with my grandmother, who had raised her, or go 
to Kev. ^[r. Hopkins, one of the missionaries, and not to 
sta.\ with the Indians. During mother's illness Kev. Adams 
and his good wife, the missionaries at Lac qui Parle, came 
often to see her, and were most kind to her. When she died 
the body was dressed and prepared for burial by Mrs. Riggs, 
my former teacher, who was the wife of Kev. S. K. Kiggs. Mr. 
and Mrs. Adams were here in 1891, and I had a good long talk 
with them over the old times. They live in St. Paul now. 

So, after mother's death, I went to Mr. Hopkins and was 
taken into his school at Traverse des Sioux. I attended his 
school for about six mouths. His wife was my teacher. While 
here my intimate schoolmates were Victoria Auge and her sis- 
ter, Julia La Framboise, three mixed-blood girls, and Martha 
Riggs, a daughter of Kev. S. K. Riggs, the missionary. I 
learned very fast at this school, for I was now almost a woman. 
I was large for my age and strong and active. T could do all 
kinds of housework, and was a pretty good seamstress. My 
home was with my Indian grandmother, and I ^^■as the maid 
of all. work. I was often llattered, and I am afraid i became a 
little vain. I know that I used to try to dress myself well and 
to appear well. I was fond of reading, and read what I could, 
but reading matter was scarce. One thing we had in plenty 
that 1 liked — flowers. The prairies ^^•ere full of them, and I 
delighted to gather them. 

In the summer of 18.51 a great event happened at the 
Traverse des Sioux. This was the celebrated treaty between 
the government and the Indians, when the Sioux sold all their 
land in Minnesota to the whites. It was a grand atTair. All 
the bands of Indians were there in great numbcu's. The com- 
missioners came up, and with them a number of other white 



^riNN'ESOTA HISTORICAL SOCIETY COLLECTIONS. 



men, traders, attorneys, speculators, soldiers, c-V'. They had 
great times, to be sure, and I have always wondered how so 
much champa<,nie jiot so far out on the frontier! (\nv. l{ams<'y 
was there, the governor of the new territoi-y, a handsome man 
with a kindly face; he was a commissioner. Mr. Luke Lea, a 
one-lef^j;ed man, was another commissioner. Anotlier man 
with the commissioners was Mr. Hugh Tyler. He was a young 
man, very smart, with attractive manners, and a tine talker; 
he was there as an attorney for the traders, who were to gel: 
something by the treaty on old debts that the Indians owed 
them. Mr. Tyler came often to my grandmother's ''tepee*' to 
see me, a*nd when he left he gave me a little lUble with his 
name in it. 

Gov. Kamsey, too, came two or three times to see me. I re- 
member well that he came once with Mr. Luke Lea. My 
grandmother and I had two tents, or '^tepees.*- One we used 
to cook and eat in, and the other was what might be called 
our parlor. The Governor and Mr. Lea came into the parlor 
tent, and, after a few^ minutes, they said: "Well, you are very 
nicely fixed here, but we don't see anything to eat." Then I 
laughed, because I saw^ that they thought Ave had but one tent 
and did not know of our kitchen; but I said nothing, though it 
was true that we did not have a very great supply. When 
they left. Gov. Ramsey told me to send my grandmother over 
to headquarters and he would give her some provisions. So 
she Tv^ent over, and they gave her more good things than she 
could carry. I suppose that was what might be called an 
Indian trick played otf on Gov. Ramsey. 

Soon after this I was married. I was only about sixteen, 
and too young to marry, but nothing would do my lover but 
1 must marry him, and I suppose many another woman, from 
her own experience, knows how it was. ^ly husband was David 
Faribault, a son of John Baptiste Faribault, one of the first 
Frenchmen in ^finnesota. lie was a mixed-blood, a tall, fine 
looking man, and had a good reputation. lie was a trader and 
very well-to-do for those days. I went to Gen. Sibley for ad- 
vice on this subject, for we all looked up to him in those days 
and thought whatever he said was right. ITe advised me to 
marry ^Ir. Faribault, said he was a good man, a fine money- 
maker and would always treat me well. So at last I consented 
and the wedding day was set. 



THE STORY OF NANX'Y M'CLUKE. 



447 



The weddiii;^: cniiir olT at tlie time of llio treaty, and it ^\•as 
quite an occasion. Tliere was a i^reat crowd i)resent, Indians 
and whites. I wore a pretty white bridal dress, white sli])|)ers 
and all the rest of the toilet, and I had taken pains to look 
so as to ])lease niy hnsband, and all those f'rand ;;entlenien 
crowded about me and made so many pretty speeches and paid 
me so many nice compliments that they quite turned my young 
and foolish head. Gov. Kamsey, Gen. Sibley, ^Ir. Lea, Mr. 
Tyler and all the rest were there, and some army olficers, too, 
and so were the head chiefs and principal men of the great 
Sioux nation, and the affair even jrot into the papers. There 
was a wedding dinner, too, and somebody furnished wines and 
champagne for it, and I was toasted and drunk to, over and 
over again. I could do nothing in return for these compli- 
ments but bow my thanks, for I was a stout Presbyterian then 
and a teetotaler, and I w'ould not take even the smallest sip 
of the lightest wine on any account. 

About a month after my marriage a man came out from the 
East searching for me. He told me he had been sent by my 
fathers people to take me back to them. I was much dis- 
tressed. But I was a wife now, and my duty was with my 
husband, and I could not go. The man seemed disappointed 
when he found I was married, and would not talk to me or 
give me any information. I do not know who he was, but I 
heard that he died on his way back to Pennsylvania, or 
where^^er he came from. 

Two years after I was married I went down to St. Louis with 
my husband. He was going down to purchase a stock of goods 
and some horses. We went to St. Paul, and there took a 
steamboat, which was owned and commanded by Louis Robert. 
Mrs. Robert went with us, and we had such a delightful time 
throughout the trip. I saw so many things I had long wanted 
to see, the great city — though it really wasn't yery great then 
— and the thousand other sights. On the boat, both going 
down and coming back, were a great r.iany fine ladies and gen- 
tlemen, and they were all vi'ry kind to me. Indeed, the young 
Indian wife (I Avas only eighteen then) had far more attention 
than she deserved. In one thing I was disappointed. I had 
hoped thai among so many people I would find someone that 
knew my fatlKM', but I did not. Mrs. Robert was my guide 
and kept me from becoming embarrassed, and I enjoyed myself 



448 



MINNESOTA HISTORICAL SOCIETY COLLECTIONS. 



SO iHiicli. She and hw husband ha\"c been dead sonio years, 
but I think all the ix'ople in St. T'anl nuist know wlio thoy 
were, for they lived there so lonji, and tliere is a street in St. 
Paul named for raj)t. Kobert. 

Some time after my marriage my husband and I removed to 
Shakopee, where my husband continued in trach' wilh the In- 
dians for, I think, two years, lie trusted the Indians to a 
large amount and they never paid hinv Then we moved to Le 
Sueur and lived one year: then to Faribaidt. where we lived 
four years, and tlien to Redwood agency, where we were living' 
at the time of the jireat Indian outbreak of Au^uust, 18G2. 
Then it was that sad and hard times fell upon us and nearly 
crushed us. 

At the time of the outbreak we were livinf? two miles from 
the Kedwood a.cency, on the road to Fort Kidjiely. We had a 
log house, but it was large and roomy and very well furnished. 
When we first came my husband intended engaging in farm- 
ing and stock raising, but he soon got back to his former busi- 
ness, trading with the Indians, and when they rose against 
the whites he had trusted them for very nearly evei-ything he 
had, for they were very hard up, and the other stores would 
not trust them for anything. Besides the goods he sold them 
on credit, he let them have fourteen head of cattle for food. 
The winter and spring before had been very enjoyable to me. 
There were a good many settlers in the country, some few 
Erench families among them, and the most of them were young 
married people of pleasant dispositions. We used frequently 
to meet at one another's houses in social gatherings, dancing 
parties and the lik(*, and the time passed very pleasantly. I 
was twenty-five years of age then, had but one child and could 
go about when I wanted to, and I went frequently to these 
gatherings and came to know a good many people. Then 
came the summer, and the Indians came down to the agency 
to receive their annual payments under the treaty of 1851; 
but the paymaster with the money was delayed on the road 
until the time for the payment had passed. lie was at Fort 
Ridgely with the money, all in gold, when the Indians rose. 
There were mutterings of trouble for some time, but at last it 
seemed the danger had passed away. 

On the very morning of the outbreak my husband and I 
heard shooting in the direction of the agency, but supposed 



THE STOKY OF NANCY M'CLURE. 449 

that the Indians were out sliooiing wild })i«;(*ons. As the 
shooting increased I went to the door once or twiee and looked 
toward the agency, for there was sonietiiin;,^ unusual about 
it. My husband was out attendini;- to the niilkinji". All at 
once a Frenchman named ^fartelle came gallopinj^ down the 
road from the agency, and, seeing me in the door, he called 
out: ''Oh, Mrs. Faribault, the Indians are killing all ihe white 
people at the agency! Kun away, run away quick I" lie did 
not stop or slacken his speed, but waved his hand and called 
out as he passed. There was blood on his shirt, and I pi esumc 
he was wounded. 

My husband and I were not prepared for trouble of this kind. 
Our best horses and wagons were not at home. We had two 
horses in the stable and harness for them, but no wagon. My 
husband told me to get my saddle ready and we would go 
away on horseback, both of us being good riders. We were 
getting ready to do this when we saw a wagon, drawn by two 
yoke of oxen and loaded with people, coming down the road 
at a good trot. ^ly husband said we would wait and see what 
these people would say. When they came up to us we saw- 
there were five or six men, three or four women and some 
children, and they were all in great fright. They asked us to 
put our horses to their wagon — as they could travel faster than 
oxen — and to get in with them. This we agreed to do, and 
soon had the change made. When they were harnessing the 
horses I ran to the house to try to secure some articles of 
value, for as yet we had taken nothing but what we had on 
our backs, and I had many things I did not want to lose. 
Wonum-like, I tried first to save my jewelry, which I kept in 
a strong drawer. This drawer was swelled and I could not 
open it, and I was running for an ax to burst it, when my hus- 
band said, "Let it go — they are ready to start." So I took my 
dear little daughtei', Avho was eight years old and my only child, 
and we started for the wagon. Just as I was about to get in — 
everybody else was in — I looked up the road toward the 
agency and saw the Indians coming. I was afraid they would 
overtake the wagon; so I declined to gel in, and my husband 
got out with me, and we took our child and ran for the woods, 
while the wagon started olf, the men lashing the horses every 
jump. 

—27 



550 



MINNESOTA HISTOKK'AL SOCIETY COLLECTIONS. 



Just as we slaited for (lu' woods. Louis IJrisltois nud his w ife 
and two cliiidren. uiixcd-Mood i)ooj)l('. cauic uj) and went with 
us. We all hid in the wood. In a few minutes the Indians 
came up, and somehow they knew we were jiidd^-n, and tliey 
called out very loudly: "Oh, Faribault, if you are here, come 
out; we won't hurt yom'' My husband was armed and Inid 
determined to sell his life for all it would brinj^, and I had en- 
couraged him; but now it seemed best that we should come 
out and suriender, and so we did. The Indians at once dis- 
armed my husband. They seemed a little sur])rised to see the 
Brisbois family, and declared th^y would kill them, as they 
had not agreed to spare their lives. Poor Mrs. Brisbois ran 
to me and asked me to save her, and she and her husband got 
behind me. and I began to beg the Indians not to kill them. 
My husband asked the Indians what all this meant — what they 
w^ere doing anyhow. They replied, "We have killed all the 
white people at the agency ; all the Indians are on the war- 
path; we are going to kill all the white people in Minnesota; 
we are not going to hurt you, for yon have trusted us with 
goods, but we are going to kill these l>risbois.-' And then one 
ran up and struck over my shoulder and hit Mrs. Brisbois a 
cruel blow in the face, saying she had treated them badly at 
one time. Then I asked them to wait until I got away, as I 
did not want to see them killed. This stopped them for half 
a minute, Avhen one said: "Come to the house.'' So we 
started for the house, and just then two more wagons drawn 
by oxen and loaded with white people came along the road. 
All the Indians left us and ran yelling and whooping to kill 
thein. 

We went into the house. At the back part of the house was 
a window, and a little beyond was a corn field. I opened the 
window and i)ut the Brisbois family out of it, and they ran into 
thp corn field and escaped. They are living sonn^where in Min- 
nesota to-day. The white people were nearly all niurdci'cd. 
I could not bt*ar to see the sickening sight, and so did not look 
out, but while the bloody work was being done an Irish woman 
named Hayden came running up to the house crying out for 
me to save her. I saw thai she was being chased by a young 
Indian that had once worked for us, and I called to him to 
spare her, and he let her go. I heard that she (>scaped all 



THE STORY OF NANCY M'CLUKE. 451 

ri<^ht. >s'()\v, nil this took place in U-ss lime than on<' can write 
about ir. 

\\'Iien the Idllinj: was over the Indians came to the house 
and ordered us to liet into one of The wagons and f;o with them 
bacl< to the a.uency. This we <lid, my husband drivin^j: the 
team. The Indians drove the other team. Soon after we 
started an Indian gave me a colt to lead behind the wagon. 
About half way to the agency we saw the dead body of a man 
hing near the road. Just before we reached the ferry over 
the Minnesota river we saw a boy on the prairie to the right. 
There were but three Indians with us now. One of them ran 
to kill the boy. At this moment a German rode up to us. I 
have forgotten his name, but the Indians called him ''Big 
Nose." I think he is living at Sleex)y Eye, Minn., now. One 
of the Indians said to the other Indian, "Shoot him and take 
his horse.'- The other said, "Wait till my son comes back and 
then we will kill him." (His son was the one that had gone 
to kill the boy.) All this time I was begging them not to kill 
the man. I asked my husband to plead with them, but he 
seemed to be unable to speak a word. At last I told the Ger- 
man to give them his horse and run into the brush. This he 
did and escaped. 

When we got to the ferry the boat was in the middle of the 
stream, and standing upon it was a young white girl of about 
sixteen or seventeen years of age. The Indians called to her 
to bring the l)oat ashore, but she did not obey them. They 
were about to shoot her, when my husband told her they would 
kill her if she did not do as they ordered, and she brought the 
boat ashore. When it touched the bank a young Indian made 
this girl get on a horse behind him and he rode away with her, 
and I never heai-d what became of the poor creature. When 
I saw her being taken away I felt as badly as if she was being 
murdered before my eyes, for I imagined she would sutler a 
most horrible fate. 

AM\en we reached the agency there was a dreadful scene. 
Everything was in ruins, and dead bodies lay all about. The 
first body we saw was that of one of La Bathe's clerks. It lay 
by the road some distance' from the buildings. The rest were 
nearer th<^ buildings. ^Tr. Myrick's among them. We did not 
stay long here, but pushed on to Little Crow's camp. We 



452 



MINNESOTA HISTORICAL SOCIETY COLLECTIONS. 



Slaved lliat iii«,4it with the Indians that brou^lit ns. Soon 
otlier prisoners, many of them half-bloods like ourselves, were 
brought in. 

While we were in this camp we saw. Capt. Marsh and his 
men coming from Fort Kidgely along the road towards the 
ferry. They could not see us, but we saw them, though at 
some distance. You know they were going to the agency, 
having heard that the Indians were rising. They stopped at 
our house and seemed to be getting water from the well. Poor 
fellows! Little did some of them think they were taking their 
last drink. They went on, and soon came to the ferry and fell 
into that bloody ambush where Capt. ]Marsh, ^Ir. Quinn and so 
many others were killed. 

The next day the Indians under Little Crow^ went to attack 
Fort Riugely. When they came back they reported that there 
were many half-breeds in the fort that fought against them, 
and shouted to them: "We will fix you, you devils; you will 
eat your children before winter." This made them very bitter 
against us, for they said we were worse than the whites, and 
that they were going to kill all of us. Most of them had 
whisky, and it was a dreadful time. Towards evening a heavy 
storm came up, and a thunderbolt struck and killed an Indian. 
-Some one raised a cry, "They are killing the half-breeds now!" 
I caught up my child and ran. I saw my husband, with Alex 
Graham, running into Little Crow's corn field, and I sow liim 
110 more that night. An Indian woman went with me, and we 
did not stop until we got to Shakopee's camp, seven miles away. 
It was Indians, any way, the best I could do, and I had some 
distant relatives in that camp, and I would rather trust myself 
there than with Little Crow's drunken and infuriated warriors. 
My friends treated me very kindly — gave me a dry blanket and 
some dry clothes for my little girl, who was quite sick by this 
lime. It was an awful night. Towards midnight the Indians 
brought in a lot of captive white women and children, who 
-cried and prayed the rest of the night. How I felt for them, 
l)ut of course I could not help them. 

The next morning I left my child with my Indian friends and 
I and the woman who had come with me went back to Little 
Crow s camp to sc^ what had become of my husband and how 
things were. No one had been killed except the Indian who 
was struck by lightning. To our surprise we found my has- 



THE STORY OF NA^X'Y M'CLUKE. 453 

band in the canii), and niy cnin]>ani()n's Imsband sitting- over 
hini \{'\y drunk, and with a l)ntc-]i('r knife in liis liandl 'J'he 
woman toolv tlic knife from lier husband, and all was (juict for 
a time, ^fy husband said ho came back soon after we left, and 
that the Indian had been following him and threatening to Idll 
him all night. 

The team of horses we let the white peo])le have at our house 
took them safely to Fort Ixidgely. Just outside the fort one of 
the horses dropped dead. The other was k^t on the prairie, 
and the Indians that attacked the fort caught it. I think it 
was the fourth day of The outbreak that I was strolling through 
Little Crow's camp, when I saw my horse "Jerry." 1 untied 
him and was leading him away when an Indian ran up and 
said: "Here, I captured that horse at the fort, and he is 
mine." I told him I did not care how he got him; he was mine, 
and I was going to take him. At last he allowed me to have 
him. I had that horse at Camp Release, and took him with 
me to Faribault, Minn. The funny part of this story is that 
this same Indian is living here, near Flandrau, now. About 
two years ago he wanted to borroAV some money from one of the 
banks here and wanted me to go with him and recommend 
him to the bank. He said he thought I ought to go, as he let 
me take that horse! 

Another day the cry was raised that the half-breeds were all 
to be killed. Little Crow held a council and would allow no 
Indians to attend it that had half-breed relatives. We thought 
this looked bad for us, and there were all sorts of alarming re- 
ports. Three young Indians came and sat by our camp and 
talked, and were heard to say that when the half-blood men 
were killed one of them should have me for his wife; I presume 
they meant the one that should murder my husband. A few 
minutes afterward my uncle, with three of his cousins, rode 
into the camp. My uncle's name was Rday-a-mannee (the 
Rattling AValker). He was a very brave, good num, and had 
taken no part in the outlu-eak. To my great joy, he said he had 
come to take us away. AYhen Little Crow heard this he came 
out and told my uncle that he would not allow any one to take 
away half-bloods from the camp, and if any one tried to he 
would order his warriors to kill him. How proud I was of my 
brave uncle when he nuide this reply: "Little Crow, I only 



451 



ISriNNi:SOTA HI^^TOKICAL SOCIETY COLLECTIONS. 



want tlio ix'Oplo wlio beloii;; to nio, anrl T will take tlir-in. Y<m 
tliiiik vou arc bravt* IxTausc yon have killed so iii;Miy wliitr 
people. You have siirpiisetl them; they were not ])rei»a I'cd for 
you, and you know it. "When we used to fij2:ht the Chippewas 
you were all women: you \\onld not li<^ht. If T leave these p«*o- 
ple liere you will worry them to death. Now, I am j^'oin^x to 
take my jieople, and I would like to see the man that will try 
to stop luel" With this we started, ami soiue of the Indians 
raised the war-whooj). But we kept on, my uncle and liis 
cousins ridin<;- in the rear, their guns in their hands, and Little 
Crow and his warriors looking sullenly but silently at us. 

The first day out we ^ot as far as Yellow Mcnlicine. From 
here we went to the mouth of the Chi])]>ewa river, where my 
uncle lived. Here I found my old grandmother, too, for she 
was the mother of Kday-a-iuannee, and he and my own mother 
were full brother and sister. I now felt much better, and my 
appetite came back. Since the outbreak I had scarcely eaten 
anything. Grandmother died only a few years ago in Mani- 
toba; she was very old. My uncle is still living in Manitoba. 
He was accused of taking ])art in the outbreak, I suppose, and 
that is why he left the United Stares. I>ut I know he was in- 
nocent; if I knew he Avas not, T wotild be very sorry, but I 
would say so. Some of the Indians have been accused of 
taking part in that dreadful thing who are innocent; but a 
great many more are said to he innocent who are really guilty. 

Some days after we got to the mouth of the Chippewa, Little 
Crow's and Shakopee's bands and all the other Indians came 
up. AYe all stayed here until Gen. Sibley and his troops came 
into the country, and then the Indians went out to meet them. 
In a few days we heard the booming of the cannon in the battle 
of Wood lake. Commonly the roar of cannon is a dreadful 
sound in the ears of wonuMi, but to us captives in the Indian 
camp the sound of Gen. Sibley's guns was as sweet as the 
chimes of wedding bells to the bride. Very soon stragglers 
came in bearing wounded, singing the death song and telling 
the tale of defeat. They were cursing the half-bn-eds. saying 
that Gen. Sibley had numbers of them with him in the battle, 
and that every shot that one of them lired had hit an Indian. 
It did me real good to h^irn that so nuiny of my race had stood 
loyal and true and had d(Uie such good service. You know 



THE STORY OF NANCY M'CLUKK. 



455 



that only a very few Imlf-brcc^ds look ])ait in tlie outbreak. 
The Indians have always bitterly hated tin* half-breeds for 
their conduct in favor of lln^ whiles in that and other wars, 
and they hale iheni still. It seems they can for;^ive everybody 
but us. 

J^ut then came the word that the defeated Indians would 
take vengeance on the half-bj-eed captives and the whites, too, 
as soon as they jj^ot back. II was another exciting lime. Some 
^of us dug holes in the ground and hid ourselves. I dug a hole 
large enough to hide myself and child in a few minutr'S. and 
I had only a little fire shovel to dig with, but I made the dirt 
fly. When the excitement was over — for the alarm was false 
— I tried again to dig with that same shov(d, and somehow it 
wouldn't dig a little bit! I kept that shovel for years, but 
finally lost it. 

"When the warriors came back they had nnmbers of wounded, 
and the death song was going all night. I began to be very 
brave. The soldiers were near, the half-bloods were in the 
saddle and I felt that I would soon be safe. An Indian woman 
near me began abusing us. She said : "When we talk of kill- 
ing these half-breeds they drop their heads and sneak around 
like a bird-dog." Her taunting speech stung me to the heart, 
and .1 flew at that woman and routed her so completely that 
she bore the marks for some time, and I am sure she remem- 
bered the lesson a great deal longer! Perhaps it was not a 
very ladylike thing to do, but I was dreadfully provoked. ^lost 
of my companions were greatly pleased, and the Indians did 
not offer to interfere. 

I heard the Indians plan their part of the battle of Wood 
lake. About twenty of the chiefs and head warriors sat down 
near our tent one evening and talked it all over in my hearing. 
I do not now remember Avho all of them were. Little Crow 
was there, and with him were Ta-ji-ro-ta (Gray Grass), llu-sap- 
sa-pa (lilack Leg) and his brother, Ta-taka-wa-nagi (Bull'alo 
Ghost), Sluikopee (Six) and others. I did not understand the 
plan very well, but it was agreed that Gen. Sibley's forces 
were to be cut into two or three parts by the Indian move- 
ments. A strong party was to go into a large ravino. An- 
other party was to show itself at another point and attract the 
attention of the soldiers; then the ravine i)arty was to come 
up and cut the white forces in two, and so on. When 1 lieard 



i 



■44r6- MINNESOTA HISTORICAL SOCIETY COLLECTIONS. 

iill tliis it did not alaiiii ine llio least bit. I knew that r.cii. 
Sibley and Col. ^larshall and Col. ^rd'hail and the other ofliiMTs 
would have soniethinj;- to say and do al»ont that fi^^ht. liut the 
Indians were confident, and, as they were leavini^ the camp, 
many of them said: "AVe will have ])lenty of ])ork and hai-d- 
tack to-ni^htl*' 

At last Gen. Sibley came and snrrounded our camp. A 
great many oflicers came with him, and I remember that Col. 
Marshall was one of them. They came into the camp and took 
awa}' the white captives first. Gen. Sibley knew me, and told 
me to take my child and with them. I asked him if all the 
half-bloods were going- and he said they were not. I did not 
understand it all then, and I said I would stay awhile. Maj. 
Fowler, who was, married to my husband's sister, then came 
and told me I had better go, as the soldiers were greatly en- 
raged at some of tlie half-bloods, and their officers were afraid 
tliey could not ^'hold them." 1 told him I had a half-brother 
and a half-sister there, and T would stay to protect them. So 
I sta^'ed that nighr there, and went over into Camp Release in 
the morning. I was a witness before the military commission 
that tried the Indians, and called several times, but I could 
not recognize any of the prisoners as those I saw taking i)art 
in the murders of the whiles. I was sorry that the guilty 
wretches I had seen were not brought up. I think I was at 
Camp Release about two weeks. 

I cannot tell all of the scenes I saw while I was a captive. 
Some wxn-e very painful. I knew a great many of the white 
prisoners I was with, but now I only remember the names of 
Mrs. Crothers, Mrs. White and her daughter and Miss Will- 
iams. Some of the women came to me at times and asked me 
to let them stay with me. It was hard to refuse them, but I 
thought' it best. I saw many women, some of them French 
women, that I had met the winter before at the country dances 
and other parties I have spoken of. I saw George H. Spencer 
quite often; he was still sutt'ering from his wounds. 

The night before the troops came to Camp Release, twenty 
or thirty Indians came in with a young white girl of sixteen 
or seventeen. She was nearly heartbroken, and quite in 



THE STORY OF NANCY M'CLUKE. 



457 



despair. When the half-breed ni(.*ii saw her they deieriiiiiied to 
rescue her, and we women encoiiraLicd them. ,Toe La framboise 
and nine other mixed bloods went boldly up and took the fi^lvl 
from her brutal captors. The Indians threateni'd to shoot her 
if she was taken from them; but Joe was very brave, and said: 
"We are ^oiu^ to have her if we have to fight for her; and if 
you harm her it will be the worse for you. Kemember, we are 
not your prisoners any more.-' So they took her, and she was 
rescued at Camp Kelease. Two other half-breed boys acted 
very bravely on this occasion — the Robertson boys; each was 
named Thomas, but they were not related. One of them is 
livinjij at Sisseton; the other died five years ago, but his family 
lives near Flandrau. 

One day Shakopee came to our camp and talked wilh me. 
He said he would not have taken part in the outbreak but for 
the fact that his son had gone off hunting and the whites had 
killed him. "And now," said he, "my arm is lame from killing 
white people." A few days afterward his son returned all 
safe. The only time I spoke to Little Crow was the day my 
uncle came for us. He ordered my h\isband to hitch up a team 
for him that he had taken. The horses were not well broken 
and were quite wild, and he could not hitch them up hiinsdf. 

When we were at Camp Release a Mrs. Huggins, who had 
been the wife of Amos Huggins, who had been killed, lived 
near us. He and I were children together at Lac qui Parle. 
One day her little girl, three years of age, a bright child, came 
to our tent when my husband and T were eating dinner, and 
we gave her a seat with us. The little thing said: "This is 
not like the dinner mamma made the day papa was killed. 
The Indians killed my i)apa on his very birthday. We were 
going to have a good dinner. Mamma made a cake and every- 
thing nice, and papa came home with a load of hay, and the 
Indians shot him. But my papa isn't dead for sure. He is in 
heaven with God. You know, Mrs. Faribault, God is every- 
wliere." W^e could not eat another bite after that. 

I think the only time I laughed while I was a captive was at 
an Irish woman, another captive. She was about forty-five 
years of age and not very sha})ely of form. Just before Camp 



458 



INIINNESOTA HISTORICAL SOCIKTY COLLECTIONS. 



Release we made many moves of a mile or two. Tlic In- 
dians had taken Ihm- ox team, and had olh-n let her 
lide on the nnirehes; but on th(? last inarch they nia(l<* her 
walk. She came to onr camp and inquired of my hnsband foi- 
John Mooer. She had on sqnaw clothes, had a baby in lu-r 
arms, her face was very dirty, her hair towzled, and slie was 
S])nrtei'inn' away in her Irish broiine and was a comical si.i;ht. 
She knew my husband, and she said: "Mr. Faribauli, where 
are we goin' anyways?'' My husband said: "We are j^oin^ to 
the whites })retty soon." Then she said: "Well, I wish they 
would do somethinj^^; I am sick of ihis campin' and tram])in' 
all the time. That's my team they have, and the black^inards 
do be nnikin- ine wallc, and, be jiosh, J am ^>oin' to see John 
Mooer about it," and off she went to find Mooer. 

While the Indians were away fijrhting at Wood lake. 1 and 
others of the mixed-Woods could have gone away from the 
camp; but Little Crow said if any of us did so those who re- 
mained should be killed; and so I thought it better to stay. 
Some women went away all the same, and escaped, too — Mrs. 
Quinn, Mrs. Prescott, with their children, and others. They 
seemed to know that Little Crow's threat was only a bluff, but 
he might have carried it out had he won that battle. 

At last a lot of us released captives were started off' for the 
settlements below. There were seven wagon loads of us in the 
party, whites and mixed-bloods, all women. At St. Peter's a 
store building was cleared out, cooking stoves put up, and bed- 
ding given us. An officer, whose name I am sorry I cannot re- 
member, was in charge of us. Joe Coursalle, a noted half-blood 
scout, was with us. In the evening the German, whose life I 
saved the first day of the outbreak, came into the room. He 
was intoxicated, had a knife in his hand, and said he v. as look- 
ing for an Indian to kill. The ollicer had gone our, but Cour- 
salle was in and said to the reckless fellow, pointing to me, 
"Here is the woman that saved your life." This seemed to 
quiet him, and he thanl:ed me very Idndly. Then ilie officer 
came in and said to him: "Get out, you rascal. If you want 
to kill an Indian so bad, go West, to the front. There are lots 
of them otit there, and they want to light," and 1-c put him out. 



THE 8TOKY OF NANCY M'cLUKE. 



459 



I went to Faril»aiill iiiul stayed at the lioine of my In'other-in- 
law, Maj. Fowici-, for some time. My Imsband remained with 
tlie troops under (len. Sibley. All we liad left was my horse, 
"Jerry." Our i)roi)erty had all been taken or destroyed by the 
Indians, bni our log house was not btirned. Our loss, besides 
what the Indians owed my husband, was fully s:i.()()(). Our 
home was at Faribault for iwo years. "We then moved back lo 
Kedwood, and then to J>in Stone lalce. Jbnv, throui^h .>Ir. L. 
Quinn, the scout, who has always been my stauiieh friend, my 
husband got employment as interpreter under Maj. Grossman, 
who, with a i)ai'ty of soldiers, was on the way to build i'ort 
Ransom, 150 miles northwest of }3ig Stone lake. We reached 
the site of the new fort in June, 18(>T. My husband was placed 
hi charge of the scouts at this fort. 

In the fall of 1807 we went out about thirty miles from the 
fort on the Cheyenne river and kept a mail station, where the 
horses of the nuiil coaches were changed. We also kept a 
house of entertainment for travelers. While here we had 
much trouble frouj the Indians. We were beginning to "pick 
up'' a little after losing everything in tlie outbreak of 1802, 
when another loss came. In June, 18(38, my husband went to 
Winnipeg — or Fort (Jarry — to put our daughter in school. 
While he was away the scouts rode up one day and told me 
that a strong Indian war party was not far off, and that we 
had better run away. I and others connected with the station 
got ready at once. Our wagon was not at home, and my hus- 
band had the buggy. We put some things into two carts and 
hid some other goods and went as fast as we could to Fort 
Abercrombie, forty miles away. We stayed at Abercrombie 
two weeks, until my husband came; and when we went back 
home we found that everything had been taken by the Indians, 
oven the things w(^ had hidden in the woods. So we Avere 
empty-handed again. Twice, while we lived here, the Indians 
stole horses from us, and at other times they tried to, but our 
men drove them off. One time our men had a fight with them 
in the night. My ]>resent husband was with us then, and 
came near being killed. When we left Cheyenne we went to 
Sisseton agency, but only remained a few weeks. My life since 
then is hardly worth writing about. » 



460 MINNESOTA IIISTOKICAL SOCIETY COLLECTIONS. 



My fust husband died about ei^,'lit years a'^o. Since then I 
have remarried to Mr. Cliarles Hu^,^j;an. We live on a farm, 
near Flandrau. My only child, who was a captive with me, 
is the wife of Kev. John Eastman, a l*resbyterian minister and 
a mixed-blood. They have six children, all bright, interestin*^ 
and promising. When I was first married I was a Presby- 
terian, but Mr. Faribault and all his family were Catholics, and 
I became a Catholic, and am a member of that church still. I 
think Christian churches are like so many roads, all leading 
to the heavenly land. If we follow tliem carefully and walk 
uprightly in them, the All-Father will bring us to him at last. 

NANCY HUGGAN. 

Flandrau, S. D., May, 1S04. 



THE STOKY OF MARY SCHAVANDT. 



461 



THE STOKY OF MARY SCHWANDT. 

HER CAPTIVITY DURING THE BIOUX OUTBREAK "—1862. 

I was born in the district of Brandenburg, near Berlin, Ger- 
many, in March, 1S4S. My parents were John and Christina 
Schwandt. In 1S5S, when I was ten years of age, our family 
came to America and settled near Ripon, Wis. Here we lived 
about four years. In the early spring of 18G2 we came to Min- 
nesota and journeyed up the beautiful valley of the Minnesota 
river to above the mouth of Beaver creek and above where the 
town of Beaver Falls now stands, and somewhere near a smaU 
stream, which I think was called Honey creek, — though it may 
have been known as Sacred Heart, — my father took up a claim, 
built a house and settled. His land was, I think, all in the 
Minnesota bottom or valley, extending from the bluff on the 
north side to the river. Our family at this time consisted of 
my father and mother; my sister Caroline, aged nineteen, and 
her husband, John Waltz; myself, aged fourteen; my brothers, 
August, Frederick and Christian, aged respectively ten, six and 
four years, and a hired man named John Fross. We all lived 
together. My brother-in-law, ]\Ir. Waltz, had taken up a claim 
and expected to remove to it as soon as he had made certain 
neccssar}' improvements. The greater part of the spring and 
summer was spent by the men in breaking the raw prairie 
and bottom lauds so that the sod would be sufficiently rotted for 
the next season's planting. My father brought with him from 
Wisconsin some good horses and wagons and several head of 
cattle and other stock. He also brought a sum of money, the 
most of which was in gold. I remember that I have seen him 



I remember Mary Schwandt at Camp Release, Sept. 26, 1S62, when she, with 
other captives, was surrcMuleroil after the battle of Wood lake. I was a membt-r 
of the military commission before whom were tried the 30<> Sioux, convicted of 
taking part In the outbreak (thirty-rl^ht of whom were executed at Mankato, 
the others kept prisoners at Rock Island until after the close of the civil war). 
Mary Schwandt, then a gi:l of sixteen. testitie<l a;:ahist the prisoners, relating 
the same facts substantially given iu this narrative. W. R. M. 



462 



MINNESOTA HISTORICAL SOCIETY COLLECTIONS. 



couutiii^^ the {.^old, and I odco testified tluit I tlioiiizht hr had at 
least §400, but some of my ivhitivcs say tliat he had over s2,000 
when lie came to Minnesota. He liad bron.iht some money 
from Germany, and lie added to it when in Wisconsin. 

Our situation in our new home was comfortable, and my 
father seemed well satislied. It was a little lonely, for our 
nearest white neighbors were some distance away. These 
were some German families, who lived to the northward of us, 
T believe, along the small stream which I remember was called 
Honey creek. One of these families was named Lentz or 
Lantz, and at this time I cannot remember the names of the 
others. The country was wild, though it was very beautiful. 
We had no schools or churches, and did not see many white 
people, and we children were often lonesome and longed for 
companions. 

Just across the river, to the south of us, a few miles away, 
was the Indian Ai.llage of the chief of Shakopee. The Indians 
visited us almost every day, but they were not company for us. 
Their ways were so strange that they were disagreeable to me. 
They were always begging, but otherwise were well behaved. 
We treated them kindly, and tried the best we knew to keep 
their good will. I remember well the first Indians we saw in 
Minnesota. It was near Fort Ridgely, when we were on our 
way into the country in our wagons. My sister, Mrs. T\'altz, 
was much frightened at them. She cried and sobbed in her 
terror, and even hid herself in the wagon and would not look 
at them, so distressed was she. I have often wondered 
whether she did not then have a premonition of the dreadful 
fate she was destined to sulfer at their cruel and brutal hands. 
In time I became accustomed to the Indians, and had no real 
fear of them. 

About, the 1st of August a Mr. Le Grand Davis came to our 
house in search of a girl to go to the house of Mr. J. B. Rey- 
nolds, who lived on the south side of the i^iver on the blulT, just 
above the mouth of the Redwood, and assist Mrs. Reynolds in 
the housework. Mr*. Reynolds lived on the main road, between 
the lower and Yt-llow Medicine agencies, and ke])t a sort of 
stopping place for travt-lers. 1 was young, but rather wi-il de- 



THE STORY OF MAKY SCHWANDT. 



463 



veloped for a j^irl of fourteen and a half years, and 1 could do 
most kinds of lionsework as well as many a younj^ woman older 
than 1, and I was so lonesome that J be^^^^ed my mother to let 
me go and take the place. She and all the rest of the family 
were opposed to my going, but I insisted, and at last they let 
me have my way. I do not think the wages I was to receive 
were any consideration; indeed, I do not know what they were. 
Mr. Davis said there were two other girls at the Reynolds 
house, and that the family was very nice, and these induce- 
ments influenced me. So 1 packed a few of my things together 
and was soon ready. ^ly mother and sister seemed to feel 
badly about my going, but I was light-heaj-ted, and said to 
them: ^'AYliy is it as if I were going back to the old country, 
or somewhere else a long way off, that you act so, when it is not 
very far and I shall come back soon, and it is best for me, 
since I am of little help to you .here." So, at last we bade one 
another good-bye, and I went away down the beautiful valley, 
never to see my good father nor my precious mother nor my 
lovely sister nor my two dear little brothers any more — any 
more in this life. How little did I think, as I rode away from 
home, that I should not see it again, and that in less than a 
month of all that peaceful and happy household but one of its 
members — my dear, brave brother August — should be left to 
me. Many years afterward my husband and 1 visited the re- 
gion of my former home, and I tried hard to locate its site. 
But the times had changed, and the country had changed. 
There were new faces, new scenes and new features, and so 
many of them, and such a Hood of sorrowful recollections came 
over me, that I was bewildered, and could recognize but few 
of the old landmarks, and I came away unable to determine 
where our house stood, or even which had been my father's 
land. 

When I came to Mr. Keynolds' house I was welcomed and 
made at home. The inmates of the house at the time, besides 
Mr. Reynolds, were his wife, Mrs. Valencia Reynolds, and their 
two children; Mr. Davis, who was staying here tem])orarily : 
William Landnieier, a hired man; Miss :\rattie Williams of 
Painesville, Ohio, a niece of Mr. and Mrs. Reynolds; Mary An- 



464 MINNESOTA HISTORICAL SOCIETY COLLECTIONS. 



derson, »'i Swedish girl, wliose falhcr had been a bhicksniith in 
the employ of the government at one of the agencies, and my- 
self. In a narrative, pnblished by Mrs. Reynolds (now dead), 
which 1 have seen, she mentions a boy that lived with them, 
but somehow I cannot remember him. I do not now recall any- 
thing of special importance that occurred during my sta}' 
here until the dreadful morning of the outbreak. Mr. and ^Irs. 
Reynolds had been in charge of the government school for the 
Indians which had been established at Shakopee's village, only 
a mile away. Travelers frequcmtly stopped at the house, flat- 
tie and Mary were very companionable, and I was not lone- 
some, and the time passed pleasantly. I was so young and 
girlish then that I took little notice of anything that did not 
concern me, but I know that there was no thought of the ter- 
rible things about to happen nor of any sort of danger. . 

The morning of Aug. 18 came. It was just such a morning 
as is often seen here in that mouth. The great red sun came 
up in the eastern sky, tinging all the clouds w'ith crimson, 
and sending long, scarlet shafts of light up the green river val- 
ley and upon the golden bluffs on either side. It was a "red 
morning," and, as I think of it now, the words of an old Ger- 
man soldier's song that I had learned in my girlhood come to 
my mind and fitly describe it: 

"O, Morgen-roth! O, Morgt'ii-rotb! 
Leiiclitet inir /.am fruelien torlt," etc. 

(O, morning rod! O, moriiiug red! 

You shine upon my early death!) 

It was Monday, and I think Mary Anderson and I were pre- 
paring for the week's washing. A wagon drove up from the 
west, in which were a Mr. Patoile, a trader, and another 
Frenchman from the Yellow ^ledicine agency, where Mr. 
Patoile's store was. They stopped for breakfast. While they 
were eating, a half-breed, named Antoine La Rlaugh, who Avas 
living with John Mooer, another half-breed, not far away, came 
to the house and told Mr. Reynolds that Mr. ^looer had sent 
him to tell us that the Indians had broken out and had gone 
down to the lower agency, ton miles below, and across the river 
to the Beaver creek settlements to murder all the whites! A 
lot of squaws and an Indian man were already at the house. 



/ 



THE STORY OF MARY SCinVANJ)T. 



4G5 



The dreadful iiiirlli^ieiice s(u)ii readied us girls, and Ave at once 
made r)reparations to fly. Mr. Paloile agreed to help us. Mr. 
Reynolds had a horse 'and l)n.L'"!Liy, and he be;^an to harness his 
horse, havin.cj sent La l>lan;4h to tell Mr. Mooer to come over. 
Mr. Mooer came and told Mr. Reynolds to hasten his llight and 
directed him what course to take. I was much excited, and 
it has been so long ago that I cannot remember the incidents 
of this time very clearly. I remember that Mr. and ^Irs. Rey- 
nolds and the two children got into the buggy, and that we 
three girls got into Mr. Patoile's wagon with him and Mr. 
Da^is and followed. We did not take many things with us. 
In our wagon was a feather bed and at least one trunk, be- 
longing to Miss Williams. Mrs. Reynolds' statement says that 
the boy started with an ox team and was killed near Little 
Crow's village, but I cannot now remember about this. It is 
singular that I cannot well remember the Frenchman Avho was 
Avith Mr. Patoile, when, in my statement before the commission 
the following year, I gave full partictilars regarding him, 
stating that he Avas on horseback, and hoAv he was killed, etc. 
I cannot account for this discrepancy, except that I liaA'e often 
honestly and earnestly tried hard to forget all about that 
dreadftil time, and only those recollections that I cannot put 
away, or that are not painful in their nature, remain in my 
memory. The hired man, Landmeier, would not leave Avith us. 
He Avent doAvn the river by himself and reached Fort Ridgely 
in safety that night. ]Mr. and Mrs. Reynolds also reached Fort 
Ridgely, taking with them tAvo children of a 3[r. Xairn that 
they picked up on the road. 

Mr. Patoile Avas advised by ?.[r. iMoocr to follow close after 
Mr. Reynolds in the buggy and not folloAV the road. Put Mr. 
Patoile thought best to keep the road until Ave crossed the 
RedAVOod river. lie then left the road and turned up Red- 
Avood some distance, and then struck out southeast across the 
great Avide })rairie. It seems to me noAv tliat Ave folloAved some 
sort of road across this prairie. When avo had got about eight 
miles from the Redwood a mounted Indian oA*ertook us and 
told us to turn back and go up to I>ig Stone lake, and that he 
would come up the next day and tell us Avhat to do. I do not 



4G6 



MINNESOTA HISTORICAL SOCIKTY COLLKCTIONS. 



know his iiaiiio, Init he seemed very fiicndly and to mean well; 
yet I do not thinlc it would have been better had we done as he 
directed. At any rate, Mr. Tatoile refused to return, and con- 
tinued on, keeping to tlie rii^ht oi* south of the lower a^;eney. 
At one time we were wiiliiii two mih^s of the agency and could 
see the buildings very i)lainly. We now hoped that it was all a 
false alarm. It seemed that the agency had not been at- 
tacked, at least the buildings had not been burned, and our 
spirits returned somewhat, lint soon after we saw a smoke 
in the direction of the agency, and then we were fearful and 
depressed again. And yet we thought we could escape if the 
horses could hold out, for they were getting tired, as Mr. 
Patoile had driven them pretty hard. We were trying to 
reach Xew Ulm, where we thought we would be entirely safe. 

About the middle of the afternoon some Indians appeared 
to the left or north of us. They were mounted and at once 
began shooting arrows at us. Some of the arrows came into 
the wagon.We succeeded in dodging them, and we girls picked 
them up. Miss AVilliams secured some and aslced Mary and 
me for ours, saying she meant to take them back to Ohio and 
show them to her friends as mementoes of her perilous ex- 
perience. (In the record of my testimony before the claims 
commission of 1SG3 I am made to say that only one Indian 
shot these arrows, and that he took the Frenchman's horse, 
but it is impossible for me now to remember the incident in 
this way.) When we arrived opposite Fort Kidgely — which 
stood about half a mile from the north bank of the Minnesota 
— Mr. Patoile supposed we could not cross the river, as there 
was no ferry there, and we continued down on the road to 
New Ulm. The horses were now very tired, and we frequently 
got out and walked. 

When we were within about eight miles of Xew Ulm and 
thought all serious danger was over, we met about fifty In- 
dians coming from the direction of the town. They were 
mounted, and had wagons loaded with Hour and all sorts of 
provisions and goods taken from the houses of the settlers. 
They were nearly naked, painted all over their bodies, and all 
of them seemed to be drunk, shouting and yelling and acting 
very riotously in every way. Two of them dashed forward to 



THE STORY OF MARY SCIIWAXDT. 



407 



"US, one on each side of the w;iL;on, and ordered us to halt. >[r. 
Patoile turned tlie wajion to one side of the road, and all of 
xis jumped out except liini. As wf^leajx-d out Mr. l)avis said, 
"'We are lost!" The rest of the Indians came u\) and shot Mr. 
Patoile, four balls enterinii: his body, and he fell dead fi-om tli»' 
wagon. I have a faint recollecrion of scM'ing him fall. He 
was a large man, as I remember him. and he fell heavily. Mr. 
Davis and we girls ran toward a slough where there was some 
high grass. The Indians began firing at us. Mr. Davis was 
Icilled. The Frenchman ran in another direction, but '-ras 
shot and killed. Mary Anderson was shot in the back, the 
ball lodging near the surface of the groin or abdomen. Some 
shots passed through my dress, but I was not hit. Miss Will- 
iams, too, was unhurt. I was running as fast as I could 
towards the slough, when tv/o Indians caught me, one by each 
of my arms, and stopped me. An Indian caught Mattie Will- 
iams and tore off part of her "shaker" bonnet. Then another 
•came, and the two led her back to the wagon. I was led back 
also, ^[ary Anderson was probably carried back. Mattie 
was put in a wagon with ^lary, and I was placed in one driven 
Tjy the negTO Godfrey. It was nearly 4 o'clock, as I remember 
from a certain circuiustance. The black wretch Godfrey had 
been with the Indians murdering and plundering, and about 
his waist were strung quite a number of watches. I learn 
that this old villain is now at Santee Agency, Xeb. lie 
gave evidence against the Indians who were hanged at ^fan- 
kato, and so escaped their deserved fate. The Indians shouted 
and were very joyful over the great victory, and soon we were 
started off. The wagon with ^Nfattie and ^Fary went toward 
the lower agency, and the one I was in Avent off into the 
prairie. I asked Godfrey what they were going to do with 
me, and he said he did not know. lie said they had chased 
Mr. and Mrs. Keynolds, and he believed had killed them. Re 
said: "We are going out this way to look for our women, who 
are here somewhere.'' About three miles out we came to these 
"Squaws, who were sitting behind a little mound or hill on the 
prairie. They set up a joyful and noisy chattering as we a])- 
proached, and when we stopp(Hl tluw ran to the wagons and 
took out bread and other articles. Here we remained about 



4GS 



MINNESOTA II I^5TOKICAL SOCIKTY COLLECTIONS. 



an hour, aud tlie Indians drt-sscd ilieir liair, fixing ii up with 
ribbons. V»'hen avo canie up to these Indians I asked (iodlivy 
the time, and, huddni;- at one of the watches, he replied, "It is 
4 o'clock." 

About 5 oVdock avc started in the direction of tlie lower 
agency. Three hours later we arrived at the liouse of the 
chief, AVacouta, in liis village, half a mile or so below the 
agency. Here I found r^Irs. I)e Camp (now :\Irs. Sweet), whose 
story was })ublished in the i*ioneer Press of July 15. As she 
has so well described the incidents of that dreadful night and 
the four following dreadful days, it seems unnecessary that 
I should repeat them; and. indeed, it is a relief to avoid the 
subject. Since it pleased God that we should all sutler as we 
did at this time, I i»ray him of his mercy to grant that all my 
memories of this i^eriod of my captivity may soon and forever 
pass aAvay. At about 11 o'clock in the night I arrived at 
AVacouta's house. Mattie and Mary were brought in. The 
ball was yet in Mary's body, and Wacouta tried to take it out, 
but I am sure that Mrs. Sweet: is mistaken when slie says he 
succeeded. He tried to. in all kindness, but it seemed to me 
that he was unwilling to cause her any more pain. At any 
rate, he gave up the attempt, and T remember well that the 
brave girl then took liis knife from his hand, made an incision 
over the lump where the l)all lay, took out first the wadding, 
which was of a green color and looked like grass, and then re- 
moved the ball. I think after this Wacouta dressed the 
wound she hnd made by ap]>lying to it some wet cloths. 

On the fourth day we were taken from Wacouta's, up to Lit- 
tle Crow's village, two miles above the agency. ^lai-y Ander- 
son died at 4 o'clock the following morning. I can neV'T^r forget 
the incid(mts of her death. When Ave came we were given some 
cooked chicken. ^lary ate of the meat and drank of the broth. 
Matt ie 'and I Avere both with her, and Avatched her by turns. 
It rained hard that night, and the Avater ran under the te])ee 
where Ave Avere, and ^lary Avas Avet and had no bedclothim:- or 
anything elsf^ to kei*]) her dry and Avarm. AThen at Wacouta's 
she asked for a chanuf^ (»f clothing, as Iku* oAvn Avere vei'y 
bloody from her Avounds. "Wacouta gav<^ hor a blade silk dress 
and a shawl, Avhich some of his men had taken from some 



THE STORY OF MARY SCIIWANDT. -IG9 

Other while woman. Mary Avas a rallicr lar^e ^irl, and I re- 
member llia( llie waist of this dress was too small for her and 
would not meet or fasten. It was in this dress she d[ed. She 
was very thirsty, and called often for water, hut otherwise 
made no complaint and said but little, liefore she died she 
prayed in Swedish. She had a plain gold ring on one of her 
fingers, and she asked ns to give it to her mother, but after 
her death her finger was so swollen we could not remove the 
ring, and it was buried with her. T was awake v.iien slie died, 
and she passed away so gently that T did not know she was 
dead until flattie began to prepare the face cloths. She was 
the lirst person whose death I had ever witnessed. The next 
morning she was buried. Joseph Campbell, a half-breed pris- 
oner, assisted us in the burial. Her poor body was wrapped 
in a piece of tablecloth, and the Indians cariied it to the 
grave, which was dug near Little Crow's house. The body 
was afterward disinterred and reburied at the lower agency. 
A lilvcness of a young man to whom she was to have been mar- 
ried we kept, and it was returned to him. Her own we gave 
to Mrs. Reynolds. 

While in Little Crow's village I saw some of my father's cat- 
tle and many of our household goods in the hands of the In- 
dians. I now knew that my family had been plnndered, and I 
believed murdered. I was very, very wretched, and cared not 
how soon I too was killed. Mrs. Huggan, the half-breed woman 
whose experience as a prisoner has been printed in this paper, 
says she remembers me at this time, and that my eyes were 
always red and swollen from constant weeping. I presume 
this is true. IJut soon there came a time when I did not weep. 
I could not. The dreadful scenes I had witnessed, the sulTer- 
ings that I had undergone, the almost certainty that my family 
lilid all been killed, and that I was alone in the world, and the 
belief that I was destined to witness other things as horrible 
as those I had seen, and that my career of suffering and misery 
had only begun, all came to my comprehension, and when I 
realized my utterly wretched, helpless and hopeless situation, 
for I did not think T would ever be released, I became as one 
paralyzed, and could hardly speak. Others of my fellow cap- 
tives say they often sj)oke to me, but that I said but little, and 
went about like a sh'ep-walker. 



470 



MINNESOTA HISTORICAL SOCIETY COLLECTIONS. 



I shall always remember Little Crow from an iiieidciit that 
happeued ^vliile 1 was in his vilhi^e. One day I was sitting 
quietly and shrinkin<:ly by a lejx'e wlu-n he came alon^^ drrssed 
in full chief's costume and lookfuj?; very grand. Suddenly he 
jerked his tomahawk from his belt and sprang toward me 
with the weapon uplifted as if he meant to cleave my head in 
two. I remember, as well as if it were only an hour aj^o that 
he glared down upon mo so savagely, that I thought he really 
would kill me; but I looked up at him, without any fear or 
care about my fate, and gazed quietly into his face without 
so much as winking my tear-swollen e}'es. He brandished his 
tomahawk over ine a few times, then laughed, put it back in 
his belt and walked away, still laughing and saying something 
in Indian, which, of course, I could not understand. Of course 
he only meant to fi'ighten me, but I do not think he was at all 
excusable for his conduct. He was a great chief, and some 
people say he had many noble traits of character, but I have 
another opinion of any man, savage or civilized, Avho will take 
for a subject of sport a poor, weak, defenseless, broken-hearted 
girl, a prisoner in his hands, who feels as if she could never 
smile again. A fcAv days since I saw Little Crow's scalp 
among the relics of the Historical society, and may I be for- 
given for the sin of feeling a satisfaction at the sight. 

But now it pleased Providence to consider that my measure 
of suffering was nearly full. An old Indian woman called 
Wam-nu-ka-win (meaning a peculiarly shaped bead called bar- 
ley corn, sometimes used to produce the sound in Indian 
rattles) took compassion on me and bought me of the Indian 
who claimed me, giving a pony for me. She gave me to her 
daughter, whose Indian name was Rnana (ringing sound), but 
the whites called her Maggie, and who was the wife of Wa- 
kin-yan Weste, or Good Thunder. Maggie was one of the 
handsomest Indian women I ever saw, and one of the best. 
She had been educated and Avas a Christian. She could sjieak 
English fluently (but never liked to), and she could read and 
write. She had an Episcopal prayer book, and often read it, 
so that Mrs. Sweet is mistaken in her belief that Mrs. Hunter 
had the only prayer book in the camp. Maggie and her mother 
were both very kind to me, and ^laggie could not have treated 
me more tenderly if I had been her daughter. Often and often 



THE STORY OF .AIARV SCmVAXDT. 



471 



she preserved me from danger, and sometimes, I think, she 
saved my life. :Nrany a time, wlicn tlie sava^^e and brutal In- 
dians were threatening to kill all the prisoners, and it was 
feared thev would, she and her mother hid me, pilini^ blankets 
and buffalo robes u])on me uniil I would be nearly smothered, 
and then they would tell everybody ilK>r I had left them. Late 
one night, when we were all asleep, ^laggie in one corner of 
the tent, her mother in another, and I in another, some 
drunken young hoodlums came in. ]\[aggie spran:^ up as 
swiftly as a tigress defending her young, and almost as fierce, 
and ordered them out. A hot quarrel resulted. They seemed 
determined to take me away or kill me, but Maggie was just 
as determined to protect me. 1 lay in my little couch, tremb- 
ling in fear and praying for help, and at last good, brave 
Maggie drove the villains away. Mr. Good Thunder was not 
there that night, but I do not know Avhere he was. I have 
not much to say about him. lie. often took his gun, mounted 
his horse, and rode away, and would be absent for some time, 
but I never sav/ him ^^•itil his face i^aiuted or with a war party. 
He is living at Birch Coulie agency now, but Maggie is not 
his present wife. I learn that she is somewhere in Nebraska, 
but wherever you are, Maggie, I want you to know that the 
little captive German girl you so often befriended and shielded 
from harm loves you still for your kindness and care, and she 
prays God to bless you and reward you in this life and that to 
come. I was lold to call ^ir. Good Thunder and Maggie 
"father" and "mother," and I did so. It was best, for then 
some of the Indians seemed to think I had been adopted into 
the tribe. But ^^laggie never relaxed her watcljful care over 
me, and forbade my going about the camp alone or hardly 
anywhere out of her sight. I was with her nearly all the time 
after I went to live ^\ith her. She gave me a clean white 
blanket, but it was not white very long, and made me squaw 
clothes and embroidered for me a most beautiful pair of white 
moccasins, and I put them on in i)la('e of the clothing I wore 
when 1 was captured. Old AVam-uu-ka was always very good 
to me, too. The kind old creature has been dead many years, 
and Heaven grant that she is in peace. For several days after 
I first came to live with them they were very attentive, waking 
me for breakfast, and bringing me soap, water and a towel, 
and showing me many other considerations. 



472 



MINNESOTA IIISTOKICAL SOCIKTY COLI-KCTION\S. 



I think ^\e ivmaiiU'd at laltle Crow's village about a week, 
W'lieu we moved iu haste up toward Yellow Medicine about 
fifteen miles and encamped. The next morning there was an 
alarm that the while soldiers were coming. 3laggie woke me, 
took olT my squaw clothes and dressed me in my own. lint 
the soldiers did not come, and we went on to Yellow Medicine, 
where we arrived about noon. On the way thei'e was another 
alarm that the soldiers were coming, and there was great con- 
fusion. Some ran olY into the prairie and scattered in all 
directions, while olhei's pushed tlie teams as fast as they could 
be driven. Four miles from Yellow Medicine I wns made to 
get out of the wagon and walk. From this time every day 
there was an alarm of some kind. One day the soldiers were 
said to be coming; the next day all the ])risoners were to be 
killed, etc. On one occasion a woman was killed v.liile trying 
to escape. I was again dressed in Indian garments. I was 
told that the vSissetons were coming down from Big Stone lake, 
and there was danger of my being killed if I loolcod like a 
white girl. Maggie and her mother wanted to i)aint my face 
and pnt rings in my eai*s so that I would look more like a 
squaw, but I refused the i)ropositioii. I assisted !ny Indian 
^'mother'^ with her work, carried Avater, baked bread — when 
we had any — and tried to make myself useful to her. AVe 
lived chielly on beef iind ])OVatoes; often we had no bread. 

We were encamped at Yellow Medicine at least two weeks. 
Then we left and went on west, making so many removals 
that I cannot remember them. I did not go about the camps 
alone, and I knew notliing of what was going on outside. I 
saw the warriors constantly going and coming, but I knew 
nothing of their military movements and projects. A simple 
little German ^''maedchen" of fourteen cannot be expected to 
understand such thinus. T did not hear the cannon at Wood 
lake, and did not know the battle was in progress till it was 
all over. During my captivity I saw very many dreadful 
scenes and sickening sights, luit I n<^ed not describe them. 
Once I saw a little white girl of not more than live years, 
whose head had been cut and gashed with knives until it was 
a mass of wounds. 1 think this cluld was saved, but I do not 
know who she was. I do not remember that I talked with my 
fellow prisoners. I ivmember Mrs. Dr. Wakelleld and Mrs. 



THE STOKV OF MARY SCHWAXDT. 



473 



Adams. They w^ie ])ainhMl nixl decora (cd nud <li-ossc'd in fidl 
Indian costnnie, an<l seemed proud of it. They wore usually 
in jiood spii-iis, lanuliin.i;' and joking;-, and a])pcared to enjoy 
their new life. Tlie rest of ns disliked their conduct, and 
would have but liille to do wiih litem. ?»Irs. Adams was a 
handsome youn;^ woman, talented and educated, but she told 
me slie saw her husband mtirdered, and that tln' Indian she 
was then livinir v/iili liad dashed out her baby's brains before 
her eyes. And yet she seemed perfectly hai)j)y and contented 
with him! 

At last came Camp IJelease and our d(diverance by the 
soldiers under Gen. Sibley. That story is well kno^^■n, I re- 
member how angry the soldiers were at the Indians who sur- 
rendered there, and liow ea;^er they were to be turned loose 
upon the vile and bloody wretclies. I testified before the mili- 
tary commission that tried the Indians. Soon after I was taken 
below to St. Peter, where I learned the particulars of the sad 
fate of my family. I must be excused from givinci" the particu- 
lars of their aiiorious murders. All were murdeied at our 
home but my breather August. His hea.d was split with a tom- 
ahawk, and he was left senseless for dead, but he recovered 
consciousness, and linally, though he was but ten years of age, 
succeeded in escaping to Fort Kidgely. On the way he found 
a child, five years old, and carried it several miles, when, by 
the direction of a German woman he had fallen in with, he left 
it in a house eighteen miles from tlie fort. The child was re- 
covered at Camp IJelease, but it was so much injured by 
wounds and exposure that it died soon after reaching Fort 
Itidgely. August is now a hardware merchant in Portland, 
Oregon. 

• Soon after ari-iving at St. Peter I was sent to my friends and 
relatives in AA'isconsiu. and here I met my brother August. It 
was a, sad meeting for the two little orphans, though we were 
most happy in seeing each other. The next year I returned to 
Minnesota and test i lied before what was called the claims 
commission. The g<Aernment had suspended the atmuities 
usually i)aid the Sioux, jind directed that the money should 
be paid to the i)eoi)le whose i)roperiy had been destroyed by 
the Indians during the outbreak, or to liieir heirs. Ati adiuin- 



474 



MINNESOTA UISTOKICAL SOCIETY COLLECTIONS. 



isli'iltor was api)()iHte(l for my fnlhor's estate, and a guardian 
for me and my brother. I testified to the property my father 
had, all of which had been taken or destroyed by the Indians; 
but I do not remember that my brother and I over received 
but an insigniticant sum, and yet 1 do not know why we did 
not. It seems that everybody else, traders and all, were ])aid 
in full. Some gold was taken from the dead body of an Indian 
during the war, and, from the circumstances. Gen. Sibley 
thought the money had been taken from ray father. The 
amount was §90, but there was a premium on gold at the time. 
Gen. Sibley purchased two s50 government bonds with the 
money 'and held them for my brother and me some years. In 
ISGG Gen. Sibley gave me one of the bonds and ^20 in interest 
on it, and my receipts to him for this money are among the 
Sibloy papers in the Historical society. A part of the year 1 SG3 
I was ^vith the family of my old employer, Mr. Eeynolds, who 
then kept a hotel at St. Peter. In the fall I went to Fair- 
water, Wis., and remained with an uncle for two years. In 18G() 
I married Mr. William Schmidt, then and for many years after- 
ward one of the business men of St. l*aul. We lived in St. 
Paul until 18S9, when Ave removed to PorQand, Ore. Two 
months since we returned to St. Paul. We have three living 
children, a daughter and two sous; four children are dead. 
Life is made up of shadow and shine. I sometimes think I 
have had more than my share of sorrow and sufiering, buc I 
bear in mind that I have seen much of the agreeable side of 
life, too. A third of a century almost has passed since the 
period of my great bereavement and of my captivity. The 
memory of that period, with all its hideous features, often rises 
before me, but 1 put it down. I have called it up at this time 
because kind friends have assured me that my experience is a 
part of a leading incident in ihe history of AHnnesota that 
ought to be given to the world. In the hope that what I have 
written may serve to inform the pi'esent and future gen(.'ra- 
tions what some of the pioneers of Minnesota underwent in 
their efforts to settle and civilize our great state, I submit my 
plain and imperfect story. 

MARY SCHWANDT-SCnMIDT. 

St. Paul, July 2G, 1S04. 



KEMIN1SCE^'CES OF rillLANDEH PKK^SCOTT. 475 

AUTOBIOGRArnV AXl) liK.^llNlSCEXCKS OF 

1 was boi'U oil KSept. IT, 16Ui, iu i'lielprsLuw Uiiiariu cuuiiiy^ 
^'ew York. M\ failier was a physician and a jjioneer in ihe 
lirst seUlement of the more central part of the state, lie mar- 
ried a Miss Lucy Heed, and settled in I'helpstown, and lived for 
several years by his profession, but was attacked with dropsy 
in the abdomen, and after a lingering illness, he died, and left a 
family, rather poor. Soon after his death, I went to live with an 
uncle by the name of Eeed. lie worked me nearly to death, 
and I left him in the fall of ISIS, and went to live with my 
eldest brother. My mother had married a second time, and died 
of consumption tliat fall. I was then an orphan, and what to 
do for a liviug was a serious question. There were two sisters 
younger than myself, and two brothers older. One of these was 
at Detroit, a clerk in a sutler's store, for the troops stationed at 
the above-named post. He wrote to me in the winter of 1819 
to come out to see him, and he would try to give me some kind 
of employment, that I might in time make a living. So in the 
spring, in April, I got ready, and started, but it was much 
against the wishes of my relatives, for they said they never ex- 
pected to see me again, and one of uiy uncles was so much op- 
posed to my coming West that he would not loan me money 
enough to pay my expenses to Detroit. lUit this did not deter 
me from my object, and I started Avith only a few dolhus — 
enough to take me to Bull'alo by my walking the whcde distance. 
I got to Buffalo the fourth day, and found that the lake was 
not clear of ice, and that the great steamboat "Walk-in-the- 
AYater" would not sail for a week. I went to the landlord of the 
Black Bock house, and told hiui my circumstances, and asked 
liim to board me for a week for my work, until the boat should 
leave for Detroit. lUiffalo still showed the devastation-^ of the 
war, and but a small portion of the city had been rebuilt. 

On the 1st day of May the steamer Walk-in-the-AVater was 
ready and J went on board. Four yoke of oxen and the 
strength of the engine took us over the rapids at the foot of 
the lake. We had not been loug out before we came to ice, and 
found that it was very strong and dangerous to run against 



47G 



MINNESOTA lllSTOiilCAL SOCIETY COLLECTJONS. 



with ;i lull head oL' .sU-nni, and we woi-ked aluiig ^^l<J\vly. liy 
uioi'iiiiii^' we had guL pa.sL all ihe ite, and weiiL uii well. The 
second iiiglil out one i>assen;^('r I'ell oveib<Kird, owin;^^ lo ihe 
cai'eie^^.siiess of the sailur^s in iiuL i'asleninj^' c»ne pieee of the rail- 
ing that was used loi* a gangway. 

We reaeiied Deiioil Aviihuut any fui'lher aceideni, and 1 
found my biolher niaking pi-eparatioJis to go still farther Avest. 
The troox>s had been ordered to the Mississippi to build foris 
and occtipy that country, and niy brotlu^r was to go along as 
clerk for the troops, lie told nw that I would have to wait 
until Mr. Devotion, the owner, went to Xew i'ork and got a 
supply of goods, and came back, before I could go, and I must 
try and accompany him through the journey. I passed the sum- 
mer with my books, and kept the store in ord(M\ until Mr. 
Devotion returned, when we started for the ^Iis>issii)pi. 

Mr. Devotion charteied an old sloop, and we saih'd in Oc- 
tober, and reached Green iiay in the same month. In [>assing 
Mackinac we went ashore and took a look at the old fortifica- 
tions that had once been surrendered to the Jii'iiisli. In sailing 
along one da}' by T\'ashington's Harbor, we struck some rocks, 
but wont over them without injuring the sloop. There was a 
fort at the mouth of Fox river, which commanded the entrance. 
The town of Green I>ay comprised three houses and an Indian 
agency. T\> had to wait two weeks here for a boat, as all the 
boats had been taken olT by the traders, and it was late in the 
fall when we embarked from this point. ^Iv. Devotion started 
me ahead with an old boat, and only four men to ascend the 
Fox river, which was nothing but rapids for about twenty miles, 
and we made slow piooress, and wei'e finally fi'ozen up at a lake 
called Kusli lake. Here we built a house to store our goods in 
and wailed for sleighs to come for us from Prairie du Chien. 
During the time we ^\ ere waif ing for Ihe sledges, or "tT'ains," as 
they were called, I went to the ])ortage of th^ Wisconsin, two 
long flays' walk from wlun-e we were frozen up. Tire first night I 
stopped on Fox I'iver at an old trader s by the name of Grignow. 
I found him li\ ing in one of the Indian lodges. He said he had 
arrived late in ihe fall, and had no time for building, except a 
storehouse and a house f(^r his men, and lu^ was living in a 
lodge wiih his family, with a young. "Nfenomonee woman for a 
wife. T found his tribe had furnislied about all the women for 
the traders' wives, for they are generally good-looking, and their 



KEMINISCENCES OF PlIJLAMJKli J'IiJ:.SCOTT. 



477 



jirst cliildreu were as wliile as many of ilic whiLe cliildrL-ii. The 
old mau said he Lad been a long time in ihe trade, aJid probably 
would stay there as long as he lived, as it suiLcd him, and lie did 
not care about seel^ing any other liveliliood. My guide and 1 
started the next morning and went to the portage that day, but 
it was a very hard day's woric. I\ly objuet in going to that place 
was to examine some goods that had been leit there in ihc fall 
and repoi'ted to be wet. I found another class of people here, 
the A\'innebagoes, an ugly race of people. They had always 
been abusive to the white people, but there were but 
a few of them about, and they did not molest me. I opened the 
goods and found all in good order, and returned back to our 
camp and waited for the trains. In aboui two weeks more 
they came, and Ave made preparations for our departure. I 
had to go alone again, for there were not trains enough to take 
all, so ^Ir. Devotion remained, and I went ahead and remained 
a few days at Prairie du Chien, to get more transportation to 
take a supply up to Fort Snelling. 

After getting otir complement of teams and Frenchmen to 
drive them, we started from the town that was older tlian I'hil- 
adelphia, and there were only about 2.j0 inhabitants in the 
place — that is of the French, who Avere the first settlers. The 
government had what they called a factory to furnish goods to 
Indians at cost, for the traders sold their goods so high that the 
Indians suflVred a great deal from want, and the government 
proposed this plan for iheir relief. This made the traders 
angry, and they retaliated by nndersellinir the government, and 
made them lose money, and ihe government abandoned the 
trafTic. 

It has never been determined whether Prairie du Chien 
was nnmed after "dog" or "oak." P.oth are so much alike in 
French ihnt no one knows which it took its oriain from. 

T arrived at a place called ^fud Tien pond, hot ween tlio head 
of Lake Popin and St. Croix. It was very cold weather, and 
we concluded to lay over one day and let the horses rest, as we 
liad Gfood comfoi'fabl<^ romn^A at "^.fi*. Faribault's, tlio li'a.fV^.' for 
the Amciifan Fur company. Tho second day, in the afternoon, 
a lai'gc band of li^ioux Indians arriv(Ml at the trader's, and we 
were obliged to h^ive for fear of our goods bcim:: slolen fi'(^m the 
sleighs. AVo had not gone far before one of the teams broke 
through the ice, and some of the goods had to lay in the water 



478 MINNESOTA JIISTOKICA L SOCIKTY COLLECTIONS. 



all uif;ht,and it was with much diOicuUy lluiL we saved the horse. 
It was so veiy cold Ihai we could with diOiculiy do aiiyihiuj^. 
We got a rope about the ueck of the horse, and all hands took 
hold and choked him out. Tliis was easily done, for the 
moment we commenced pulling, the horse commenced strug- 
|2:ling, and hoaled on the water, after wliich it was but little 
Avork to haul liim up on the solid ice, and by whipping and 
running him around we got him limbered up, and kept him from 
freezing until we got a fire built, when we camped 
lor the niglit. Our nexi place or point for stopping was 
Oliver's Grove, a place where a keel boat was frozen in, loaded 
with provisions for the troops. Lieut. Oliver was here with a 
few soldiers guarding the provisions, while other parties were 
hauling them away. Oliver's Grove is now called Hastings. 

We arrived safe at the cantonmeiit at the mouth of the 
-St. I'eter's river. I found my brother well, and full of work, 
xis he was alone and had four companies to wait upon; but the 
trooxJS were in a very unhealthy state, with the scurvy. Some 
fifty or sixty had died, and some ten men died after I arrived, 
but the groceries that I took uj) and a quantity of spiTice that 
Dr. Purcell had sent to the St. Croix for, gave them relief. Col. 
Leavenworth, commanding officer, ]Maj. Ilamilton. Maj. 
Larrabee, ^Nlnj. Tose, Capt. Gwinn, Capt. T'erry, Capt. Gooding, 
Capt. Telham, Lieut. ^IcCabal, engineer of l)uilding: Lieut. 
Camp, quartermaster; Lieut. Green, Adjut. Lieut. Oliver. Lieut. 
McCartney, Lieut. Wilkins, Capt or Maj. Foster, are all that I 
can recollect of the officers who first came to build the fort at 
the mouth of the St. Peter's river. 

In the summer of 1820 there w\as not much done towards 
the building of the fort. The physician and commanding ollicer 
thought the location an unhealthful one, and moved all the 
troops over to some springs called "Camp Coldwater," nearly 
a mile above the present fort, on the Mississippi river. I think 
the name Mississippi was taken from the Menomonee dialect, 
and should be spelled Miscessepe, 'the big river." A few sol- 
diers were employed hewing timber for the fort, and a site was 
selected by the commanding oflicer on the first rise, about 300 
jards west of the present fort, and some timber was hauled to 
the spot. As the fort was to be built of hewed logs, it required 
a large quantity of timber, and a saw mill was wanted, as it 
would require a large amount of boards for so large a fort. An 



EEMINISCENX'ES OF PniLANDER PRESCOTT. 



479 



exaiiiiiuuioii uf llie Lillle Falls (.Miniif liahaj was iiuide, and it 
was ihuu<^lit there was uot water eiiougli for a mill, as tlie 
water was very low in the summer of 1S'20, and St. .\nthony was 
selected. An oilicer and some men had been sent up Kiim river 
to examine the pine and see if it could be got to the river by 
hand. The parly returned and made a favorable report, and . 
in the winter a party was sent out to cut pine logs, and to raft 
them down in the spring, and they brought down about 2,000 
logs by hand. Some ten or lifteen men would haul on a sled 
one log from one-fourtli to one-half a mile, and lay it upon the 
bank of Ivum river, aiid in the spriug they were rolh'd into the 
river and floated down to the mouth and then nmde into small 
rafts and lloated to the present landing above the bridge. 

In the summer or fail, I think, Col. Leavenworth was ordered 
to the ]\Iissouri. The plans for the fort had been prepared by 
the above-named officer, but w^ere somewhat altered by Col. 
SncUing, the otlicer succeeding, and the location was moved from 
tlie point that Col. T^avenworth selected to the present loca- 
tion, and the saw mill was commenced in the fall and winter of 
1820-21 and finished in 1822, and a large quantity of lumber was 
made for the whole fort, and all the furniture and outbuildings, 
and all the logs were brought to the mill or the landing by hand, 
and hauled from tlie landing to the mill, and from the mill to 
the fort by teams. An officer by the name of Lieut. Croozer 
lived and had charge of the mill party. Supplies for the fort 
were all brought tip in keel boats from St. Louis. It generally 
took from fifty to sixty days to come from St. IjOuis to Fort 
Snelling. The first steamboat that came to the Fort was a 
stern-wheeled boat fi'om Cincinnati with the contract for sup- 
plies for the troops in June, 182.*>, — the name of the boat I have 
forgotten. There were no settlements on the ^lississippi except 
I*rairie du Cliion and Kock Island, and the troops ])assed the 
summer at Camp Coldwater, and in the fall moved back again 
to the old cantonment and passed the winter, and got out tim- 
ber for the soldiers' barracks, and before the autumn of 1823 
nearly all the soldiers had been got into quarters, and consider- 
able work had been done on the officers' quarters. The Indians 
wore all peacoable.and all things progressed peaceably.and with 
all the speed that was possible for soldiers (for there is no hur- 
rying of soldiers — they go just so fast, and out of that pace you 
cannot drive them). 



480 



MINNESOTA IlISTOKICAL KOCIETV COI.LKCTIONS. 



In the fall of lS2o Mr. Devotion gave up the .suLlershii*, owing 
to tlie small pi'irentage that the governmi-nt alluwod the sutlers 
to trade upon. Twenty-live per cent was all that the govern- 
ment allowed iliem to charge, including ihe lraus})orialion and 
wastage, so ]Mr. Devotion would not- furnish goods at those 
rates, and abandoned the business. 

The paymaster had taken government drafts and sold 
them to the ^Missouri and Illinois banks, and brought iheir pa- 
per -and paid the troops olT with paj»er, there then being no law 
to the contrary. Tlie sutler, ]\Ir. Devoiion, had to take such 
money as the soldiers had to give him, and he collected about 
seventy or eighty thousand dollars, and we went to St. Louis 
and found the banks all broken and closed. Mr. Devotion could 
do nothing to help himself, and it is supposed that the pay- 
master made a handsome profit out of the operation. 

On our way down the river we found no settlements until we 
got to Hannibal, where there were two or three log houses, and 
below that place we would see now and then a house along the 
river. At Galena there were only two or three little log cabins, 
whose occupants were engaged in trading lead to the Indians. 
St. Louis was but a small town, and I do not recollect seeing 
more than one church, and that was Eoman Catholic. There 
was a small market, two or three mills, one bakery, and about 
half a dozen steamboats, which supplied the place with all the 
goods that were wanted for the trade. Alton and Quincy had 
then only four or five houses each. I stayed through the winter, 
and in the spring Mr. Devotion obtained for me a lot of Indian 
goods on credit, and I took the little boat and starred back to 
Fort Snelling to trade with the Sioux Indians. When I re- 
turned to Fort Snelling the otlicers had all got into quarters. 
I was fifty-five days going from St. Louis to the Fort. 

I passed the winter trading with the Indians. In the fall 
my brother came up to pass the winter with me. A ^Ir. r»aker 
came up with me to teach school at the Fort, and a Mr. ^A^litn^'y 
came from Green P.ay with some goods. 

The Indians had l»een yevy quiet all this time, exc«'pt on the 
]Missouri, where they had killed a white man, and Col. Snelling 
had been oi'den^l to demand the murderer. The Sioux brought 
in two Indians to leave as hostages until (hey could get the 
murd(M'er. They Avere ]>ut in prison, and when Hiey wanted to 
go out the sentinel would accompany them, and bring them 



KEMINISCEXCES OF PHILANDER PKESCOTT. 481 

back again. After the lapse of a month, one morning early 
ihey wanted to go out, and the sentinel took his musket and 
went witlL them. AYheii th<'y had gone a short distance from 
the fort they started to run away from the sentinel. The man 
lired at them, but missed. The whole garrison was soon out, 
but the Indians were too swift for them and got clear. The 
Colonel then sent the Indians word that if they did not bring in 
the murderer, he would take some of their principal men and 
hang them; this set them to work, and they brought in the 
offender. Quite a number of Indians came in with the pris- 
oner. They had a British lUig and a large medal. Col. Snelliug 
had a fire built and burned the flag before the Indians and cut 
the medal off the neck of the Indian murderer, who wore it, 
and locked him up, and sent the Indians off home again. At 
the first opportunity the prisoner was sent below for tiial, and 
that was the last which was ever heard of him; for, although 
he was cleared by the court for want of evidence, he never 
reached home again. 

After my winter trade was over, my brother went to St. 
Ix)uis and paid up our debt with the furs I had received in 
trading, and tried to get more goods, but the companies had all 
joined together, and made a monopoly of the whole trade, and 
would not furnish any goods to any person to trade with on his 
individual account. This caused an opposition company to 
organize, called the Columbia Fur Company, which my brother 
and I joined. During the previous autumn, while I was living 
at Lands End, I was married to my present wife. The custom 
of getting wives amongst the Sioux is by purchase, and it 
frequently happens that there is not much love in the case, and 
sometimes the woman never expects to marry the man that she 
is sometimes compelled to marry. Therefore, suicide is not an 
uncommon thing among the women, as was the case on Lake 
Pepin at ^faiden Rock. I also know of scA'eral cases of suicide 
by hanging. Two young girls hung themselves within one 
week, in Little Crow's band, because they did not love the men 
that their parents had selected as hu?«bands for them. Another 
went over the falls because her husband had slighted her and 
married another, and in his presence, with her boy in the bow of 
tlie canoe, and painted and decorated in the finest of the Indian 
style, she paddled over the Falls of St. Anthony. During that 

—29 



482 



MINNt:t50TA HISTORICAL SOCIETY COLLECTIONS. 



year (18l'4j many of llie Indians died of starvaiiou and told. 
ITiey had been out west of J.ake Traverse on llie Cheyenne 
river in search of bulfalo, but were not successful, and the snow 
fell very deep and they could not follow the game, and they 
turned back, hoping to reach their old ^^llages, where they hall 
some corn cached in holes in the ground. They had eaten all 
of their d(.»gs and horses, and had become so weak they could 
with dilliculty walk. Anotlier blinding stoi in of wind came on, 
and they could not see where to go, and tliere was no timber or 
wood with which to make a fire, and none but the strongest 
survived the storm. 

The lands around the Fort, except the military reservation, 
belonged to the Indians, and the country could not be settliMl. 
and here a few of us lived about thirty years, seeing very little 
change in the position of affairs from Galena to this place. 
Galena sprung up as soon as the lead trade was opened up. 

The following spring the Indian agent. Major Taliaferro 
tried to induce the Indians to engage in farming at Lake Cal- 
houn, and wanted me to go out with my old father-in-law and 
another chief, Mock-pu-we-chas-tah. ^ly father-in-law was the 
first one that would venture out. His name was Kee-e-he-ie, 
'Tie that flies.'' The agent sent a soldier and a team of two 
yokes of cattle, and we two plowed about a month, but there 
were but few Indians that would venture out the first year, as 
they were afraid of the Chippewas. The next year quite a num- 
ber came out. and we had more applicants than we could sujv 
ply places for, and some went to work with their hoes and dug 
small patches of ground to commence with. The first year we 
cut a large quantity of tamarack logs, with which to rebuild the 
council house that had been burnt at Fort Snelling. 

THE INDIANS. 

Wabasha * is at the present time (ISOl) the first and oldest 
chief of the Sioux nation, ^fany years ago he w^ent to ^lontreal 
{the French word for the name of the Great Mountain or the 
Keal or Royal "Nfountain which is in the vicinity of the city of 
that name). Some five or six Sioux accompanied Wabasha on 



• Wa-pa-ha-sn. af^rordinjr to thf> Pakota lexicon; but spelled as above ror 
the English pronunciation. Waubashaw. 



KEMINISCEN'CKS OF PHILANDER PJiESCOTT. 



483 



his visit to see tlie English, and from wliat I can h'arn from the 
8ioiix it was about llbi), — some twenty-live years before Lieut. 
Zebulou M. I'ike explored the Mississippi river. The Sioux 
say that up to this period they had no chiefs among them. 
^Vabasha said ihe English received him very coolly at iirst. Ue 
said that he hlled his pipe for all the assemblage lo smoke — a 
pipe prepared for that purpose, with a large Hat siem painted 
blue, an emblem of peace v. ilh them. This he presenied lo the 
governor. The governor said he could not smoke out of a bloody 
pipe, and took the pipe and handed it to another man standing 
by, supposed to be an officer, and told him to strike Wabasha 
three blows with the Hat side of the pipe. Wabasha did not 
know how to interpret this treatment, and stood waiting a 
moment, when the governor said: "I do not suppose you under- 
stand the meaning of this, but I will explain it to you, — you 
have killed three of my people, traders, up in your country, and 
this is to show^ you that I am not pleased at your murdering 
the white people; and those blows are to remain there until you 
do something to wipe them off, and when that is done I will 
smoke with you." Wabasha promised fidelity to the English, 
and said he would try to give up the murderers, and the gov- 
ernor gave him some flags and medals, and asked how many 
lires, or tribes, they had in the whole nation. Wabasha said 
there were seven, and accordingly he received seven large 
medals and flags, viz.: Medawakantons, Wahpetons, Wahpa- 
cootas, Sissetons, Yanktons, Tetons, and the seventh we have 
never been able to ascertain. Some say that the Yanktons 
were called two fires or two tribes, and some say the Sissetons 
had a division or two tribes, but we have no authority for any 
of these surmises, and I think it was some other tribe liring 
near the Sioux, who may have been at peace with the Sioux, 
probably the ]\renomonees or Winnebniioes which Wabasha 
took inlo his count of seven fires, for in all of their councils they 
speak of seven fires or seven tribes, confederated in one nation, 
to occupy and protect from invasion a certain district of coun- 
try' for hunting purposes. Wabasha came back and distrib- 
uted his flags and medals, and from that day their chiefs were 
recognized by all the govei'uments. 

Nothing has ever been found that gives any knowledge of 
the Indian race, from whence they came, or how they became 
possessed of the country they now occcupy. Tradition does not 



484 MINNESOTA HISTOEICAL SOCIETY COLLECTIONS. 



take us far back, and liguics iliey have none, but iheir cusLuuis 
and liabils are more to be relied upon than anyiliing else we 
have. To give some idea of the character they sustain lootlier 
nations is the nearest that we can come to establisliing a rela- 
tionship. Their manners and customs are very similar to those 
of the old world, and by wars they have been forced from one 
country to another, until they have populated the wliole of 
America. Their manners and customs are very similar to 
those of the peoples vre read of in sacred history. Their feasts, 
for instance, of the first fruits of the farm, or of game killed, 
show this. The first must be cooked and many persons in- 
vited to partake of the food, and their gods invoked to continue 
to give them success in war, and the departed spirits are to 
have a share in the ceremony — they must be appealed to, and 
their guidance invoked, because the Indians think their de- 
parted relatives have much to do with the welfare of the living 
on earth. The following is a common form used by the In- 
dians as a petition to the spirits of the departed: 

"My father (or mother, uncle, cousin), you have gone to the 
spirit land — you can look on us but we cannot see you, only in 
our dreams. You have power over the minds of men, and you 
have power over the hunts and the farm, and even our lives de- 
pend much upon the pleasure of thy will to either give bless- 
ings or to withhold them, and I have prepared the feast for you, 
hoping that you will be pleased with it, as our first fruits of the 
field (or the hunt), which we olYer in accordance with the custom 
and usages of old." 

In this feast God is not named, nor even thought of, but the 
Indians are more punctual in their idolatrous worship than the 
Christian people in their worshii), for there is hardly anything 
the Indians do without some kind of worship, either in 
feasts or sacrifice. In traveling, hunting, war, and in what- 
ever they do, when they have time, they commence with an 
offering of some kind. 

The following are the principal gods that the Sioux Indians 
worship : 

The first or most prominent is Tokenshe, the large granite 
boulder, and Wakaukah, the earth; Tokonshe, grandfather; 
Wakankah, old woman, are names of gods they worshi]), and 
who are often appealed to for relief and success. All .kinds of 
animals and fish are supposed to be possessed of power to mi- 



RElSIINISCENCf:S OF PHILANDER PKESCOTT. 



485 



grate from ihcir own bodies to those of huiiian beings, jind eause 
disease, and the conjurors use all the powers of jugglery to 
cast out the intruder. The shape of the sup})osed destroyer of 
the peace and health of the person sulfering is cut out of a 
pi(,'ce of birch bark and put into a litle dish of ]iainted water 
outside the door of his lodge, and the doctoi-, who is inside, 
singing and gesticulating and making hideous noises, linally 
emerges from the lodge where the patient is, and there are two 
or three men standing ready, who, at a certain signal, shoot 
into the dish with powder and wad only, and blow the image, 
or piece of bark, into small pieces, and the dish containing the 
image is frequently shattered. This is supposed either to kill 
the intruder or frighten him from the body of the patient, and 
his recovery is looked for immediately after the operation. 
After the guns are discharg"ed the doctor falls upon what is 
left of the fragments with violent contortions and all imaginable 
noises, and a woman sometimes stands on the doctor's back dur- 
ing this operation, after which she takes him by the hair of the 
head and leads him back, he on all fours, to the place where 
the patient is, where he sings for a brief time and rattles his 
gourd, sucks the parts where, the most pain is. and the cere- 
mony is ended. All kinds of animals are brought into this 
kind of jugglery, and are shot by the doctors as a cure for dis- 
ease. 

Their preparations for war are very carefully planned. The 
war party is gotten up by one who thinks himself capable of 
leading a party successftdly to get scalps and not lose any. If 
a Sioux loses a child, by what means it makes no dilfereuce, 
the father must appease the deijarted spirit, for if any of the 
rest of the family, or a relative, should be taken sick after the 
death of the child, the parents are accused of negligence and de- 
lay in ftdfdling the law of offerings and sacrifices, which is as 
follows: After a death the nearest relatives must either go to 
war or get up a great medicine dance; and as the latter is very 
exp(-nsive, many of the young men prefer going to war, but 
either is considered sufhcient to keep the spirit of the departed 
at rest and satisfied with the living relatives. Every night 
for about a week before starting the head of the war party be- 
gins to sing and to commune with the war gods, and dream, 
and his imagination is so Avorked up by constant jugglery that 
be dreams many things about their war excursions, which he 



480 MINNESOTA HISTORICAL SOCIETY COLLECTIONS. 

relates to the party that are to go with him. The earth, aud 
the rocks or boulders are gods thai are most generally appealed 
to for guidance and success in their excursion lor scalps, and 
these gods are prayed to constaniiy on their route to direct 
them where the enemy are few in number aud most easily ap- 
l)roached. They also ask their gods to turn the minds of their 
adversaries from thoughts of an enemy approaching them. 
After the war party gets into the country where the Chipi>e- 
was hunt, the head man orders all shooting to stop, and if one 
of the party should slioot any game, or fire his gun, the rest of 
the party \\ oiild take him and cut his blanket iu pieces, and de- 
stroy his gun as a punishment for breaking the rules of war 
parties. These marauding parties are too successful, for gen- 
erally they get a scalp and return home satisfied. The head 
man pretends that he can call to himself the sun spirit, who 
will tell him where and how many there are to be killed on 
that trip, and if any are to be injured of his party he will be in- 
formed of it by the devoted spirit that he appeals to. In order 
to bring the spirit to him, he makes a little lodge near their 
camp at night, and digs a shallow hole in the ground, and puts 
in it a small quantity of water, reddened with paint, and sits 
dow^n by it and commences singing, and at the same time 
places in the hole a little of his food, thus inviting the spirit to 
his war feast. Then he sings and rattles his gourd and makes 
all kinds of hideous noises (it is astonishing how they make 
them). After awhile the war man becomes silent, and he is 
then supposed to be in communication with the gods. After a 
w^hile he gives one rap with his gourd, which counts one scalp 
for his war party. As many blows as. he strikes, so many 
scalps they are to get, as his god has brought them to his sight. 
In the spirit he sees his enemies, and gives them a blow with 
his gourd, in the water, where he pretends to see them, and 
says that the blow will give them success, and kill the ene- 
mies' spirits, and they will all disappear. But if he gives a 
blow with a groan, it implies that some one will be wounded or 
killed, which sets the whole party to wailinir for a few mo- 
ments. When all is hushed and they start off, one man goes 
ahead as a spy with the war pipe, and returns to the party 
every half-day, or sooner if he discerns anything:, and gives a 
minute account of all that he has seen or heard while he has 
been absent, and so they prowl about until they find an enemy, 
or their provisions give out, and they return home. 



KEMIXISCEXCES OF PIIILANJ)EK PKKSCOTT. 



487 



The scalp dance is performed by the women mostly dancin«j:, 
and the men sinj:;- and drum for the women and young girls to 
dance. 

Death is looked upon Avith a singular or fanciful idea. The 
Sioux say that death comes in the shape of a curious looking 
being, something in the shape of a human being, with 
a curious head, and very corpulent, and comes from 
the east, although they say they do not see the visitor, death, 
with the naked eye — they see him iu their dreams. 

Snakes are held in reverence by the Indians, and they rarely 
kill any, no matter how venomous. They light a pipe and 
smoke, and tell the snake to go in peace and not bite the In- 
dians, as the Indians would not hurt him, but smoke the pipe 
of peace with him. 

Wabasha, first chief of the Indians, was looked upon as a 
good man, and was chief of a large band until smallpox got 
amongst them and killed nearly one-half. Then the cholera 
wrought great destruction of life in the band, and remittent 
fever killed quite a number one year when we had a very dry 
summer, and the rivers, lakes and pools of water became very 
stagnant. Their remedy was to plunge into the water in the 
height of the fever, which either killed or cured very soon, for a 
good many recovered. I know that of those who plunged in 
the water some died. The band is now much reduced, and is 
about the smallest of all the bands of the Sioux. The Sioux 
are confederated because they can all speak one language, but 
each village lives and acts independent of any other party, and 
every man is his own master, and a king at home in his own 
lodge. He has no taxes to pay, no public buildings or high- 
ways to make, no schools to support, and nothing before him 
but the chase and the protection of his family from enemies. 
One would suppose them to be happy under such conditions, 
and no doubt they are at times, for they are greatly amused 
over the most trilling jokes, and go to great excess in sports. 
In like manner they are terribly depressed when anything of a 
serious nature hap]^ens to them, either in private or community 
affairs, and the greatest lamentation is made. 

It would appear that the Indians do not retain great events 
in their iliemories for a great length of time, therefore they 
have no tradition of their origin, nor how they became pos- 
sessed of this country, nor have they any knowledge of past 



488 MINNESOTA UISTOKICAL SOCIETY COLLECTIONS. 



wars with oiIkt tribes. Tlie oldest battle that they have any 
knowled<^e of took place wheu the Cliippewas came down in 
force and attacked a camp of Sioux where the city of Pre.scott 
now stands. There were some fourteen or ei;^hteen lod^^a-s of 
Sioux camped there, and there were about a thousand Chippe- 
was. They attacked the Sioux in the nij^ht, and soon the men 
were nearly all killed. The women ran to their canoes, that 
were a few steps off, and pushed out into the stream, but in 
their fright for<^ot their paddles. At that point there is a 
large eddy, and the ^^omen in the canoes were carried round 
and round by the current. The Chippewas came to the beach 
and took hold of the canoes and imlled them ashore, and butch- 
ered the women and children at their leisure. A few men had 
lied up along the lake shore, and got into a little cove in the 
rocks. The Chippewas discovered them and attacked them, 
but here the Chippewas lost several of their men, for they could 
not get at the Sioux, only as they faced them right in front of 
the little cove, and the Sioux had the advantage of the shelter 
afforded by the rocks. When the Chippewas made an assault 
they would leave one or two of their number for one Sioux, but 
as they greatly outnumbered the Sioux they at length 
overcame them, and there was only one Sioux left, lie made 
a dash for the water, and dived beneath the surface and stayed 
under as long as he could. At first the Chippewas did not see 
him, supposing he must have come to the shore, and they were 
engaged in taking care of the dead and wounded, but the sec- 
ond time he came to the surface of the water the Chippewas 
discovered him, and the Sioux saw the balls Hy about his head 
like hail, but none touched him. He then took courage and 
dived again, and called upon the otter, and prayed to it as a 
god to give him power to dive and swim like an otter, that he 
might live to tell the tale of the fate of his comrades, as he was 
the only one left: and the prayer was heard, and ho dived to 
the bottom of the lake, and found it very deep and cold. Wheu 
he rose to the top of the water the Chippewas would fire their 
guns and the balls would make the water fiy so as to dazzh^ his 
sight for some time, and he said that in eight times diving he 
got across the lake, but how he escaped is a wonder to relate. 
When he reached the opposite side of the lake, which is about 
one mile wide, he was so much exhausted that he could not get 



KEMINISCENCKS OF PUILANDKK PKESCOTT. 



489 



out of the water, and Jay lur .some time iu liie water with his 
head ou a ruck to rest a little time, after which he crawled out 
and sat upon a rock ou the shore, and <^ave a whoop of joy at 
his marvelous escape Tlie Chiptjewas, when they saw what a 
wonderful feat he had performed, returned the complinient 
with another loud whoop. This battle took place about 150 
years ngo, and is the oldest that they have any tradition of. 
They speak of havin.i^ occupied the country as far west as Leach 
lake, and of going to war over to Lake Superior, Green r>ay, 
and even to 8t. Louis, and a little above the mouth of the Mis- 
souri is a j)lace called "Portage de Sioux,'' where they used to 
take their canoes across by land from one river to another, but 
w^hen or about what time they have no tradition. 

The Catfish bar in Lake St. Croix furnislies another tra- 
ditional story, but we have nothing that will give us any idea 
of the time Avhen it occurred. A war party of Sioux went to 
war upon the St. Croix river, and were gone a long time, but 
had no success, and one of their number became sick when 
they reached the St. Croix on their return journey, and the 
others went on and left the sick man to perish, but there hap- 
pened to be one of the party who was one of the sick man's 
comrades or companions. When he saw that the whole party 
were on their journey he said: ''I am not going to leave my 
friend here to perish alone;" and he remained with the sick 
man while the rest of the party went on. Becoming almost 
starved, they fonnd it necessary to get to the village where 
they conld obtain provisions. The well man walked up and 
down the lake shore hoping to find a dead fish or to shoot a live 
one with an arrow. At last he came across a pike or pickerel, 
and killed it with his bow and arrow and roasted it, and asked 
his comrade to eat a piece of the fish, but the sick man refus(^d, 
saying that when he joined the Big ^ledicine, that kind of fish 
was to bo eaten upon no occasion whatever, for if he did eat 
anything that was forbidden by the Big Medicine, some great 
calamity would befall him. These marks, or reserves, or pro- 
hibitions, of eating certain parts or pieces of fowls or animals 
is a totum or mark of the order of that clan or family, and all 
Indians of that mark work togelher in all their jugglery and 
medicine operations, and I suppose an Lulian would starve to 
death before he would break the rule or law. Ilis comrade 



490 MIXXESOTA niSTOKICAL SOCIETY COLLECTIONS. 



ui'<(od liiiu to eat. but he avouM not. This mjide his fiii'nd feel 
very bad — to sit and see his friend starving- to death. Finally 
the sick man said he would oat to ease the mind of his friend, 
and run the risk of what mii^ht be th(,' result of breaking; over 
their medicine rule, and asked liis comrade if lie couhl carry 
water all ni;rht in a litle dish that held only three ur four 
spoonfuls. ^'Yes, I can do anything for you,'' Jiis comrade said, 
and so the sick man took some of the fish and ate (this was in 
the evening), and after a short time began to get thirsty, and 
asked his comrade to l)ring water, so the young man took the 
little dish and brought some water, and in a little while he 
wanted more, and the young man went again, and the sick man 
kei>t asking for water, and his friend kept going with his little 
dish, and worked nearly all night in that way, but finally be- 
came exhausted and laid down and went to sleep. The sick 
man kept calling for water for some time, but no one came, 
and with much exertion he crawled down to the lake and com- 
menced drinking, and after a while he found that he was turn- 
ing into a fish, and the more he drank the faster he became- a 
fish, and at last he became wholly a fish, and rolled into the 
lake. When the other Indian awoke he found that his com- 
rade had become a large fish, and was Mng across the lake on 
what is now called Catfish bar, and he felt very much jrHeved 
to think that his sick friend should become a fish because 
of his failure to watch him and carry water for him. He fol- 
lowed in the tracks of the war party, crying, and finally reached 
his village and told his comrade's wdfe what had happened, 
and she took a canoe and some friends and went to the place 
and found the great fish as stated, and they made great lamen- 
tation, and scattered red feathers upon the water, and prayed 
the gods of the water to let the big fish sink so that the canoes 
could pass; and so the big fish sank, but left a portion of the 
bar there. The bar extends almost across the lake yet, and 
this is all that was done in favor of the Indians, merely to let 
them have room enough to pass in the lake. This was all done 
for revenge upon the man for breaking the laws and rules of 
the Medicine party. 

We can obtain nothing from the Indians concerning ancient 
history, and nothing reliable about the creation or the flood. 
Tlie Indians are entirely ignorant, and all their ideas are of a 



KEMIXISCENCES OF nilLANDEK PKESCOTT. 



491 



fanciful cluii-acier. They believe in a jjreat spirit of some kiud, 
but have uo idea of his power, nor his will and disposition 
toward the hiiiiian race, and all their prayers, which are many, 
are made to the land, stone animals, and fowls of the air and 
water, and many creeping things; and like all native tribes 
each thinks itself wiser and better than the others, and in their 
great councils T have heard them acknowledge before a white 
and Indian assembly that they thought the whites excelled 
them in a few tilings, but the moment they assembled by them- 
selves they \\ould say the whites were the greatest fools they 
ever saw% and particularly Avhen standing straight up in battle 
to be shot at. 

PHILANDER PRESCOTT. 

Minnehaha, Minnesota, Feb. 18, 1861. 



Note.— Mr. Prescott was killed Aug. 18, 1862, in Sioux outbreak. 



492 MI^'NESOTA HISTOEICAL SOCIETY COLLECTIONS. 



RECOLLECTIONS OF JAMES M. GOODHUE. 
By Col. John H. Stevens, of Minneapolis. 

(Read before rhe Minnesota Editorial Association, at its An- 
nual Meeting, February, 1804.) 

In October, 1841, I was a resident of White Oak Springs, 
then a little mining town in the extreme southern portion of 
Iowa count}', Wisconsin Territory. At that period I was en- 
gaged in mining. Wishing to prospect for a ''stake," before 
winter set in, my partner and myself determined to visit the 
mines in the neighborhood of Platteville, in Grant county, some 
twenty miles distant from our humble cabin. With picks, 
shovels and spades on our backs, the "miner's kit," we started 
out bright and early on an October morning for the mines in 
that vicinity. Just as the sun was sinking behind those pic- 
turesque mounds near Platteville, we reached a hotel in the vil 
lage, Icaown as the Peavins House. With tired limbs and blis- 
tered feet, the fiiiits of our long journey over the prairies, we 
determined u])on an early hod : but, returning fi'om the supper 
table to the office, we found a large gathering of miners excited 
over the result of a lawsuit of little more than a trivial char- 
acter, which had been decided a few minutes before in a justice 
court. As miners we became interested in the controversy, 
which banished all our tired condition. 

Then and there I met. for the first time. James ^1. Goodhue, 
a lawyer in the ten'itory, and one of the attorneys in the 
miner's suit so recently disposed of in the court. Then and 
there, tod, I became a friend in my humble way of Col. Goodhue, 
who was destined eight years subsequently to becc^ne the pio- 
neer editor of Minnesota. Fi*om that period until his death 
we were friends. The editors in ^linnesota at this time know 
but little of the life of their great predecessor, hence I will 
now briefly address you in regard to that wonderful man,more 
particularly in regard to his early life. 



KECOLLECTIOXrf OF JAMES M. GOODHUE. 



493 



James Mudison Goudhuo was bom iu IJcbron, X. II., a small 
town situated in a niche of the White Mountain ran^^e. llis 
father was conspicuous as the principal merchant of this and 
several adjacent towns, during the period of his residence 
there, which was from about the year 1700 to 182S. His chil- 
dren surviving to maturity were eight in number. James M. 
Goodhue was the sixth child, born ^larch lil, 1810. Hebron 
w^as settled, probably, about the year 172.5, and by innnigrants 
mostly from the lower settlements in New Hampshire and from 
Massachusetts. They were strict religionists, generally of the 
sect of the Puritans. The most feasible approach for the im- 
migrants to Hebron was by the southeast, over the left shoul- 
der of a dome-shaped mountain, called Sugar Loaf. This moun- 
tain arose at a point some three miles short of the plain which 
was the central point of the settlement. On this shoulder the 
migratory procession probably halted, having their aTt<aition 
suddenly arrested by the beauty and grandeur of the scene that 
lay beneath their view. On their left, in near proximity, arose 
a huge palisade of rock some thousand feet high and thousands 
in length, and on the right a lake. A prospector upon the 
dome of Sugar Loaf would have stood some two thousand feet 
above the lake, Avliich is seven miles in length by two miles in 
width. Probably the lake took its name Newfound at this 
time. At the base of the mountain on the lake side is a pali- 
sade that descends to the surface, and thence graduates to a 
depth 350 feet below'. Looking northeast, the vision extends 
over our town, and over a mountain range that walls it in ; and 
thence to the Franconia stacks of mountains some fifteen miles 
further on. Further on in the same direction, the vision would 
rest upon the white dome of Mount Washington, some thirty 
miles away, and upon numberless domes of mountains that 
huddle around. 

Had our prospector looked westward, he would have viewed 
Mount Cardigan, some eight miles away. A little way south- 
east of Cardigan is the birthplace of our Pillsbury family. 
One of the early settlers in Hebron was Rev. David Page, a 
Congregationalist minister from Hanover, which is in the same 
county with Hebron, and the seat of Dartmouth college. Dur- 
ing his early ministrations in Hebron, a meeting house of gen- 
erous size was built from the tall tufted pines that graced its 



494 



MINNESOTA HISTORICAL SOCIETY COLLECTION'S. 



plain. It inoiiutod a j^iand stec.'ple based upon the ground, and 
sustained a belfry. It was about the year 1790 when S(e])hen 
Goodhue, the father of James, came to Hebron to reside. Ilavini; 
previously made the acquaintance of the dauf,diter of Rev. David 
Page, a Congregational minister, he married her and took her to 
his inheritance of wild land in Sanbornton, some twenty miles 
away. The father's name is preserved in the annals of Sanborn- 
ton as that of a person of handsome address, who began his pub- 
lic life as a schoolmaster. Col. Goodliue's grandfather on the 
paternal side was descended from one of three brothers who 
came over from England, known as Puritans, and of the po- 
litical party of Oliver Cromwell, no doubt. The grandmother 
on the paternal side was Miss Barker of Stratchano, X. II. 
The grandfather on the maternal side, Rev. Da^id Page, served 
as chaplain in the Revolutionary war, leaving his wife with 
several small children to manage atfairs at home. AThile he 
was in the war, his wife yoked the oxen aiid held the plow 
while one of the sons held the goad. Meanwhile, the youngest 
child, who may have been the mother of our subject, sat upon 
the ground at the end of the furrow. As a result, a harvest 
was in waiting for the return of the husband in the fall. 

That this grandmother was a notable woman, there is no 
doubt; and there are indications that Col. Goodhue inherited 
her peculiar qualities, physically and mentally. 

It is said that an ancestor of this grandfather is portrayed 
in an historical painting in Connecticut as holding with his 
left hand a bear at arm's lengtli, while, with his right hand at 
liberty, he stoops to the ground to seize a club. It may as well 
be noted at this point in our narrative that Col. Goodhue was 
known to be as remarkable for his physical strength as for the 
force of his intellect. While at school no man could, from a 
dead stand, leap so high over a pole as he. He never was 
worsted in an encounter with fists. One morning while at 
school, Seeing from his chamber that his roommate, on the 
street, was b("ing worsted in a setto with one of his irate coun- 
trymen, he rushed below, and, quick as thought, planted in the 
breast of the countryman both feet and lists in one i>oint of 
time, left the man upon his back, and without a word spoken, 
retired to his room. 

He, who in his native place was called Madison, except in 
time of war, when he was called ^NFad, was at an early age 



RECOLLECTIONS OF JAMES M. GOODHUE. 



495 



placed in the academy at Andover, Mass., the phice of the theo- 
logical school. 

He finished his preparatory studies lor college at Meriden, 
N. 11., afterward entering Amherst college. A graphic history 
of his life in college was no doubt impressed upon the mind ot 
every student there. ^Miile it was full of adventure, he was 
singularly happy in having almost every member of every class 
his admirer for his talents and also his friend. It was said 
that his retainers in any unauthorized enterprise were as likely 
to be from the older classes as from his own. While he was 
freshman he o(ten set the seniors to do his pla^-ful work. Mr. 
Henry Ward Beecher was in the class next below him. In 
after years Mr. Beecher showed his admiration of Col. Goodhue 
by making diligent inquiries for him whenever he met mutual 
friends. 

On commencement day, at Woburn, many clerical and other 
dignitaries were in attendance. 

He took a part in the exercises by representing John Kan- 
dolph, in a speech composed by himself, in which the eccentric 
orator of Roanoke w^as represented in his long surtout with rid- 
ing whip and spurs. In varied mood he discoursed upon mat- 
ters of national concern; then turning back pathetically upon 
his dear old Virginia, dropping tears of fondness, when he 
would suddenly turn in modulated pathos to the faithfulness of 
his servant, Juba. The rhetorical effect of this monologue was 
electric. Dignified listeners became lost in a sense of reality, 
and women wiped their eyes, not in s^nnpathy with the actor, 
but in sj^iipathy with the real Kandolph. 

On the same occasion, he composed and spoke a speech for 
Old Hickory, with' staff in hand and gray hair erect. This was 
soon after the time of the memorable commotion of the Kitchen 
Cabinet, in the White House, when President Jackson defended 
the honor of Mrs. Eaton by significant words. This represen- 
tation of Old Hickory was heard of by a Lowell paper fifteen 
miles away, and was branded as an outrage committed upon 
the Democratic idol. 

1 mention these exercises as showing his theatrical talent. 
It is evident, that as an ac^tor he would have achieved a world- 
wide reputation. This composition representing Randolph he 
spoke upon some exhibition day after his return to college. 



496 MINNESOTA HISTORICAL SOCIETY COLLECTIONS. 



He produced slilliK'i>s, mirili and lears iu quick succession, as 
if with a maf^acian's wand. 

In due time, he achieved, at Anilierst, his dii)h)nia. 

There were unsettled opinions respecting the place which he 
would hold in after life. But liis professor of rhetoric and ora- 
tory. Dr. Samuel AA'orcester, said: "That younj^ man will be 
heard from one of these days.'' This [uofessor had observed in 
his literary compositions the nobility of his conceptions and the 
elegance of his diction. During his last sickness, the late Mr. 
J. W. Bass, of St. Paul, while in r>oston, had occasion to call at 
the ollice of the Evening Journal. The editor of the Journal 
overheard the name St. Baul uKuitionod. Whereupon he in- 
stantly started toward ^Ir. Bass and earnestly inquired after 
the condition of ^Ir. Goodhue, for he had read of his sickness. 
He then went on to remark that Mr. Goodhue's descriptive ar- 
ticles were equal to the best writings of Cooper. 

He had noble imitative faculties. For instance, he would, 
behind the closed door of a college lecture room, deliver for the 
hearing of curious students casually iu the hallway, a homily in 
the familiar words and voice of President HumyOirey, a man of 
marked individuality. The listeners unhesitatingly took the 
discourse to be by the president. 

After graduation he went to Elmira, X. Y., from which place, 
the year before, had arrived his earlier college mate, who. in 
our day is a distinguished citizen of that place. Judge Thurston. 

He wrote back to a brother that he had boated down the 
stream in a skilf from Glean and had one cent left iu his pocket 
and so he was glad to say he was not without money. At El- 
mira he taught the winter's school and at the same time began 
the study of law. Next season he resumed the study in New 
York city, where by clerical work he paid his way, also writ- 
ing for the press some ephemeral compositions. He was admit- 
ted to the bar in New York. Next he passed some three years 
in IMainheld, near Joliet. There, to supply his want of means, 
he cultivated the black soil. Agricultural products were high 
in those days. He earned a two-horse team with which to 
plow; carried his potatoes one fall to the workmen upon the 
Illinois canal ; and next he appears in Platteville, ^Vis. There 
he staid for a season, probably with a view to the practice of 
the law. 



BECOLLECTIONS OF JAMES M. (JOODIIUE. 



497 



In that place was a yoimg lady from Ceiiiial New York, who 
in this \Yisconsin town was supplement Id a visit to a relative 
by teaching the Aillage school. She was prostrated there by 
the smallpox, while suitable attendants stood aloof iu fear of 
taking the disease. Thereupon Col. Goodhue, who had prob- 
ably caught a glimpse of the maiden, volunteered his serWces 
at her bedside. His proffer was accepted. The result was 
marriage. Her name was Henrietta Kneeland. No better op- 
portunity for a tribute to her virtues is offered in this narrative 
than at this point. Miss Kneeland was stately in person, high- 
ly intellectual, and possessed the kindest of hearts. The twain 
settled in Lancaster, which is near the place of their marriage, 
where he became attorney. But his literary taste led him to 
the purchase of the Lancaster Herald. This he conducted in 
a gi'aphic manner, surprising to his readers, and awaking among 
them an unprecedented interest in newspaper literature. His 
occupation with the Herald held him until the o])ening, by 
proclamation, of Minnesota Territory. He had built an ambi- 
tious two-story house in Lancaster and was living in it, when, 
without much preliminary, he packed his press and type, and 
took with him his family, and, with the wand of a talisman, 
set up at once the Minnesota Pioneer. 

A clerical gentleman visited the Pioneer about the time of 
the first issues and found the editor bareheaded, sitting upon 
the floor, and cutting from other papers clippings, while a 
prairie hog was seen through the cracks rooting beneath the 
floor. 

The first number of the Pioneer will, to the curious, probably 
show at once the peculiar qualities of the editor. It may be ob- 
served that the most of the issues of that paper are on file in 
the capitol — some of the latest numbers are lost. 

I am aware that these incidents, illustrating the character- 
istics of our subject, are trivial in themselves, not even equiva- 
lent to the toe of Hercules, that survived his statue. That toe 
was a measure of the statue: for the toe was material; while 
the incidents in our subject's life can be taken with propriety 
only as indices directing the curious to the qualities that may 
be found in the files of the Pioneer. 

1 have in my breast one serious subject of regret, which is, 
that in my companionship with him, I had not noted in a book 
—30 



498 MINNESOTA HISTORICAL SOCIETY COLLECTIONS. 

the witticisms that came out spoiitaueuiisly ou the way. ilis 
brother and associate's (Isaac jS'. GoodliiK*) approval was always 
evident, but the colonel took to himself no pride in his o\s n ut- 
terances, but ascribed their plea si n^^ pro jx'r lies to the ^ood na- 
ture of his laughinj? brother. It may in tliis conm^ction be 
noted that while boys in Hebron, in their t routing pastime, the 
younger brother was always desirous thai James should ilirow 
the line while the younger carried the bait and lish. lie never 
retailed other men's wit. Whatever he said was his own ; and 
its aptness was to his readers the occasion of surprise. 

His method of composition for the Tioneer was peculiar. 
It was his habit on the day of issuing his slu^et to take liis pa- 
pers upon his arm, and distribute iheni among his subscribers 
aU oyer town. While so engaged he noted in his mind every 
change in the features of the town; and all the entertaining 
events of the week that he had learned by the way. Thus he 
formed in his mind a picture of the place and its various inter- 
ests; so that when the time came of preparation for the press, 
he had but to state what was already in his mind. 

It Avas his wont on Sunday, after breakfast, to repair to his 
desk, and, sitting with his hat on, compose his editorials. 

On one occasion his brother, unobserved, stood in the door- 
way of the sanctum and saw him, whose back was toward the 
door, raising and lowering his shoulders rapidly in mirth. The 
action foretold the coming-out in the next ])aper of some special 
wit or humor that Avas sure to convulse his readers. The town 
still remembers the advertisement in the Pioneer of the race 
which was to come off at a certain hour between a little wheez- 
ing steamboat that was ah^ays struggling against the current 
and a saw mill standing below town. The anticipation may 
have directed some eyes to the place of the trial. 

One intensely cold moining the mail brought from below the 
weekly, news. The Pioneer gave as an interesting item of 
news the invention of a mercurial thermometer that in in- 
tensely cold weather served the purpose of a spirit thermome- 
ter. Tlie invention was in the appliance of a small oil lamp 
beneath the mercury; so that it did not freeze. On the next 
day drowsy readers awoke to a vsense of the joke. 

On another cold morning a cluster of dropjiers-in were stand- 
ing about the stove in the Pioneer oflice; among them being a 



RECOLLECTIONS OF JAME« M. GOODHUE. 



499 



demure little old man who was content to serve his day and 
generation by selling- ginger po]). While the man was warm- 
ing his hands at the stove, James, in solemn mood, said to him, 
*'Mr. Sj)icket, haven't yon be(.'n taking u litile somclliing this 
morning — just a drop too nnich?" ;Mr. Spicket said he had 
not, when the crowd directed their gaze toward the man and 
saw the evidence against him in a jewel of a huge tear-drop 
pendulous at the end of his nose. This is a trivial matter, but 
it is as passable as many of the small anecdotes coming from 
the Sangamon. 

His main object in his editorials was the advertising of the 
territory, that people who were looking westward might be in- 
duced to locate here. 

While intensely loyal to t^^t. Paul, during all of his editorial 
career in Minnesota he never lost an opportunity to speak a 
good word for the whole territory. St. Anthony was a lively 
rival of St. Paul during those early days. Col. Groodhue would 
occasionally indulge in a joke or two at the former's expense, 
but it was in such a good-natured manner no one could take of- 
fense. 

An apology is needed for the Pioneer's change from a ViHiig 
to a Democratic paper; the editor was by birth of the Demo- 
cratic party. Before coming West he had become a Whig and 
a protectionist. The brother came to St. Paul as still a Demo- 
crat, and exercised his personal persuasiveness to bring James 
back to the true faith. It so happened at the same time that 
the Southern st^ntimeut dominated the United States senate, 
and that sentiment was needed to sustain our scheme for the 
admission of the territory as a state, and also to promote an 
Indian treaty, in order to clear the way. So he, in his overpow- 
ering zeal for the prosperity of the territory, in a single issue 
of his pai>er declared for the Democratic faith. He carried 
through the change with a single issue of his paper. If the act 
was a sin, was it not a sin to be winked at? 

During the residence in Lancaster there were born to them 
three children. Their, names were James Kneeland and ^^ay, 
twins, and Kdward. ^lay and Edward are deceased. .May mar- 
ried Charles A. Moore. James K. resides in St. Paul. In Sr. 
Paul was born Eve, who became the wife of .Morris Lamprey, now 
deceased. She is now married to Jasper B. Tarbox. James 



50C 



iMINNESOTA HISTORICAL SOCIETY COLLECTIONS. 



said that in searching the catalogue of names for this daughter 
he looked from the beginning to the end. Finding none suit- 
able, he resorted to the name of the first woman, Eve. Either 
the name adorns the lady, or the lady adorns the name, so that 
no one ys ho knows her would have the name and the woman 
separated. 

The most evident characteristic of the pioneer editor of Min- 
nesota was his love of nature. He was born within the order 
of nature's priesthood; A^ ithin her temples he was a Druid in 
the intensity of his devotion. His ideal of scenery which he 
brought away from his native hills was never again realized. 

While sojourning upon the prairies of Elinois he felt the snb- 
limity of the silent scene bounded b}' the far distant horizon 
and fanciftilly vested it again with the heads of buffalo and the 
skirmishing Indian, and yet he once said: "While I am a citi- 
zen of the West, and love the West, I would give one-half of all 
the prairie I have seen for one good mountain." 

But he went up to live in Wisconsin. There he found a di- 
versified surface: lakes, rapid streams, forests, mounds, and 
more than all else, the atmosphere of the White mountains. 
He was now essentially in a mood for Western life. 

When ^linnesota opened for settlement, he knew its land- 
scape before he went upon it; as if beneath the flash of a me- 
teor, he saw the Mississippi and its tributaries, also lakes, for- 
ests, groves of pine and the shore of our inland sea; especially 
was pictured before his iiuagination the historic falls of St. 
Anthony. 

When Col. Goodhue had actually arrived in St. Paul and 
climbed its bluff, and surveyed the river and the heights that 
wall its channel, he was overcome, as was the queen of Sheba, 
w^ho had seen the surroundings about King Solomon — "so there 
was no more spirit in her.'- 

In part he comprehended the resources of the territory for 
becoming this magnificent state. He felt himself for the first 
time in his life to have reached the goal of his ambition for a 
livelihood and a home. He was here as if by birthright ; and as 
editor assumed at once a supervising care of the then public 
interests; also upon the coming of any immigrant as his acces- 
sories; he was constantly upon the alert to find whatever might 
contribute to the general prosperity of Minnesota. 



KECOLLEC5TIONS OF JAMES M. GOODHUE. 



501 



Soon after my acquaintance with him iu ilie lead mines, he 
wrote a novel, portraying the life of a miner, under the title of 
"Striking a Lead," which was published by IT. II. Houghton, 
of the Galena Gazette. It was one of the most popular stories 
of the day, clearly indicating, if he had devoted his time exclu- 
sively to literary pursuits, that he would have excelled as an 
author. 

Mr. Goodhue, at the time of his last sickness, spoke of his 
purpose to take up this work and carry it on to completion. 

His memory should always be cherished as the pioneer edi- 
tor of Minnesota His name is perpetuated in that given to 
one of the best counties in the State of Minnesota. 



502 



MINNESOTA HISTORICAL SOCIETY COLLECTIONS. 



An Interesting Historical Document. 

The Minnesota Historieal Society is in(lel)te(l to William H. 
Grant, of St. Paul, and to Col. Harry C. Kcssler, of Butte, ^lon- 
tana, for the oi)portuuity of reproducing the following historical 
document, comnmnicating a transcript of the pension list of the 
United States, showing the number of revolutionary pensioners, 
on the first day of June, 1813. It is believed that this copy of 
the document, from which the republication is made, is the only 
copy in existence. It has been preserved in the family of Cap- 
tain John Kessler, one of the revolutionarj^ pensioners, named 
in the Pennsylvania list, and has been kindly loaned to this 
society by the grandson. Col. Harry C. Kessler, above named. 

The authority for the original publication appears in part 1, 
of the Annals of the Twelfth Congress, pnge 1042. 

On February 12, 1812, the House of Eepresentatives of the 
United States adopted the following resolution : 

On motion of Mr. Burwell, [of Va.] 

^'Eesolved, That the Secretary of War be directed to lay 
before this House a list of persons on the pension list, the State 
or Territory in which they live, and the amount annually 
allowed each person by law." 

In the' burning of the capitol and other public buildings in 
1814, nearly all the government records were destroyed, and it is 
supposed that the original and all the copies of this document, 
were among those lost at that time. 



FROM 

THE SECRETARY OF WAR, 

COMMUNICATING 

A TKAKSCEIPT OF THE PEK- 
SIOK TLIST 

OF 

SHEWING THE 

NUMBER OF PENSIONERS IN THE SEVERAL 
; DISTRICTS, 

AESO, 

THE :?1M0U.YT .-2LL0WED TO E^CH PEXSIO.YER 

JUNE I, 1813. 

Referred to ike Co7n7nittee of Clainis. 



WASHINGTON: 
A. AND G. WAY, PRINTERS. 



1813. 



504 MINNESOTA HISTOlilCAL S©CII:TY COIXECTIONS. 



WASHINGTON CITY, 
May 3LsY, 1813. 

SIR, 

I HAVE the honor to traDsmit you herewith, to be laid 
before the House, a report rehitive to the peusiou list of the 
United States. 

I have the honor to be, 
Sir, 

Very respectfully, 

Your obedient servant, 

JOHN AKMSTKONG. 

To the Hon. the stealer 
of the House of Bepresentatives 
of the United States. 



WAR DEPARTMENT, 

May 2Sth, 1813. 

IN obedience to a resolution of the House of Representatives 
of the United States, bearing date the r2th of February, 1812, 
the Secretary of War has the honor to present a transcript of the 
pension list of the said states, (contained on four sheets in folio, 
paged from one to sixteen) exhibiting the number of each pen- 
sioner as he stands on the roll of the respective districts or 
agencies, his rank or quality, and the amount of the annual 
stipend at present allowed each person by law. 

All which is respectfully submitted. 

JOHN AJiMSTRONG. 



AN INTERESTING HISTORICAL DOCUMENT. 



505 



SCHEDULE of the Names, Rank and Annual Stipends of 
the Invalids, Pensioners of the United States. 



NEW HAMPSHIRE. 



No. 
on the 

Ron. 


NAMES. 

1 


Rank 
or 

Quality. 


Annual 
Sti j)eud. 


1 


Peter Akernian, 


private, 




o 


Andrew Aikin, 


sergt. major, 




Q 

o 


LiHieD Auiri!5Li, 


sergeant, 


ftA 


A 


Ciilelj Austin, 


private, 


on 


c 
O 


Daniel JJuzzle, 


GO. 


ftrt 


z» 
O 


Archelaus Butchelor, 


sergeant, 


oU 


7 


Ebeiu zer Beau, 


private, 

00. 


on 


o 
o 


Francis Blood, 


t)U 


n 

y 


James CoV)V)y, 


(10. 


^oeau ) 


J u 


James Campbell, 


An 

ao. 




1 -J 


Nathaniel Church, 


An 
CIO. 


ftO 




Ebenczer Carlton, 


An 

ao. 


ftn 


1 

J O 


XJCVI V^Il U IJDULK, 


fifer, 




1 A 


INIorrel Coburn, 


private. 


1 e: 
J O 


lO 


UyJ. 


ou 


1 ft 

Jo 


James Crummitt, 


An 

ao. 


Oil 


1 < 


Jabez Church, 


An 

uO. 


^n 




Benjamin Cotton, 


An 
uO. 


"in 


1 Q 


David Duncan, 
Henry Danforth, 


ao. 


dCi 


on 


An 

GO. 


Qn 

0\J 


oi 


James Dean, 


An 
GO. 


1 «; 

iO 




Lemuel Dean, 


dn 
UO. 


DO 


/iO 


Francis Davidson, 


An 

GO. 


A^ 
HO 


Od 
^'l 


Edward Evans, 


An 
GO. 


DO 


<60 


Tliomas Eastman, 


An 
GO. 




Oft 


Ebenezrr Fletcher, 


fi far 

uier, 


JO 


0*7 
Z< 


Stephen Fuller, 


private. 


on 


OQ 

<:0 


James Gould, 


lieutenant, 


1 f\n 


OQ 


Abner (ia^e, 


private, 


ftn 

OU 


in 


Aloses S. Oeorjjje, 


GO. 


oO 


Q1 

Ol 


tJO^jlJllil Vlllllltlll, 


dn 


40 




Windsor Cxleasou, 


OO. 


1 


oo 


Joseph Greely, 


GO. 


1 


Q/1 

ol 


Joseph Grt^en, 


An 
GO. 


'?n 
• >u 


OO 


Jou;is Green, 


An 
GO. 


ftn 

DO 


36 


AVilliatn Hastinjis, 


do. 


60 


37 


Thomas Haynes, 


do. 


60 


38 


Joshua Haynes, 


do. 


43 


. 39 


Natluui Ho'lt. 


do. 


15 


40 


Charles Huntoon, junior, 


do. 


20 


41 


Zadock Hard, 


do. 


•20 


42 


Joseph Hilton. 


lieutenant, 


80 ^ 


43 


Jonathan H(dton, 


do. 


120 


44 


James Hawk ley, 


private. 


60 


45 


Ebenezer Jennings, 


sergeant. 


15 


46 


Peter Johnson, 


private. 


15 


47 


Benjamin Jenkins, 


sergeant, 


30 


48 


Abraham Kimball, 


private, 


30 


49 


Benjamin Knight, 


sergeant, 


20 


50 


John Knight, 


private. 


30 



the 
►11. 

51 
52 
53 
54 
55 
56 
57 
58 
59 
60 
61 
62 
63 
64 
65 
66 
67 
68 
69 
70 
71 
72 
73 
74 
75 
76 
77 
78 
79 
80 
81 
82 
83 
84 
85 
86 
87 
88 
89 
90 
91' 
92 
93 
94 
95 
96 
97 
98 
99 



MINNESOTA HISTORICAL ic^Or iETY COLLECTIONS. 



SCHEDULE OF PENSIOXEKS, continued. 

NEW HAMl'STIIRE. 



NAMES. 



Samuel Lacount, 
Samuel Lathrop, 
John La pish, 
Nathaniel Leavitt, 
John Lincoln, 
Joshua Lovejoy, 
KdndallM'Allastar, 
Andrew ^M'Gaffy, 
John M'Coy, 
Noah Marsh, 
Joseph Morrell, 
Jonathan Margery, 
James Moore, 
Samuel Morrell, 
Joseph Moss, 
Seymoure Marsh, 
Elijah Morse, 
Jotham Nute, 
John Orr, 
Phineas Parkhurst, 
Joel Porter, 
Samuel Potter, 
Asa Putney, 
Jeremiah Pritchard, 
Joseph Patterson, 
Jonathan Perkins, 
John Reed, 
Stephen Richardson, 
Daniel Russell, 
Charles Rice, 
Noah Robinson, 
Joseph Richardson, 
Joseph Shick, 
John Samuel Sherburne, 
Nathan Sanborn, 
Thomas Simpson, 
Aaron Smith, 
Noah Sinclair, 
John Simpson, 
Reuben Spencer, 
John Smith, 
Samuel Stocker, 
Amos SpalYord, 
Hezekiah Sawtell, 
Samuel Sterns, 
Jeremiah Towle, 
Moses Trussell, 
Ebenezer Tinkham, 
William Ta^gart, 
Nathan Taylor, 
William Smart, 
Jonathan Wilkins, 
William Wallace, 




private, 

do. 

do. 
corporal, 
private, 
sergeant, 
private, 
lieutenant, 
private, 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 
sergeant, 
lieutenant, 
fifer, 
private, 
sergeant, 

do, 
lieutenant, 
private, 
ensign, 
private, 

do. 

do. 

do. 
lieutenant, 
private, 

do. 
major, 
captain, 
lieutenant, 
ensign, 
j private, 
! do. 
I do. 
j sergeant, 
private, 

do. 

do. 

do. 
corporal, 
private, 

do. 
ensign, 
lieutenant, 
private, 
marine, 
private. 



AN intp:resting historical documk.nt. 



507 



SCHEDULE OF rEXSIONERS, continued. 

NEW irAMPSlIIKE. 





No. 

on the 
lie 11. 


. . 

NAMES. 




Rank 
or 
Oaality. 


Annual 

Stipend. 


104 


William Wood, 


private, 


40 


105 


Weymouth Wallace, 


de. 


30 


106 


Josiah Walton, 


do. 


20 


107 


Jacob Wiluian, junior, 


do. 


15 


108 


Francis Whitcomb, 


do. 


20 


1 iICi 
IVV 


ivooerc li. \> iiKiiiS), 


aO. 


fin 


110 


Seth Wyman, 


do. 


48 


111 


Edward Waldo, 


lieutenant, 


106 66i 


112 


Jonathan Willard, 


ensign. 


60 


113 


Samuel Wells, 


sergeant, 


45 


114 


James Trowbridge. 


do. 


39 96 


115 


Samuel Allen, 


private, 


24 


116 


Nehemiali Leavitt, 


corporal. 


30 


117 


William Powers, 


private, 


30 


118 


Lemuel Tralton, transferred from 






Massachusetts, 


do. 


60 




Total of annual stipeuds, 




5.730 30i 



MASSACHUSETTS. 



1 


George Airs, 


matross. 


50 


2 


Caleb Atherton, 


private, 


40 


3 


John Adams, 


do. 


40 


4 


Aaron Abbott, 


do. 


26 66 


5 


Malachi Allen, 


do. 


20 


6 


Luke Aid rich, 


do. 


30 


7 


Gnstavus Aldrich, 


sergeant, 


60 


8 


Spafford Ames, 


private, 
do. 


60 


9 


Robert Ames, 


60 


10 


Isaac Abbot, 


lieutenant. 


96 


11 


Ebeuezer Bancroft, 


captain. 


72 


12 


John Bryant, 


lieutenant. 


200 


13 


Elias Barron, 


dragoon, 


60 


14 


Joseph BroAVU, 


sergeant, 


60 


15 


Jonathan Ball, 


do. 


48 


16 


Perez Bradford, 


do. 


24 


17 


Nathaniel Bo wen. 


do. 


60 


18 


John Barberie, 


corporal, 


60 


19 


John Bean, 


do. 


40 


20 


Benjamin Berry, 


private, 


60 


21 


Abner Brings, 


do. 


60 


22 


Phineas Butler, 


do. 


60 


23 


Peter Barrows, 


do. 


28 • 


24 


Jonas Blodget, 


do. 


40 


25 


Nathaniel Baker, 


do. 


40 


26 


Squire Bisliop, junior, 


do. 


40 


27 


Josiah Ball, 


do. 


26 66 


28 


George Bacon, 


do. 


48 


29 


Ephraira Bailey, 


do. 


60 


30 


Robert Bancroft, 


do. 


10 


31 


James Bacheldore, 


do. 


15 



the 
ill. 

32 

3{ 

34 

35 

36 

37 

38 

39 

40 

41 

42 

43 

44 

45 

46 

47 

48 

49 

50 

51 

62 

63 

64 

55 

56 

57 

58 

59 

60 

6] 

62 

63 

64 

65 

66 

67 

68 

P9 

70 

71 

72. 

73 

74 

75 

76 

77 

78 

79 

80 

81 

82 

83 

84 



MINNESOTA UISTOKICAL SpCIETY COLLECTIONS. 



CIIEDULE OF PENSIONERS, continued. 
MASSACHUSETTS. 



NAMES. 

- - - . - 


Rank 
or 
Qnalitj. 


Annual 
Stipend. 


ilUJJU JZ>Ci 1 > 9 




$ 60 


"F* 1 i 1 •> li T^r*i i 1*. o r(1 
Xiti IJtXLX X>1 ill il J 


60 






60 




iicUlClJclULj 


(dead) 






40 




do. 


26 66 


nJ XJ iJ t lO V-llllVi.^« 


private 


60 


Tn}> r^f^ r \vp1 1 
Kf yj *J v_/t*i 


do.' 


60 


Tininfhv Pln^p 


do. 


40 


W 1 1 1 1 1 1ll Onn n tif 

ii iixikiiu. \» V/ 1-i la 1. ^ 


do! 


40 


Moses Cass, 


do! 


40 


T.pvi Clnfl linn rii p 


do! 


60 


KJ\f L\J LLiyj H \^\J1^^ 


do! 


26 66 


No[\h Clongh, 


do! 


15 




do. 


14 


RicliArd Crouch, 


do. 


60 


JiHues Cfliiip^)e], 


do. 


15 


Cnlph CInrlwirlv' 


do. 


15 


X^ii 1 li d 1 '11 o \^ IJ 11 1 U cli-l , 


do! 


20 




do! 


30 




sergeant, 


40 


TVinrm'? Crnwpll 

George Ciininiell, 


private, 


60 


do. 


30 


.Tohn Cnrpton 


do. 


30 


TTpTiTV C*! rvpT 


do. 


60 


Williim Clark 


do. 


30 


Seth Delaua, 


sergeant, 


32 


Thomas Doty, 


private. 


60 


K/ V JLi 44 l U il 11 > 1 O J 


do.' 


30 


%J \J Li 11 CI lJ V cl. U t 


do. 


26 66 




marine, 

VknTii V>n rfl 1 PT 

UKJ ULl l^liJVilVX, 


33 32 


T?r>]>PTt FIvpll ' 


60 


Wniiim K'lrlp 


marine 
private. 


60 


John Kliierlv, 


60 


T-Tpnrv F'-irwplI 


captain, 


80 


Tntn^ T^i rTi'sTvnrtli • 


do.' 


120 




do. 


60 


Willi-ini F'<'^>stpr 


sergeant, 


48 


S'imnpl Frrwlp 
Tprlprli'iH Knllpr 


private. 


40 


do.' 


40 
* 


«Jficol) r^rost. 


do. 


30 


Levi Farnsworth, 


do. 


30 


Moses Fitch. 


do. 


1 ^2 


Frederick FoIIet, 


do. 


30 


Joseph Frost, 


do. 


7 50 


Benjamin P'aruham, 


captain. 


1 80 


Thomas Foot, 


private. 


1 40 


John Gould, 


do. 


60 


Jonathan Gleason, 


do. 


60 


Silas Gill. 


do. 


i 40 


Samuel Green, 


do. 


20 


Isaac Greer, 


do. 


' 10 


Henry Gates, 


1 do. 


60 



AX INTERESTING HISTORICAL DOCUMENT. 



509 



SCHEDULE OF PENSIONEliS, continued. 

MASSACHUSETTS. 



No. 
on the 


NAMES. 


1 

Rank 
or 


Annual 
Stipend. 


Roll. 




Quality. 


OO 


Urinh (jrOOfi win, 


private, 
do. 


^ ID 


UR 
C50 


Deboruh Gc\uiiett, 




O f 




fin 




fiQ 


Edward Gniut, 


do. 


44 4U 


QQ 

o» 


Elijah IIutl^on, 


sergeant, 


4o 


Qn 
yu 


Soloiiiou riuyward, 


uo. 


40 


Q1 


Daniol llorii, 


do. 


OA 


QO 


Trwlir> Vli/.l-c 

joiin riicKb, 


private, 


fin 


QQ 

yo 


Daniel tlickey, 


ao. 


fin 
ou 




Peter Hopkins, 


ao. 


4U 


yo 


Joseph Handy, 


ao. 




yo 


Josiah Howard, 


An. 

ao. 


.^D DO 


y / 


Daniel Hemnienway, 


An 

ao. 


on 


Oft 

yo 


W illiam Hnbbard, 


marine, 
private, 


fin 


yy 


Joseph Hale, 


^ aeaa ) 


Ififi 


Gamaliel Handy, 


ao. 


4U 


lOl 




do. 


60 


1 no 


Tocco 1-T/-wH 

J esse rioii, 


corporal, 


7 t;n 
/ ou 


1 HQ 


Ambrose Homan, 


private, 

An. 

ao. 


Qn 


1 n4 

J U4 


William Jacobs, 


fin 
ou 


In;; 


Joseph Johnson, 


An. 

a.0. 


fin 
ou 


306 


%j UolcllI %j UiJCo, 


dn 


48 




Closes Ivnowland, 


An. 

OO. 


fin 
ou 


low 


Abner K.eut, 


An 
QO. 


fin 

DU 




John Knowles, 


An 

ao. 


on 

wU 


110 


Ephraim Lane, 


Lt. colonel, 


on 

.6U 


111 

■111 


Thomas Linnen, 
W^illiam Lucas, 


corporal, 


on 

.iU 


119 


private, 


fin 
ou 


113 


r^rAoliv T .n no 


ivn nn OF 


30 


114 




private, 


in 

uU 


11 «^ 
no 


Keuben ^litchell, 


An 

QO. 


fin 
ou 


lift 


■Moil XT' A rf Tinr 

i.>eii ivi Arinur, 


An 
GO. 


fin 

DU 


• 117 


jisddc ill xviiiiicy, 

iJClJJ<lLUlU JiUOUj, 


An 

ao. 


4U 


118 


fin 
QO. 


40 


119 


"Ron 11 111 in "Nliciiipt 

J>C UJ (t IIJ i LI ^littoLlCiV, 


fin 


60 


120 




fin 




121 


T^oninmin "Xlori'ill 

JJC IJJ clllJ 1 11 ^llCillll, 


dn 


40 


199 


r luey i>i caci, 


An 

QO. 


J o 


19*^ 


xl/ilblia iMUnbCll, 


An 

QO. 


in 

oU 


1 9d 


John Maynard, 


lieutenant. 


TO 


125 


Samuel Meai'i?, junior, 


private. 


30 


126 


Christopher, Newbitt, 


do.' 


60 


127 


John Nickless, 


do. 


10 


328 


Daniel Nuttin<:, 


do. 


24 


329 


Timothy Northam, 


do. 


20 


330 


Jojieph Noyes, 


lieutenant, 


30 


331 


John Paul. 


sergeant 


48 


332 


Joseph Patterson, 


do. 


30 


333 


George Parker, 


private, 


48 


334 


Solomon Parsons, 


do. 


48 


335 


John Priest. 


do. 


40 


336 


Nathan Putnam, 


do. 


5 


137 


Ebenezer Perkins, 


marine, 


60 



510 MIENKSOTA HISTORICAL SOCIDTY COLT.FXTIOXS. 



SCHEDULE OF PENSIONEKS, contiiiued. 
MASSACHUSETTS. 



No. 
n the 
Roll. 


NAMES. 


Rank 
or 

Quality. 


Annual 
Stipend. 


138 


William Parker, 


private. 


$ 30 


139 


Joseph Peubody, 


do. 


20 


140 


Amos Peirsou, 


sergeant, 


12 


141 


Job Preist, 


ensign, 


40 


142 


Thunias Pratt, 


private, 


40 


143 


Jonathan Patch, 


do. 


60 


144 


Shephard Packard, 


do. 


36 


145 


Joseph Roberts, 


carpenter. 


60 


146 


Elisha Rice, 


corporal, 


60 


147 


Abiier Rose, 


matross. 


33 32 


148 


Moses Ramsdale, 


private, 


60 


149 


Benjamiu Rider, 


do. 


60 


150 


Elii)has Reed, 


do. 


60 


151 


lienjamiu A. Richardson, 


do. 


40 


152 


William Rideout, 


do. 


60 


153 


Jeremiah L'ohbins, 


do. 


40 


154 


Joseph Runiiill, 


do. 


40 


155 


Ebeuezer Rowe, 


seaman. 


60 


156 


John Slewman, 


captain, 


300 


157 


Eli Stearns, 
Ezekiel Spalding, 


sergeant. 


60 


158 


do. 


24 


159 


Joseph Saunders, 


corporal. 


60 


160 


Jonathan Stevens, 


do. 


30 


161 


John Stoak, 


private. 


60 


162 


Anthony Shoppe, 


do. 


60 


163 


Jonas Shattuck, 


do. 


60 


164 


Zenas Sturdivant, 


do. 


60 


165 


Moses Smith, 


do. 


60 


166 


Enoch Stocker, 
Anthony Starbard, 


do. 


40 


167 


do. 


40 


168 


William Syn)ms, 


do. 


37 50 


169 


Daniel Stearns, 


do. 


36 


170 


Abraham Sawyer, 


do. 


30 


171 


William Spooner, 


bombardier. 


(dead) 


172 


Amasa Scott, 


private. 


15 


173 


Robert Smith, 


do. 


40 


174 


Sylvanus Snow, 


do. 


20 


175 


Abner Snow, 


do. 


45 


176 


Moses Sanderson, 


do. 


40 


177. 


Pele<i Smith. 


do. 


40 


178 


Jonathan Taft, 


do. 


60 


179 


Lemuel Trafton, 


do. 


transfer'd 


180 


Israel Thomas, 


do. 


60 


181 


• Noah Taylor, 


do. 


60 , 


182 


Ephraim Taylor, 


do. 


60 


183 


Charles Thrasher, 


do. 


40 


184 


John Tolman, 


do. 


transfer'd 


185 


Pelefc Tall man, 


yeoman. 


51 


186 


Philip Taber, 


private. 


60 


187 


Eliphalet Taylor, 


do. 


20 


188 


Josiah Temple, 


do. 


40 


189 1 


George Ulmer, 


lieutenant, 


160 


190 1 


John Union, 


private, 


30 



AN INTERESTING niSTORl'CAL DOCUMENT. 511 



SCHEDULE OF PENSIONERS, continued. 
MASSACHUSETTS. 



No. 




Rank 


Annual 


on the 


NAMES. 


or 


Roll. 




Quality. 


Stipend. 




191 


Aiuariah Vose, 


sergeant. 


$ 60 


192 


David Vickery, 


private, 


20 


193 


ISIoses White. 


captaiu. 


240 


194 


James Warner, 


lieutenant, 


120 


195 


Joseph Whiltemore, 


do. 


120 


198 


David Wood, 


sergeant, 


48 


197 


Elijali Williams, 


corporal, 


60 


198 


WiUiara Watts, 


private, 


60 


199 


Isaac Whitcomb, 


do. 


(dead) 


*200 


Josliua Winn, 


do. 


48 


201 


Joseph Ware, 


do. 


60 


202 


Asa Ware, 


do. 


60 


203 


Josiah Wr;«:ht, 


do. 


48 


201 


Elisha Ward. 


do. 


40 


205 


Samuel Woodbury, 


marine, 


40 


20fi 


AVarehani Warner, 


private, 


36 


207 


Moses Wing. 


drummer, 


60 


20B 


Samuel Warner, 


private. 


30 


209 


Samuel Willington, 


do. 


30 


210 


Nab urn Wright, 


sergeant, 


7 50 


211 


William Warren, 


lieutenant, 


90 


212 


James Wesson. 


colonel, 


300 


213 


William Cushing, 


lieutenant. 


120 


214 


W^m. Leaver, alias Lavar, 


private, 
corporal, 


30 


215 


Oliver Russell, 


30 


2in 


James Walsh, 


matross, 
private, 


60 


217 


Jas. Gallute, tiansf. fr. N. Y., 


39 








10,602 33 



VERMONT. 



1 


Jonas Adams, 
W^illiam Beden, 


private, 


60 


2 


corporal, 


36 


3 


Samuel Bradish, 


private, 


60 


4 


Daniel Brown, 


do. 


60 


5 


Elijah Barues, 


do. 


15 


6 


, Elijah Bennett, 


do. 


30 


7 


Thomas Brush, 


do. 


15 


8 


David Brydia, 


do. 


30 


9 


Joseph Bird, 


do. 


48 


Oil 


Daniel Cushman, 


corporal. 


(transf.) 


Gershom Clark, 


private. 


60 


12 


James Campbell, 


do. 


30 


13 


Edward Clark, 


sergeant, 


15 


14 


Eli.sba Capron, 


private. 


30 


15 


Oliver I'arling, 


do. 


60 


16 


Samuel Eyers, 


do. 


60 


17 


Richard Fairbrother, 


do. 


36 


18 


Thomas Greeu, 


do. 


40 


19 


Asa Gould, 


do. 


^ 60 



512 MINNESOTA HISTORICAL J^OCIKTY COLLECTIONS. 

SCHEDULE OF PENSIONERS, continued. 



VERMONT. 



No. 
on the 


NAMES. 


Rank 
or 


Annual 


Koll. 




Quality. 


Stipend. 


20 


Benjamiu Gould, 


private, 
do. 


$ 30 


21 


Aniasa Grover, 


24 


22 


P'zra Gates, 


do. 


40 


23 


Crideon Grigi^s, 


do. 


30 


24 


William Hazletiue, 


do. 


60 


25 


Jediah Hyde, 
Jonathan Hajnes, 


captain, 


180 


26 


private, 


40 


27 


Zimri Hill, 


do. 


30 


28 


Lewis Hard, 


sergeant. 


60 


29 


Joseph Huntoou, 
Jared Hinckley, junior, 


lieutenant, 


160 


30 


private, 


30 


31 


Nathan Jaques, 


do. 


20 


32 


Elijah Knight, 


do. 


60 


33 


Jonathan Lake, 


corporal. 


30 


34 


Jonathan Lyon, 


private, 


60 


35 


Elleazer Martin, 


do. 


40 


36 


Ebeuezer M'llvaiue, 


do. 


60 


37 


William Martin, 


do. 


40 


38 


Kichard Millen, 


do. 


60 


39 


John Nixon, 


colonel. 


150 


40 


Nehemiah Peirce, 


private. 


60 


41 


Elisha Reynolds, 


do. 


30 


42 


Prince Kobiuson, 


do. 


60 


43 


Uriah Stone, 


steward. 


60 


44 


Daniel Stanton, junior. 


private. 


45 


45 


Ephraim Smith, 


do. 


60 


46 


Philo Stoddard, 


do. 


40 


47 


Thomas Torrance, 


do. 


30 


48 


Benjamin Tower, 


do. 


40 


49 


Joseph Tyler, 
Annanias Tubbs, 


do. 


60 


50 


do. 


30 


51 


Abel Woods, 


do. 


60 


52 


Aaron Wilder, 


do. 


60 


53 


Jonathan Woolley, 


do. 


60 


54 


Ziba Woodworth, 


do. 


60 


55 


William W^aterman, 


do. 


20 


56 


John Wilson, 


sergeant, 


20 


57 


Isaac Webster, 


do. 


30 


58 


Daniel Evans, 
Nathan Ford, 


private. 


30 


59 


do. 


30 


60 


Jonas ITobart, 


do. 


24 


61 


Lemuel Rich, (from Con.) 


do. 


60 


62 


John Tolman, (from Mass.) 


do. 


20 




Total of annual stipends, 




2.9rvB 



AN INTERESTING HISTORICAL DOCUMENT. 



513 



SCHEDULE OF PENSIOXEKS, continued. 

RHODE ISLAND. 



No. 
on the 
Roll. 




NAMES. 


Rank 
or 
Quality. 


1 

Annual 
Stipend. 


1 


Thomas Arnold, 


captain. 


$ 240 


2 


Abijah Adams, 


private. 


54 


3 


John Armsbiiry, 


do. 


30 


4 


AVilliam Barton, 


sergeant, 


42 


5 


Edward Bennett, 


private, 


GO 


6 


Comfort Bishop, 


do. 


40 


7 


Jacob Bii^<<s, 


do. 


48 


8 


George Bradford, 


do. 


60 


9 


Ezra Chase, 


do. 


60 


10 


James Chappel, 


do. 


42 


11 


Levi Ca?sar, 


do. 


36 


12 


Rowland Chadsey, 


do. 


20 


13 


Jonathan Davenport, 


do. 


2 50 


14 


Comfort Eddy, 


do. 


60 


15 


John Elliot, 


do. 


30 


16 


Edward Gavett, 


do. 


60 


17 


Job Greenman, 


do. 


48 


18 


Prince Green, 


do. 


48 


19 


Richard Hopkins, 


do. 


30 


20 


Josiah Jones, 


do. 


60 


21 


vVillinm l>nnt, 


do. 


30 


22 


John Mowiy, 


do. 


27 


23 


Edward Peirce, 


sergeant. 


60 


24 


Bristol Rhodes, 


private, 


60 


25 


Joseph A. Richards, 


corporal. 


42 


26 


John Slocum, 


private. 


60 


27 


Richard Sephton, 


do. 


60 


28 


Britain Saltonstall, 


do. 


42 


29 


Charles Scott, 


do. 


60 


30 


Benoni Simmons, 


gunner, 


60 


31 


Noel Tabor. 


corporal, 


27 


32 


Benjamin Tompkins, 


marine, 


60 


33 


George Townseud, 


private, 


45 


34 


Prince Vaughan, 


do. 


44 


. 35 


Edward Vose, 


sergeant. 


10 


36 


Gny Watson, 


private, 


30 




Total of annual stipends, 




1,787 50 



CONNECTICUT. 



1 


Thomas Avery, 


lieutenant. 


200 


2 


Park Avery, Junior, 


do. 


60 


3 


Ebenezer Avery, 


corporal. 


30 


4 


David Atkins, 


private. 


60 


5 


Gad Asher, 


do. 


60 


6 


Abner Audruss, 


do. 


60 


7 


Daniel Avery, 


do. 


36 


8 


Amos Avery, 2d, 


do. 


30 


9 


Theodore Andruss, 


do. 


60 


10 


Samuel Andruss, 


corporal, 


45 



514 MINNE.SOTA HISTORICAL ^SOC IETY COLLECTIONS. 



SCHEDULE OF PENSIONEKS, continued. 

CONNECTICUT. 



No. 
on the 
Roll. 


NAMES. 


Rank 
or 
Quality. 


Annual 
Stipend. 


1 1 

J. X 


R m 1 1 Vi A T1 \ < 
ut-i 1 L i-i 


IVULCj 


$ 60 


19 


NT'itlioTiipl Austin 

4,1 L 1.1 lI 1-1 1 CI -I ti. >~ L 1 IJ J 


do. 


4'> 




r Vi n i P 1 T^o n t n n 


Cctp la lU , 


IftO 


Id 




eusign, 


190 




D'lnipl Rn^lnif^ll 


p ri V 3. t e 


60 


1 R 




do. 


60 


17 


O vl 1 I U LI IJ viXS I I ^ 


do. 


(dead) 


1ft 
J o 


W'l 1 1 i ni rrn 


do. 


60 


J y 




dn 


fiO 


90 




do. 


45 


91 

J. 


Rf pnli PT1 f*.'^ rn n rr^ 

k > L Cr ^ Ll C Ll 1. > «.! L 11 LI 1X1 j 

S i Tipl P»n rrl \vi ii 

^ fcl IJJ LA Cl A-' Llll_l '^'-'l 


do. 


60 


22 


do. 


60 


23 


BGDj^iniio Bennett, 


do. 


24 


94 


Tnliii T-lp-iTfl 5 1 p V inninr 
o yj n x->\r*. » iM~iv>^ juuivi.* 


do. 


60 


25 


Jedcditih lirowD 


do. 


20 


Qfi 

<&o 


J_rf L IC U X-* LI 1 i » * 


do. 


15 




T^S'^i '^Ti PvP-i n mnni 

X Oil 1 (.1 11 X>t H 1X1 


do. 


15 


9ft 


^'•"»lfPT Rnrdiolr 

I* «.\lLd iJU.l<.liV IS. ^ 


do. 


30 


29 


Fdwarfl P. L<^ett 

Xj vl»>*Alvl l»t. t-^ r \r L u ^ 


do. 


30 




TT ililcllXi X*>.kllC T ^ 


do. 


30 


O 1 


T?nV»prt Riilnv 


do. 


15 


O-i 


T^Tir^Q T^IIqItpvIpv 


do. 


(dead) 




X-'<l>i^l X> 1 «A L K Lli <a JlI , 


do. 


40 


34 


l/^LiClLlJclLI 1-/\_F>1 CriCf 




60 


Xn 


AnPT Plfirl^pv 




30 


oo 




do. 


15 


37 


Tqt 1 1 Vi Pi n pll 

Xoolclll X^ Ul t 1 1 , 




45 




iJ\J^CL'Il XJUlLV-'ll, 


do. 


60 


XQ 




do. 


40 


40 


If lillCllXl . X^Ckyv^v^^ 


do. 


60 


41 


T* ViPTIPTPT* I'/^P 




240 


42 


T?i pViQ rfl r^Vr^niT^prlnin 
JvlL ticii vi v-UaiJiucx itiiiJ , 


private. 


44 


to 


Tnhn Plarlr 

uUllU. Vi*.ilK, 


do.' 


60 


44 




do. 


60 


45 


Tipnnni f^nnripll 

X> 1 J Vy i_l I \^ V./ li 11 ^ 1 1, 


do. 


60 


46 


JirRli Carter 


do. 


60 


47 


X ISIH^LIJ * V' V t I f 


do. 


60 


4ft 


p n 1 -T m in 1 n P 
C U 1 c» IXl ILl v^A^^^ac^ 


do. 


48 


49 


Atuariali Chi^pp>€ll^ 


do! 


24 


'fin 




do. 


30 


61 


Jonah Cook, 


do". 


60 


52 


Henrv Cone, 


do. 


60 


63 


Simon Crcsliv, 


do. 


40 


64 


Nathaniel Church, 


do. 


30 


55 


Ebenezer Duran, 


do. 


60 


66 


George Dixon. 


do. 


60 


57 


Lemuel Denning, junior, 


do. 


20 


68 


Ix)throp Davis. 


sergeant, 


60 


59 


Israel Dibble, 


private, 


36 


60 


Gershoiu Dormon, 


do. 


60 


61 


Joseph Dunbar, 


corporal, 


45 


62 


John Dalwll, 


private, 


7 50 


63 


Stephen E% erts, 


do, 


40 



AN INTERESTING HISTORICAL DOCUMKNT. 515 



SCHEDULE OF PENSIONERS, continuod. 
CONNECrnCUT. 



^0. 

the 
oil. 


NAMES. 


Rank j 

or 1 
Oimlitv ! 


Annual 
Stipend 


64 


William Edmonds, 


private, 


$ 40 


65 


P^liphalet Easton, 


do. 


60 


66 


Gideon f^dwards, 


do. 


60 


67 


Stephen Fellows, 


sergeant, 


60 


68 


Thomas Faruham, 


do. 


36 


69 


John Fonutaiue, 


private, 


60 


70 


Aaron Farmar, 


do. 


60 


71 


Isaac Frink, 


do. 


60 


72 


KansCord A. Ferris, 


do. 


60 


73 


Zacchens Fargo, 


do. 


30 


74 


Henry Filmore, 


do. 


30 


75 


Samuel French, 


do. 


60 


76 


Andrew Griswold, 


lieutenant. 


IGO 


77 


Sherman Gardner, 


private, 


60 


78 


Henry Gilner, 


do. 


60 


79 


Andrew Gallup, 


do. 


40 


80 


Robert Gallup, 


do. 


15 


81 


Richard P. Hallow, 


do. 


60 


82 


Jazaniah How, 


do. 


60 


83 


Stephen Hull, 


corporal, 


30 


84 


Joseph Harrup, 


private. 


60 


85 


Stephen Hempstead, 


do. 


45 


86 


Nero Uawley, 


do. 


40 


87 


Isee Hayt, 


do. 


30 


88 


John Herron, 


do. 


30 


89 


Eleazer Hudson, 


do. 


45 


90 


Ashbel Hosmer, 


corporal. 


(dead) 


91 


Nathan Hawley, 


do. 


48 


92 


D.iniel Hewitt, 


sergeant. 


20 


93 


Isaac Higgins, 


private. 


(dead) 


94 


Thurston Hilliard, 


do. 


20 


95 


John Horsford, 


do.. 


(dead) 


96 


Benjamin Howd, 


do. 


45 


97 


Elijah Hoyt, 


do. 


30 


98 


David Hubbell, 


do. 


60 


99 


Nathaniel Hewitt, 


do. 


45 


100 


Joel Hinman, 


do. 


60 


101 


David Hurd, 


do. 


60 


102 


Charles Jones, 


do. 


60 


103 


Justus Johnson, 


do. 


40 


104 


Johuel Judd, 


do. 


48 


105 


Lent Ives, 


do. 


30 


106 


Caleb Jewett, 


do. 


20 


107 


William Johnson, 


do. 


30 


108 


Jared Knapp, 


sergeant, 


60 


109 


Lemuel King, 


private, 


60 


110 


Elisha Lee, 


captain. 


240 


111 


Peter I^ewis, 
Piiineas Lake. 


private, 
do. 


60 


112 


60 


113 


William Leach, 


do. 


60 


114 


Christopher Latham, junior, 


do. 


45 


115 


John Ledyard, 


do. 


45 


116 


Nabotb Lewis, 


do. 


40 



V 



516 MINNESOTA HISTORICAL SOCIETY COLLtCTIONS. 



SCHEDULE OF PE^^SIONEKS, coDtiiiued. 

CONNECl'ICUT. 



No. 
n the 
Roll. 


1 

NAMES. 

• 


• Rank 
or 

Quality. 


Annual 
Stipend. 


117 


Nathaniel Lewis, 


pr 1 V die, 


p lO 


1 1 Q 

lies 


Sanioel Looniis, 


cor]x>ral, 


HO 


1 1 Q 

11a 


Lee Lay, 


\^<\ I) L^t 1 ii. 


fin 


1 on 


Elijah Lincoln, 


corporal , 


ou 




iiiiiGiny .MIX, 


lieutenant. 


fif\ 




Audrew Mead, 


ensign, 


ou 




JJan Mansiieia, 
Satnnt'l Mitcliell, 


private, 
do. 


^ueau j 


194 


fin 

DU 




Samuel Mills, junior. 


ao. 


oU 




John ^lor^an, 3d, 


ao. 


4u 


lOT 
144 


Jacob Meacb. 


ao. 


on 


1 

14o 


James Mor<;an, junior, 


ao. 


oU 


IZif 


Joseph M ox ley, 
Jeremiah Markbam, 


do. 


oU 


loU 


sergeant. 


DU 




Aiiyn iMai sn, 


corporal, 


OU 




Stephen Miner, 


l^I . U U CX , 


OU 


loo 


Elnathan Norton, 


private, 


(Af^fiA \ 

^ueao ) 


1 '-{/l 
lo4 


Mark Noble, 


An 

ao. 


OU 


loo 


±/avi(i urcuit, 


An 


fin 
uu 


lt5o 


Joseph Otis, 


An 
uu. 


ou 


lot 


Thomas Picket, 


An 
ao. 


ou 


1 

1 03 


Alexander Phelps, 


IIU. 


uu 


1 oy 


David Pool, 


An 


ou 


11U 


Thomas Parmelie, 




7 nn 
< OU 


141 
1^ I 


Chandler Paidift, 


pi 1 V it Lc, 

An 


^O cn 
o~' OU 


1 40 
14^ 


Daniel Pr3ston, 


~u 


14o 


Obadiah Perkins, 


llCUtClJttIi I, 




1 4 1 
144 


r^nos xetoii, 


T1T*1 \TQ f O 

pil VdLc, 




14^ . 
l^O 


John Rood, 


f\n 


48 


1 A(i 

14o 


Jeremiah Ryan, 


An 
uu. 


fin 

ou 


14 / 


Lemuel Rich, 


r\n 
uu. 


^l/l ciuaiQ 1 


14a 
14n 


Moses Raymond, 


dn 
uu. 


fiO 
ou 


1 4Q 

i^y 


Oliver Roj^ers, 


do. 


24 


1 Kr\ 

lOU 


David Ranney, 


do! 


60 


lol 


Solomon Reynolds, 


An 
ill). 


fin 
ou 


1 

lO^ 


Samuel Rossettcr, 


do. 


60 


1 i 

lO.) 


Elijah lioyce. 


do. 


45 


1 


Josiah Smith, 


do. 


60 


1 

loo 


Edward Stanton, 


do. 


60 


lob 


Josiah Strong;, 


An 
uu. 


4n 

1U 


J o # 


Tnhn '"^l-irr 

UUULX OLtlll. 


do. 


40 


158 


Selah Schoirield, 


do. 


30 


159 


William Seymour, 


do. 


240 


160 


B enjamin Seelv, 


do. 


15 


161 


William Starr,' 


qr, master, 


45 


162 


Elihu Sabin, 


private, 
do. 


40 


163 


Samuel Sawyer, 


30 


164 


Thomas Shepherd, 


do. 


15 


]65 


Amos Skeel, 


do. 


60 


166 


Heber Saiith, 


sergeant, 


60 

15 


167 


Aaron Smith. 


private. 


168 


Edmund Smith, 


do. 


30 


16i) 


Samuel Still man, 


do. 


30 



AN INTERESTING HISTOKICAE DOCUMENT. 



517 



SCHEDULE OF PENS10^'EIiS, contiiuicl. 
CONNECTICUT. 



No. 
oil the 
Roll. 


NAMES. 


Rank 
or 
Quality. 


Annual 
Stipend. 


170 


Aaron Ste])heDS, 


captain. 


? 120 


171 


Peter Smith, 


private. 


48 


172 


Elijah Sheldon, 


do. 


(de d 


173 


John Smith, 


do. 


48 


174 


Moses Tracy, 


sergeant, 


60 


175 


William Tarball, 


corporal. 


36 


176 


Solomon Townsend, 


private. 


60 


177 


Aarou Tattle, i 


do. 


40 


178 


Jabez Tomlinsnn, 


do. 


15 


179 


Enoch Turner, junior, 


do. 


60 


180 


Levi Tuttle, 


do. 


15 


181 


Samuel Woodcock, 


sergeant, 


60 


182 


Constant Vrebb, 


do. 


36 


183 


William Wilson, 


private. 


60 


184 


John Waklee, 


do. 


60 


185 


Joseph Waterman, 


do. 


40 


186 


Benjamin V/eed, junior. 


do. 


30 


187 


Joseph Woodmausee, 


do. 


60 


188 


Thomas Williams, 


do. 


20 


189 


Jacob Williams, 


do. 


15 




Richard Watrous, 


flO. 


45 


191 


Jonathan Whaley, 


do. 


15 


192 


Ezra Wilcox, 


do. 


15 


193 


Azel Wood worth, 


do. 


60 


194 


Seth Weed, 


lieutenant, 


72 


195 


James Waylaud, 


private. 


40 


196. 


William Woodruff, 


corporal, 


60 


197 


Hezekiah Bailey, 


ensign, 


60 


198 


Isaac Durand, 


private. 


30 


199 


Joel Fox, 


do. 


30 


200 


Luke Guyant, 


do. 


60 


201 


Aaron Peck, 


do. 


40 




Total of annual stipends, 




9.778 50 









NEW YORK. 



1 


James Adams, 


sergeant. 


$ 60 


2 


Matthew Adams, 


private. 


60 


3 


Gannett Abcel, 


do. 


48 


4 


£]dward Armstrong, 


do. 


36 


5 


Jacob Acker, 


do. 


36 


6 


Richard Allison, 


do. 


24 


7 


Waterman Baldwin, 


do. 


60 


8 


Joshua iKirnum, 


captain, 


240 


9 


Nathan P.radley, 


private. 


60 


10 


Henry Brewster, 


lieutenant, 


120 


11 


David iirown, 


do. 


96 


12 


Nicholas Barrett alias Barth, 


do. 


135 


13 


Thomas Buycc, 


ensign, 


96 


14 


James Burgess, 


qr. mr. sergt. 


24 



518 MINNESOTA HISTOlilCAL SOCIETY COLLECTIONS. 

SCHEDULE OF PENSIONERS, continued. 



NEW YORK. 



No. 
on the 




NAMES. 


Rank 
or 


Annual 


Roll. 




Quality. 


Stipetd. 


15 


Silas Barber, 


sergeant, 


$ 60 


16 


JoDas Belkuap, 
Joshua Bishop, 


do. 


20 


17 


matross, 
private. 


36 


18 


John Bennett, 


60 


19 


John Butler, 


do. 


60 


20 


Timothy Bowen, 


do. 


60 


21 


Nicholas Bovie, 


do. 


60 


22 


Edward Benton, | 


do. 


60 


23 


Henry Bouce, 


do. 


60 


24 


John Baxter, 


do. 


48 


25 


John Brooks, 


do. 


36 


26 


Obadiah Banks, 


do. 


36 


27 


George H. Bell, 


' do. 


30 


28 


Michael Brooks, 


^do. 


24 


29 


Nicholas Browu, 
Baltus Bradenburgh, 


do. 


24 


30 


do. 


24 


31 


Edward Bates, 


do. 


60 


32 


Thomas Baldwin, 


sergeant, 


30 


33 


Thomas Brooks, 


private. 


45 


34 


Jedediab Brown, 


do. 


30 


35 


William Burritt, 


do. 


60 


36 


Job Bar tram. 


captain, 


160 


37 


Caleb Brewster, 


lieutenant, 


200 


38 


Obadiah Brown, 


private. 


15 


39 


Benjamin Benjamin, 


do. 


60 


40 


James Beers. 


do. 


48 


41 


Benjamin Bartlett, 


sergeant, 


60 


42 


Daniel Baldwin, 


captain. 


* 240 


43 


Aaron Biiuk, 


private, 


60 


44 


Peter Coveuhoven, 


sergeant, 


60 


45 


David Cook, 


captain, 


200 


46 


Thomas Carpenter, 


lieutenant, 


96 


47 


Joseph Cutler, 


ensign, 


60 


48 


Philo Carfield, 


sergeant. 


24 


49 


Thomas Crawford, 


bombardier. 


60 


50 


Edward Callaghau, 


private. 


60 


51 


John Cooper, 


do. 


60 


52 


Gershom Curvin, 


do. 


60 


63 


Adam CoppernoU, 


do. 


60 


54 


David Cady, 


do. 


60 


' 55 


Daniel Culver, 


do. 


60 


56 


Amos Camp, 


do. 


40 


57 


P^rancis C«»urtney, 


do. 


4u 


58 


Gilbert Carrigan, 


do. 


36 


59 


John Crum, 
Phineas Coxe, 


do. 


36 


60 


do. 


30 


61 


William Champernois, 


do. 


45 


62 


Russell Chappell, 


do. 


30 


63 


Henry Ouiller, 


do. 


60 


64 


Aaron Crane, 


sergeant. 


30 


65 


Albert Chapman, 


captain. 


120 


6S 


John Cramer, 


private, 


30 


67 


Peter Conyne, 


adjutant, 


1 96 



AN IxVTEKESTlNG HISTORICAL DOCUMENT. 



519 



SCHEDULE OF PENSIONERS, continued. 

NEW YORK. 



No. 
on the 


NAMES. 


Rank 
or 


A n n Ti 5) 1 

?\ 1 1 n o n n 


Roll. 




Quality. 


. 

68 


MackaiKiD Doolittle, 


private, 


. 

C> OA 


69 


Hans Mark Denioth, 


captain, 


240 


70 


Francis Delong, 


lieutenant, 


oO 


71 


Andrew Duulop, 


sergeant. 


60 


72 


Thomas Dnucau, 


do. 


60 


73 


>V illiani Drew, 


corporal, 


oc 
oo 


74 


Nathan Davis, 


private, 


60 


75 


James Dinihip, 


do. 


oO 


7d 


Mathias Decamp, 


do. 


oU 


77 


George Duukill, 


do. 


^?A 

dO 


'i8 


bamuol JJecker, 


do. 


f!A 

oO 


79 


Marshal Dixon, 


do. 




OA 

80 


Thomas Done, 


matross. 


bO 


81 


James Dole, 


lieutenant, 


100 




Peter Demnrest, 


private, 


ou 


oo 
CO 


John De v oe, 


do. 


t)U 


8t 


Benjamin Denslow, 


do. 


ftn 
W 


85 


Gerard US Dintcman, 


do. 




QH 


Jared Duncan, 
Isaac LI wood. 


ClO, 


on 


Q7 


corporal , 


4ft 


OJ 

0*5 


jNatnau IJlis, 


private, 


an 


CO 

fiV 


William f^ll)erton. 


do. 


du 


nil 
9U 


Jeremiah Everitt, 


do. 


oU 


91 


Peter En<rf r, 


do. 


oU 


92 


Frederick Fisher, 


colonel, 




9o 


John Frey. 


brigade major. 


.31) U 


Q4 

y4 


Christian W. Fox, 


captain, 






William Faulkner, 


do. 




9o 


Hackaliah Foster, 


sergeant, 


QO 


97 


Konert l eeks, 


corporal, 


AQ 


no 

9o 


Squire Faucher, 


private. 


DO 


no 

yy 


William Faj^an, 


do. 


tifi 
OU 


JU'» 


Duncan Frazier, 


do. 


oU 


1 ni 
Jul 


John Foster, 


do. 


DU 


JUi 


Andrew Frank, 


do. 


fifi 
DU 


JU.S 


John Jost Foltz, 


do. 


DU 


lU-l 


Jonathan Finch, 


do. 


to 


JUO 


George Fin(;iiley, 


do. 


AQ 
4o 


1 


Sylvan us P^orris. 


do. 


<50 




Elisha Frizzle, 


do. 


60 




Williom 1' ancher, 


do. 




109 




An 

ao. 


24 


110 


Elisha Faruham, 


do. 


30 


111 


Elisha Forbes, 


do. 


36 


112 


John Fleming, 


do. 


60 


113 


William Foster, 


do. 


60 


114 


Richard Garrison, 


qr. master. 


78 


115 


Jacob Gardiner, 


captain. 


120 


116 


Nathaniel Gove, 


lieutenant, 


160 


117 


Samuel Gibbs, 


do. 


160 


118 


Zachariah Green, 


corporal, 


36 


119 


John Garnett, 


private, 


60 


120 


Samuel Gai diner. 


do. 


60 



520 



MINNETOTA II ISTOKK'AL ^SOCI ETY COLLECTIONS. 



SCHEDULE OF PENSlOXKiiS, continued. 
NEW YORK. 



No. 

on the 


NAMES. 


Rank 

or 


A 1 

Annual 


Koll. 




Quality. 


Stipend. 


121 


Josiali Green, 


private, 


$ 48 


122 


James Gallute, 


do. 


(transf.) 


123 


Benajali (ieer, 


do. 


24 


124 


Allen Gilbert, 


do. 


15 


125 


Isaac Genuu»;, 


do. 


30 


126 


Francis Gallaber, 


do. 


60 


127 


Bnrr Gilbert, 


do. 


60 


128 


Simeon Gibbs, 


corporal, 


30 


129 


John Gilbert, 


sergeant. 


30 


130 


Thomas I fustier, 


do. 


60 


131 


David Hall, junior, 


do. 


60 


132 


George Helmer, 


lieutenant, 


156 


133 


Mordccai Hall, 


surgeon's mate, 


189 


134 


Staats Hammond, 


sergeant. 


60 


135 


John HiHon, 


do. 


24 


136 


Stephen Hurlbut, 


drummer. 


48 


137 


John Hink, 


private, 


60 


138 


Joseph Harris, 


do. 


60 


139 


Thomas Hinds, 


do. 


60 


140 


Adam Hartman, 


do. 


52 


141 


George Hansel, 


do. 


A a 

48 


142 


Peter Hogaboom, 


do. 


40 


143 


Thomas Hill, 


do. 


30 


144 


Asa }Iiil, 


do. 


24 


1 A r 

14o 


Uzias Handlord, 


do. 


Oil 

24 


146 


Josei)h Hatter, 


do. 


15 


147 


Henry Hopper, 


do. 


12 


t AO 

148 


Jonn Hess, 


GO. 


1 o 
12 


149 


rJartlett Hinus. 


lieutenant, 




150 


John Hubbard, 


private. 


So 


151 


Humphrey Hunt, _ 


do. 


15 


162 


Charlotte Pfazen, 




200 


loo 


Joseph Haiker, 


captain. 


1 Oft 


154 


Peter Harlord, 


sergeant, 




155 


David Hamilton, 


private. 


60 


156 


Samuel Jones, 


sergeant, 


oO 


157 


James Ivor}', 


private, 

GO. 


nO 


1 CO 

358 


William Jump, 


OA 


159 


William James, 


do. 


n A 

24 


160 


Elijali .Janes, 


do. 




161 






60 


162 


Johannes Koch, 


do. 


36 


163 


lieuben King, 


private. 


60 
60 


164 


John Kail), 


do. 


165 


Joseph Kuapp, 


do. 


48 


166 


George Knox, 


do. 


36 


167 


John Ketchum, 


do. 


36 


168 


Abiel Knapp, 


do. 


40 


169 


Jolin King, 


do. 


45 


170 


Elijah Knapp, 


sergeant. 


30 


171 


Stephen Kellog, 


private. 


60 


172 


Thomas Lyon, 


lieutenant. 


120 


173 


Henry Lew is, 


ensign, 


30 



AX INTERESTING HISTORICAL DOCUMENT. 



521 



SCllEOrJ.K OF PEXSIOXKUS, co.itinued. 
NEW YORK. 



No. 
on the 
Koll. 


NAMES. 


Rank 
or 

Quality. 


Anunal 
Stipend. 


174 


Robert Laug, 


sergeant, 


$ 48 


175 


Moses Lockwood, 


gunner, 


36 


176 


William Lewis. 


private, 


36 


177 


Michael Lyon?. 


do. 


48 


178 


Peter Laiiipmao, 


do. 


48 


179 


William LakeD, 


do. 


40 


180 


John Little. 


captain, 


240 


181 


Joseph M'Craken, 


major. 


300 


182 


John M'Kinstry, 


captain, 


240 


183 


Michael Myers, 


sergeant. 


60 


184 


Lillcns Mead. 


do. 


60 


185 


Alexander M'Nish, 


do. 


52 


186 


Amos Miner, 


do. 


30 


187 


Mead Marshall, 


gunner, 


60 


188 


Jolm Millspaugh, 


bombardier, 


36 


189 


Alexander M'Coy, 


do. 


24 


190 


George .Mour, 


private, 


60 


191 


Charles M' Kenny, 


do. 


60 


192 


Girardu'? Mook, 


do. 


60 


193 


John M'lntosh. 


do. 


60 


194 


Daniel M' Donald, 


do. 


48 


195 


Panl MTall, 


do. 


48 


196 


John Mosher, 


do. 


48 


197 


Samuel M'Kean. 


do. 


36 


198 


William ^L^rtine, 


do. 


36 


199 


Philip Martine, 


do. 


36 


200 


John Miller. 


do. 


30 


201 


Henry .Murphey, 


do. 


24 


202 


Daniel Nfowris. 


do. 


24 


203 


Hugh M' Master, 


do. 


12 


204 


Francis Mnnty, 


lieutenant, 


80 


205 


Samuel Miller, 


private, 


60 


206 


Michael J^Ialony, 


do. 


60 


207 


Thomas Machin, 


captain, 
private, 


120 


208 


Joseph Mack, 


24 


209 


Thomas M'Grath. 


do. 


30 


210 


William M'Laland, 


do. 


60 


211 


Donald M' Donald, 


hostler, 


30 


212 


Abraham Nealy, 


lieutenant, 


120 


213 


Jacob Newkirk, 


private. 


36 


214 


David Nicholls, 


corporal. 


48 


215 


Garret Ohlenis, 


private. 


30 


216 


James Philips, 


do. 


30 


217 


Joseph Prenhop, 


lieutenant, 


80 


218 


Solomon Pnrdy, 


sergeant, 


60 


219 


Joseph Passmore, 


do. 


60 


220 


Jonathan Purdy, 


corporal. 


60 


221 


Thomas Powell. 


private, 
do. 


60 


222 


Daniel Provost, 


60 


223 


Stephen Plumb, 


do. 


36 


224 


Silas Parish, 


do. 


36 


225 


Adoli)b Pirard, 


do. 


30 


226 


Garret Peck, 


do. 


24 



522 MINNESOTA JI ISTORICAL. SOCIETY COLLECTIONS. 



SCHEDULE OF PENSIONERS, continued. 

NEW YORK. 



on 



^0. 

I the 


NAMES. 


Kank 
or 


Annual 


.oH. 




Quality. 


Stipend. 


227 


Jared Palmer, 


sergeant, 


$ 30 


228 


Stephen Powell, 


private, 


3 75 


229 


Joel Phelps, 


do. 


30 


23U 


Abner Pier, 


do. 


30 


231 


Jonathan i'ollard. 


do. 


60 


232 


William Patterson, 


d... 


60 


233 


Elisha Prior, 


do. 


45 


234 


David Pendleton, 


do. 


60 


23.S 


John Qnifk, 


do. 


24 


230 


Philip Philips, 


do. 


30 


237 


Nicholas Kitcher, 


captain, 


240 


238 


John Pequa, 


private, 


60 


239 


Israel Reeves, 


do. 


60 


240 


Robert Rubeitson, 


do. 


60 


241 


Jacob RatTenauer, 


do. 


60 


242 


Jonathan Reynolds, 


do. 


(dead) 


243 


John Rice. 


do. 


48 


244 


Joseph Rehern, 


do. 


42 


245 


Hendrick Ritchmeyer, 


do. 


42 


246 


Willirini Reynolds, 
Frederick Rasberg, 


do. 


40 


247 


do. 


24 


248 


John Renan, 


do. 


12 


249 


Isaac Richnrds, 


do. 


30 


250 


John Roveis. 


do. 


30 


2ol 


James Reeves, 


do. 


3S 


252 


Benjamin Rej'nolds, 


do. 


24 


253 


John St. John, 


do. 


60 


254 


Samuel Shaw, 


lieutenant, 


96 


255 


William Scott, 


major, 


300 


256 


Philip Staats, 


lieutenant, 


96 


257 


Josiali Smith, 


do. 


120 


258 


James Stilwell, 


sergeant, 


60 


259 


William Sloan, 


do. 


40 


260 


John Stewart, 


corporal, 


48 


261 


James Sartine, . 


private, 


60 


262 


Daniel Stevens, 


do. 


60 


263 


Pearl Sharks, 


do. 


60 


264 


Robert Saunders, 


do. 


60 


265 


John Shutliir, 


do. 


60 


266 


Sylvanus Seely, 


do. 


48 


267 


Cornelius Swartwout, 


do. 


48 


268 


James Scott, 


do. 


48 


269 


Henry Seeber, 


do. 


48 


270 


Abiel Sherman, 


do. 


36 


271 


Benjaniin Smith, 


do. 


60 


272 


James Smith, 


do. 


36 


273 


Geor«:e Stansel, 


do. 


36 


274 


Garret Snlb;K-k, 


do. 


36 


275 


Adam Stroback, 


do. 


36 


276 


Edward Scott, 


do. 


1 36 


277 


James Slater, 
Thaddeus Seeley, 


do. 


1 30 


278 


do. 


30 


279 


Hans Jnst Snelf, 


do. 


24 



AN INTERESTING HISTORICAL UOCl'MENT. 523 



SCHEDULE OF PENSIONERS, coiitimied. 

NEW YORK. 



No. 
on the 
Roll. 


NAMES. 


Rank 

or I 
Quality. 


Animal 
St pend 


280 


George Schell, 


private, 


$ 60 


281 


Finley Stewart, 


batteau man, 


45 


282 


Godfrey Sweet, 


pri\ate, 


60 


28.J 


John Sliay, 


do. 


36 


284 


Eliphalet Sherwood, 


do. 


30 


285 


Benjamin Sturgcs, 


do. 


48 


286 


Silas Talbot, 


It. colonel, 


300 


287 


Jacob Traviss, 


lieutenant, 


160 


288 


John Thomas, 


private, 


60 


289 


Ezekiel Travis, 


do. 


48 


290 


Ebeiiezer Tyler, 


do. 


48 


291 


Daniel Townsend, 


do. 


40 


292 


William Tanner, 


do. 


32 


293 


Asa Taylor, 


do. 


30 


294 


John Taylor. 


do. 


36 


295 


Alexander Til ford, 


do. 


24 


296 


Henry Ten Eyck. 


captain, 


180 


297 


Abel Turuey, 


marine, 


60 


298 


Daniel Treadwell, 


private, 


48 


299 


ICenry C. Van Rausalaer, 


lieut. colonel. 


360 


300 


William Van Ward, 


private, 


M6 


301 


John Utters, 


do. 


60 


302 


John Vanghu, 


sergeant, 


15 


303 


Asa Virgil, 


private. 


15 


304 


John Venus, 


do. 


30 


305 


Isaac Vincent, 


do. 


60 


306 


William Wallace, 


lieutenant, 


96 


307 


James Wier, 


corporal. 


52 


308 


David Wendell, 


private, 


30 


30!) 


Tiiomas Ward, 


do. 


60 


310 


George Waggoner, 


do. 


60 


311 


Jacob Wright, 


do. 


60 


312 


Thomas Wilson, 


do. 


60 


313 


Abraham Wolhlever, 


do. 


60 


314 


David Wilson, 


do. 


48 


315 


John Winn, 


do. 


48 


316 


Lemuel Wood, 


do. 


36 


317 


Nicholas Walrath, 


do. 


36 


318 


William White, 


do.' 


40 


319 


James Wills, 


do. 


30 


320 


Ichabod Williams, 


do. 


24 


vol 


Isaiah Wright, 


no. 


OA 


322 


David Weaver, 


do. 


60 


323 


Rozael Wood worth. 


do. 


60 


324 


Ezekiel Williams, 


do. 


15 


325 


George Walter, 


do. 


30 


326 


Thomas Ward, 


corporal, 


60 


327 


Matthew N. Whyte, 


cadet. 


^0 


328 


John Walsh, 


private, 


30 


329 


Kerly Ward, 


do. 


40 


330 


John Yonnglove, 


major, 
corporal. 


72 


331 


Got field Young, 


60 


332 


John Yorden, 


private. 


30 



624 



MINNESOTA HISTOKICAn SOCIETV COELIXTIONS. 



SCHEDULE OF rENSIONERS, confmued. 
NEW YOKK. 



No. 
on the 
Roll. 


NAMES. 


Rank 
or 

Quality. 


•\ nn Ti ftl 

. \ 11 II Ucll 

S\ t i T^p el 


333 


Nicholas Yorden, 


private, 


$ 12 


334 


Edwaril Shell, 


do. 


60 


335 


Job Snell, 


do. 


15 


336 


John Bogge, alias Bogue, 


do! 


60 


337 


Dau Culver, 


do. 


60 


338 


Elislia Fauning, 


sergt. mnjor, 


30 


339 


Silas Benton, 


captain, 


240 


340 


James Cross) ay, 


private. 


30 


3U 


James Gorman, 


matross, 


60 


342 


John Philips, 


corporal. 


48 


343 


Thomas P. Smith, 


private, 


60 


344 


Danl. Cushman, (from Ver.) 


do. 


48 




Total of annual stipends, 




21,112 75 



NEW JERSEY. 


1 


Josiah Burnet, 
William Broderick, 


ensign, 


120 


2 


sergeant, 


40 


3 


Isaac Bennet, 


do. 


40 


4 


John Burton, 


private, 


60 


5 


Barnes Bunn, 


do. 


24 


6 


Benjamin Bishop, 


do. 


24 


7 


James Boden, 


do. 


30 


8 


Thomas Cathart, 


corporal, 


60 


9 


Robert Coddington, 


private, 


60 


10 


Isaac Cot heal, 


do. 


60 


11 


Johu Campbell, 


do. 


20 


12 


William Crane, 


lieutenant. 


160 


13 


George Compton, 


corporal. 


30 


• 14 


Randolph Clarkson, 


private, 


30 


15 


Morris De Camp, 


sergeant. 


48 


16 


John Fergus, 


private. 


24 


17 


Mahlon Ford, 


captain, 


240 


18 


Daniel Guard, 


private. 


30 


19 


John Griggs. 


sergeant, 


30 


20 


John Hampton, 


ensign. 


72 


21 


Theophilns Hathaway, 


private, 
do. 


60 


i22 


Jacob Hall, 


40 


23 


William Howell, 


do. 


32 


24 


Samuel Hull, 


sergeant. 


40 


25 


Benoni Hatliaway, 


captain. 


120 


26 


Nicholas Hoff, 


private, 
do. 


60 


27 


Patrick Hart, 


36 


28 


James Jerolman, 


lieutenant. 


24 


•29 


William Jobbs, 


sergeant. 


60 


30 


Richard Jones, 


private, 


40 


31 


Francis JelVers, 


do. 


24 


32 


William Johnson, 


do. 


30 


33 


Samuel Kirkendahe, 


captain, 


120 


34 


Christian Kuhu, 


private, 


60 



AN inteep:sting historical document. 



525 



SCIIKDULK OF PENSlONKliS, coiitimied. 

NEW JERSEY. 



No. 
on tlie 
Koll. 


NAMES. 


Rank 
or 
Quality. 


Annual 
Stipend. 


35 


- 

Tnli t\ T^fi f n Til 

%J fJLlU XV i I L X J 11 111 J 






36 




uu. 


40 


37 




do. 


45 


38 




do. 


30 


39 


John M 'CI lire 


do. 


60 


40 




QPT fTP'l tl f 


48 


41 


James Put ton 


lir-nfpiinnf 


159 9G 


42 






30 


43 


Silas Parrot, 


licuteUiiiit 


72 


44 


Tallin ()ninhv 

Kf\JHLl \/\JLkLllJ\ y 


j)ri vji tc 


32 


45 


Andrew Koss, 


do.' 


16 


46 


Daniel Snal baker, 


do. 


60 


47 


James Swift, 


do. 


60 


4« 


Michael Smith, 


do. 


60 


49 


Samuel Stout, 


do. 


20 


60 


Aaron Stiles, 


do. 


60 


51 


James Sweeney, 


do. 


45 


52 


John Scott, 


do. 


60 


53 


James Tlionipson, 


do. 


60 


54 


Josiah Tut tie, 


do. 


32 


55 


Samuel Taylor, 


corporal, 


40 


56 


Sylvester filtou, 


volunteer, 


30 


57 


John "Williams, 


corporal, 


60 




Total of annual stipends, 




3,127 96 



PENNSYLVANIA. 



1 


Lndwig Arbi<iust, 


matross, 
private, 


60 


2 


William Atkinson, 


45 


3 


Daniel Alebhouse, 


do. 


20 


4 


George Attender, 


do. 


60 


5 


Luke Broadhead, 


lieutenant, 


108 


6 


Thomas P.lair, 


do. 


108 


7 


Jacob P>arDitz, 


ensign, 
private, 


120 


8 


Daniel Baker, 


60 


9 


Jacob Reatum, 


do. 


60 


10 


James P>rainion, 


do. 


60 


11 


John Buxton, 


do. 


60 


12 


Daniel lUick, 


do. 


60 


13 


Philip Brenier, 


do. 


40 


14 


Jonathan P.urwell, 


do. 


30 


15 


John Bnskeil, 


do. 


36 


16 


George Burton, 


do. 


24 


17 


William Boyd, 


do. 


60 


18 


John Berry, 


do. 


30 


19 


Michael Bowman, 


do. 


36 


20 


William Bush, 


do. 


60 


21 


Jacob Baker, 


matross, 


30 


22 


John Brown, 


sergeant, 


40 


23 


Jacob Baker, 


artificer, 


60 



the 
.11. 

24 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 
30 
31 
32 
33 
34 
35 
36 
37 
38 
39 
40 
41 
42 
43 
44 
45 
46 
47 
48 
49 
50 
51 
52 
53 
54 
55 
56 
57 
58 
59 
60 
61 
62 
63 
64 
65 
66 
67 
68 
69 
70 
71 
72 
73 
74 
75 
76 



MINXESOTA. niSTOEICAL SOCIETY COLLECTIONS. 



SCI1P:DCLE of PEXSIONEHS, continued 

PENSYLVAXIA. 






cuptaiu, 


Gcorji6 B6n6(lict, 


pi ivate. 


Andrew Burtle, 


uO. 


clUUU V^ilUlUl.>, 


fin 




1 ieutenant, 


Thomas Cainpbell, 




Ihoniss Ciirney, 


private, 




ilcU Lclltt 11 1/, 






Atiaiii Christ 


do. 


liohert Ciiani V)t?r.s 


romoral 


A 1 « V n /I pr /^'^mT^K^ill 


mo T*1 T1 AIT 
Ulal lUcl , 


>i lllicllii v>U LI ic LU (J J 


pri > tiic, 




do. 


Alexander Christie' 


do. 


Dmiel Callahan 


do. 




f\n 
uu. 


(J vlU 11 Vc* » ll '.I H ii IJ J 


do. 




do. 


Ti^ci nil f^miplr lino* 


do 


John Cr^wtord, 


captain. 


John Collier, 




T\ n Q 4" A 
pi 1 > ct ICj 


Juill6S C0OD6V 


do. 


Jurucs Correar, 


do. 


Stepli6u Ciirter, 


sergeant, 


John Duruall, 


private, 


Patrick D^ropscy, 


do. 


Micbticl DutlVyj 


do. 


VT T"> nr n V 1 A 
llClJl V -L^U^ ic. 


dn 


TTpn rv T^rkncrViprfv 


do. 




do. 


WilliiTii Dpwitt 


do. 


TnVin T^;\v * 


do. 


William Deaver, 


do. 


James DoNsling. 


do. 


James Dysart, 


captain, 


Charles Daniels, 


private. 


Samuel Doane, 


do. 


Michael Drury, 


do. 


Samuel Ewinsr, 


ensign. 


James English. 


sergeant, 


Joseph Elliot, 


private, 


Benjamin Freeman, 


sergeant, 


William Fefrart, 


private. 


Frederick Fultz, 


do. 


John Francis, 


do. 


John Fo^as, 


matross. 


Jacob Fox, 


private. 


Patrick Fowler, 


matross, 


Thomas Fream, 


sergeant, 


John L. Finney, 


sergt. major 


Alexander Forsman, 


captain. 



AN INTERESTING HISTORICAL DOCI MENT. 



527 



SCHEDULE OF l^EX.slOXERS, continued. 

PENNSYLVANIA. 



No. 
on the 
Koll. 


NAMES. 


1 

Kauk 1 
or 

Quality. 


A nn 11 1I 
1 itpnri 




77 


Thomas Gaskins, 


lieutenant, 


1 an 


78 


Philip Giiman, 
George Gerlack, 


private. 


'ko 


79 


do. 


So 


80 


John (haaf. 


do. 


Jo 


81 


Phiiij) Gibbons, 


do. 


45 


82 


Alexander Garret, 


do. 


HO 


83 


Sam. Giiman, alias Gilmore, 


do. 


OU 


84 


Jeremiah Gunn, 


do. 


00 


85 


James Glentworth, 


lieutenant, 


oU 


86 


Alexander Gray, 


private, 


AQ 


87 


Benjamin Hillman, 


lieutenant, 


ion 


88 


William Hebron, 


sergeant. 


on 


89 


Valentine Hertzhog, 


private, 
do. 


OU 


90 


Philip llenrv, 


bO 


91 


Patrick Hartney, 


do. 


OO 


92 


Jacob Hartman, 


do. 


OU 


93 


John Haley, 


corporal. 


AK. 

45 


94 


David Hickey, 


private, 


oO 


95 


Lawrence Hippie, 


do. 




96 


Peter Hartshill, 


do. 


QA 


97 


William Higginson, 


do. 


ob 




David Hancy, 


An. 

GO. » 


00 


99 


John Harbeson, 


GO. 




100 


James Irvine, 


brig, general, 




101 


Matthew Jack, 


lieutenant, 


1 an 


102 


Thomas Johnson, 


do. 


on 


103 


David Jackson, 


private, 


AO 


104 


Alexander Irwine, 


do. 


•3A 

oO 


105 


TTT 111' Tt 1. — — . 

William Johnston, 


do. 




106 


James Johnson, 


do. 


an 
uU 


1 f\-f 
JU7 


Andrew Johnson, 


lieutenant, 


on 
OK) 


108 


John Kesler, (increased by act of 
congress oi /ii April, loio, to 4)0-5 














pr. ann'ra.) 


midshipman. 


20 


109 


Thomas Kelly, 


private. 


60 


1 1 rv 
110 


ueorge Kettle, 


no. 


60 


111 
ill 


Robert Kearn, 


An. 

Go. 


on 
bO 


112 


Edward Kellen, 


do. 


36 


113 


John Kincaid, 


do. 


60 


114 


Benjamin Kendrick, 


do. 


40